Unsere Forschung wird zum einen aus Landesmitteln der TU Darmstadt sowie zu großen Teilen in drittmittelfinanzierten (BMBF, HMWK, DFG und BMEL) Forschungsprojekten realisiert.

Aktuelle Projekte

GRK2050 P&T: DFG-Graduiertenkolleg Privatheit und Vertrauen (1.4.2020-30.9.2024, DFG)

DFG-Graduiertenkolleg Privatheit und Vertrauen (1.4.2020-30.9.2024, DFG)

In dem von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft finanzierten Graduiertenkolleg „Privatheit und Vertrauen für mobile Nutzer“ werden interdisziplinär neue Lösungen für den Schutz der Privatsphäre bei der mobilen Internetnutzung entwickelt. Vertreter der Informatik, Usability und Wirtschaftswissenschaften aus der TU Darmstadt arbeiten eng mit Wissenschaftler aus den Bereichen der Rechtswissenschaften und der Soziologie der Universität Kassel zusammen. Sie alle arbeiten in interdisziplinären Promotionsthemen an der Vision eines neuartigen persönlichen Mobilgeräts.

Das Graduiertenkolleg möchte zu besserem und persönlich anpassbarem Schutz der Privatsphäre der Nutzer und zu mehr Transparenz in der IT-Welt beitragen. Die Nutzer sollen in der Lage sein, das sie umgebende Netzwerk und seine Komponenten hinreichend zu verstehen, die vermeintliche Qualität einer Dienst- und System-Nutzung mit all den Vor- und Nachteilen abzuwägen und so die Vertrauenswürdigkeit zu bewerten. Die Ergebnisse des Graduiertenkollegs sollen dazu beitragen, dass die Grundrechte auf informationelle Selbstbestimmung und auf Schutz des Telekommunikationsgeheimnisses im Internet künftig besser verwirklicht werden können.

2021

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Lilian Reichert, Michelle Mende, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Digital Privacy Perceptions of Asylum Seekers in Germany – An Empirical Study about Smartphone Usage during the Flight
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479526
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increas-ingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach theirtargeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communicationpurposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have toconsider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobileinformation technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, itexamines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conductinga qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results showthat asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, suchas surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this,this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy andtrust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design ofassistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacyin the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.

    @article{steinbrink_digital_2021,
    title = {Digital {Privacy} {Perceptions} of {Asylum} {Seekers} in {Germany} - {An} {Empirical} {Study} about {Smartphone} {Usage} during the {Flight}},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1145/3479526},
    abstract = {Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increas-ingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach theirtargeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communicationpurposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have toconsider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobileinformation technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, itexamines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conductinga qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results showthat asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, suchas surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this,this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy andtrust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design ofassistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacyin the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Reichert, Lilian and Mende, Michelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

    emergenCITY: Die Resiliente Digitale Stadt (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, HMWK)

    emergenCITY – Die Resiliente Digitale Stadt (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, HMWK)

    Die TU Darmstadt kann im Rahmen des hessischen Forschungsförderungsprogramms LOEWE ein neues Zentrum etablieren – es trägt den Titel „Die Resiliente Digitale Stadt” und wird bis Ende 2023 mit insgesamt 17,4 Millionen Euro gefördert. Dies gab das Hessische Wissenschaftsministerium bekannt.

    Das LOEWE-Zentrum „emergenCITY“ („Resiliente Digitale Stadt“) wird Lösungen erarbeiten, die in Krisenfällen einen Notbetrieb für und mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien sicherstellen, schnelle Hilfe ermöglichen und eine effiziente Rückkehr zur Normalität unterstützen. Dazu muss sich die Technologie bereits im Normalbetrieb kontinuierlich „selbst-vorbereitend“ auf Krisensituationen einstellen und diese autonom detektieren, so Hollick. In Notlagen sollen überlebenswichtige Dienste beschleunigt bereitgestellt werden. Das gewonnene Erfahrungswissen soll helfen, bei künftigen kritischen Situationen besser vorbereitet zu sein.

    Das ist auch dringend erforderlich: Im Jahr 2050 werden zwei Drittel der Weltbevölkerung in Städten leben. Für das Wachstum von Städten sind anpassungsfähige und effiziente Infrastrukturen unerlässlich. Digitale Städte der Zukunft nutzen vermehrt Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien, um vernetzte Infrastrukturen etwa in den Bereichen Energie, Verkehr, Gesundheit, Staat und Verwaltung bereitzustellen. Die Abhängigkeit dieser Systeme aus Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien nimmt stetig zu – und sie werden durch Naturereignisse, menschliches und technisches Versagen sowie Gewalt und Terror verwundbar.

    PEASEC ist Teil von emergenCITY. Teams von 23 Professorinnen und Professoren aus Informatik, Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Maschinenbau, Gesellschafts- und Geschichtswissenschaften, Architektur, Wirtschaftswissenschaften sowie Rechtswissenschaften werden gemeinsam im universitären Verbund forschen – die Federführung hat die TU Darmstadt (Prof. Hollick), Partner sind die Universität Kassel und die Universität Marburg. Zusammen mit der Digitalstadt Darmstadt wird ein emergenCITY-Lab zur praxisnahen Erprobung von Lösungen etabliert. Das Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe bringt als weiterer Partner die gesamtheitliche Behörden- und Anwendungssicht ein.

    2022

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2022)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2022,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

    2021

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Kilian Demuth, Henri-Jacques Geiß, Christian Richter, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nutzer, Sammler, Entscheidungsträger? Arten der Bürgerbeteiligung in Smart Cities
    HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik ;58. doi:10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.

    @article{haunschild_nutzer_2021,
    title = {Nutzer, {Sammler}, {Entscheidungsträger}? {Arten} der {Bürgerbeteiligung} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    volume = {58},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildDemuthGeissRichterReuter_NutzerSammlerEntscheidungstragerBuergerbeteiligungSmartCities_HMD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8},
    abstract = {Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.},
    journal = {HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Demuth, Kilian and Geiß, Henri-Jacques and Richter, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Student, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Perceptions of Police Technology Use and Attitudes Towards the Police – A Representative Survey of the German Population
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:20.500.12116/37410
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Perceptions of {Police} {Technology} {Use} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Police} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {German} {Population}},
    volume = {Mensch und Computer 2021 - Workshopband},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_PoliceTechnologyUseSurvey_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {20.500.12116/37410},
    abstract = {Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Rolf Egert, Nina Gerber, Jasmin Haunschild, Philipp Kuehn, Zimmermann Verena (2021)
    Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;20(2):161–175. doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0021
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers – capable of producing and consuming electricity – who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

    @article{egert_towards_2021,
    series = {i-com},
    title = {Towards {Resilient} {Critical} {Infrastructures} - {Motivating} {Users} to {Contribute} to {Smart} {Grid} {Resilience}},
    volume = {20},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2021-0021},
    abstract = {Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers - capable of producing and consuming electricity - who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Egert, Rolf and Gerber, Nina and Haunschild, Jasmin and Kuehn, Philipp and Verena, Zimmermann},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {161--175},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Bridging from Crisis to Everyday Life – An Analysis of User Reviews of the Warning App NINA and the COVID-19 Information Apps CoroBuddy and DarfIchDas
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pan-demic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we ana-lyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_bridging_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Bridging from {Crisis} to {Everyday} {Life} – {An} {Analysis} of {User} {Reviews} of the {Warning} {App} {NINA} and the {COVID}-19 {Information} {Apps} {CoroBuddy} and {DarfIchDas}},
    abstract = {During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pan-demic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we ana-lyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Ragnark Mogk, Florentin Putz, Kevin T. Logan, Nadja Thiessen, Katharina Kleinschnitger, Lars Baumgärtner, Jan-Philipp Stroscher, Christian Reuter, Michele Knodt, Matthias Hollick (2021)
    Connected Self-Organized Citizens in Crises: An Interdisciplinary Resilience Concept for Neighborhoods
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481749
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.

    @inproceedings{haesler_connected_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Connected {Self}-{Organized} {Citizens} in {Crises}: {An} {Interdisciplinary} {Resilience} {Concept} for {Neighborhoods}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Haesleretal_ConnectedSelfOrganizedCitizensinCrises_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481749},
    abstract = {When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Mogk, Ragnark and Putz, Florentin and Logan, Kevin T. and Thiessen, Nadja and Kleinschnitger, Katharina and Baumgärtner, Lars and Stroscher, Jan-Philipp and Reuter, Christian and Knodt, Michele and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Selina Pauli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Citizens‘ Perceived Information Responsibilities and Information Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    GoodIT ’21: Proceedings of the Conference on Information Technology for Social Good . doi:10.1145/3462203.3475886
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens‘ perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens‘ needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens‘ desire to stay informed.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_citizens_2021,
    title = {Citizens' {Perceived} {Information} {Responsibilities} and {Information} {Challenges} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildPauliReuter_InformationResponsibilitiesCovid19_GoodIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462203.3475886},
    abstract = {In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens' perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens' needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens' desire to stay informed.},
    booktitle = {{GoodIT} '21: {Proceedings} of the {Conference} on {Information} {Technology} for {Social} {Good}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Pauli, Selina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

    2020

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jasmin Haunschild, Matthias Hollick, Max Mühlhäuser, Joachim Vogt, Michael Kreutzer (2020)
    Towards Secure Urban Infrastructures: Cyber Security Challenges to Information and Communication Technology in Smart Cities
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.

    @inproceedings{reuter_towards_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Towards {Secure} {Urban} {Infrastructures}: {Cyber} {Security} {Challenges} to {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/33550/muc2020-ws-408.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408},
    abstract = {The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Haunschild, Jasmin and Hollick, Matthias and Mühlhäuser, Max and Vogt, Joachim and Kreutzer, Michael},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

    ATHENE-SecUrban: Secure Urban Infrastructures (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, BMBF+HMWK)

    SecUrban: Secure Urban Infrastructures  (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, BMBF+HMWK) – Website

    Das Konzept der Smart City zielt darauf ab, Städte effizienter, technologisch fortschrittlicher und intelligenter zu machen. In einer Stadt eingesetzte komplexe IT-Infrastrukturen und Sensornetze können dazu beitragen, Ressourcen zu schonen und die Lebensqualität der Bewohner*innen zu verbessern. Dabei sind zuverlässige und mit einer hohen Widerstandsfähigkeit gegen Cyberattacken ausgestattete Informations- und Kommunikationssysteme (IKT) für eine funktionierende Smart City unerlässlich.
    In enger Abstimmung mit der Digitalstadt Darmstadt entwickelt ATHENE tragfähige Konzepte, die sicherstellen, dass sowohl die Infrastruktur als auch die Anwendungen zuverlässig implementiert werden können. Darüber hinaus erarbeitet ATHENE Empfehlungen für Prävention, Detektion und Reaktion auf Vorfälle, u.a. für Verantwortliche auf kommunaler Ebene.

    ATHENE – Nationales Forschungszentrum für angewandte Cybersicherheit (seit 1.1.2019, BMBF+HMWK) – Website

    Das Nationale Forschungs­zentrum für angewandte Cyber­sicher­heit ATHENE ist eine Forschungseinrichtung der Fraunhofer-Institute SIT und IGD sowie der Hochschulen TU Darmstadt und Hochschule Darmstadt. In einem bisher einzigartigen und innovativen Kooperations­modell von universitärer und außeruniversitärer Forschung betreibt ATHENE Spitzenforschung zum Wohl von Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Staat und setzt Impulse in der Wissenschaft. Das Forschungs­zentrum arbeitet agil und effizient und kann so auch kurzfristig auf neue He­raus­for­de­rung­en und veränderte Bedroh­ungs­lagen reagieren. ATHENE wird gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) und vom Hessischen Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst (HMWK) und hat seinen Standort in der Wissen­schafts­stadt Darmstadt, Deutschlands erster Adresse für Cyber­sicher­heits­for­schung.

    2022

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cyber Weapons and Artificial Intelligence – Impact, Influence and the Challenges for Arms Control
    In: Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold: Arma­­ment, Arms Control and Arti­ficial Intelli­gence. The impact of soft­ware, machine learning and artificial intelligence on armament and arms control. Springer.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2022,
    title = {Cyber {Weapons} and {Artificial} {Intelligence} – {Impact}, {Influence} and the {Challenges} for {Arms} {Control}},
    booktitle = {Arma­­ment, {Arms} {Control} and {Arti}­ficial {Intelli}­gence. {The} impact of soft­ware, machine learning and artificial intelligence on armament and arms control},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace},
    }

  • Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold (2022)
    Arma­­ment, Arms Control and Arti­ficial Intelli­gence. The impact of soft­ware, machine learning and artificial intelligence on armament and arms control
    Springer.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{schornig_armament_2022,
    title = {Arma­­ment, {Arms} {Control} and {Arti}­ficial {Intelli}­gence. {The} impact of soft­ware, machine learning and artificial intelligence on armament and arms control},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Peace},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Meets Security Policy: Socio-Technological Dynamics, Political Responses. .
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Meets} {Security} {Policy}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Dynamics}, {Political} {Responses}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, Peace},
    }

    2021

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Design and Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Real-Time Credibility Assessment in Twitter
    30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN2021) Bratislava. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2021,
    address = {Bratislava},
    title = {Design and {Evaluation} of {Deep} {Learning} {Models} for {Real}-{Time} {Credibility} {Assessment} in {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdBayerHartungReuter_DeepLearningCredibilityAssessmentTwitter_ICANN.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32},
    abstract = {Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.},
    booktitle = {30th {International} {Conference} on {Artificial} {Neural} {Networks} ({ICANN2021})},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Kilian Demuth, Henri-Jacques Geiß, Christian Richter, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nutzer, Sammler, Entscheidungsträger? Arten der Bürgerbeteiligung in Smart Cities
    HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik ;58. doi:10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.

    @article{haunschild_nutzer_2021,
    title = {Nutzer, {Sammler}, {Entscheidungsträger}? {Arten} der {Bürgerbeteiligung} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    volume = {58},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildDemuthGeissRichterReuter_NutzerSammlerEntscheidungstragerBuergerbeteiligungSmartCities_HMD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8},
    abstract = {Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.},
    journal = {HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Demuth, Kilian and Geiß, Henri-Jacques and Richter, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Student, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Perceptions of Police Technology Use and Attitudes Towards the Police – A Representative Survey of the German Population
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:20.500.12116/37410
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Perceptions of {Police} {Technology} {Use} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Police} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {German} {Population}},
    volume = {Mensch und Computer 2021 - Workshopband},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_PoliceTechnologyUseSurvey_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {20.500.12116/37410},
    abstract = {Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tristan Wirth, Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volker Knauthe, Stefan Guthe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CySecAlert: An Alert Generation System for Cyber Security Events Using Open Source Intelligence Data
    Information and Communications Security . doi:10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.

    @inproceedings{riebe_cysecalert_2021,
    title = {{CySecAlert}: {An} {Alert} {Generation} {System} for {Cyber} {Security} {Events} {Using} {Open} {Source} {Intelligence} {Data}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    abstract = {Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.},
    booktitle = {Information and {Communications} {Security}},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Wirth, Tristan and Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Knauthe, Volker and Guthe, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {429--446},
    }

  • Rolf Egert, Nina Gerber, Jasmin Haunschild, Philipp Kuehn, Zimmermann Verena (2021)
    Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;20(2):161–175. doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0021
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers – capable of producing and consuming electricity – who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

    @article{egert_towards_2021,
    series = {i-com},
    title = {Towards {Resilient} {Critical} {Infrastructures} - {Motivating} {Users} to {Contribute} to {Smart} {Grid} {Resilience}},
    volume = {20},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2021-0021},
    abstract = {Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers - capable of producing and consuming electricity - who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Egert, Rolf and Gerber, Nina and Haunschild, Jasmin and Kuehn, Philipp and Verena, Zimmermann},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {161--175},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Bridging from Crisis to Everyday Life – An Analysis of User Reviews of the Warning App NINA and the COVID-19 Information Apps CoroBuddy and DarfIchDas
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pan-demic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we ana-lyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_bridging_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Bridging from {Crisis} to {Everyday} {Life} – {An} {Analysis} of {User} {Reviews} of the {Warning} {App} {NINA} and the {COVID}-19 {Information} {Apps} {CoroBuddy} and {DarfIchDas}},
    abstract = {During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pan-demic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we ana-lyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Ragnark Mogk, Florentin Putz, Kevin T. Logan, Nadja Thiessen, Katharina Kleinschnitger, Lars Baumgärtner, Jan-Philipp Stroscher, Christian Reuter, Michele Knodt, Matthias Hollick (2021)
    Connected Self-Organized Citizens in Crises: An Interdisciplinary Resilience Concept for Neighborhoods
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481749
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.

    @inproceedings{haesler_connected_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Connected {Self}-{Organized} {Citizens} in {Crises}: {An} {Interdisciplinary} {Resilience} {Concept} for {Neighborhoods}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Haesleretal_ConnectedSelfOrganizedCitizensinCrises_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481749},
    abstract = {When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Mogk, Ragnark and Putz, Florentin and Logan, Kevin T. and Thiessen, Nadja and Kleinschnitger, Katharina and Baumgärtner, Lars and Stroscher, Jan-Philipp and Reuter, Christian and Knodt, Michele and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Selina Pauli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Citizens‘ Perceived Information Responsibilities and Information Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    GoodIT ’21: Proceedings of the Conference on Information Technology for Social Good . doi:10.1145/3462203.3475886
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens‘ perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens‘ needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens‘ desire to stay informed.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_citizens_2021,
    title = {Citizens' {Perceived} {Information} {Responsibilities} and {Information} {Challenges} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildPauliReuter_InformationResponsibilitiesCovid19_GoodIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462203.3475886},
    abstract = {In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens' perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens' needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens' desire to stay informed.},
    booktitle = {{GoodIT} '21: {Proceedings} of the {Conference} on {Information} {Technology} for {Social} {Good}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Pauli, Selina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

    2020

  • Sabrina Gabel, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Discussing Conflict in Social Media – The Use of Twitter in the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict
    Media, War & Conflict :1–26.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.

    @article{gabel_discussing_2020,
    title = {Discussing {Conflict} in {Social} {Media} – {The} {Use} of {Twitter} in the {Jammu} and {Kashmir} {Conflict}},
    url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635220970997},
    abstract = {Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani's impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.},
    journal = {Media, War \& Conflict},
    author = {Gabel, Sabrina and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebeetal_VDSinEuropa_DuD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {316--321},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jasmin Haunschild, Matthias Hollick, Max Mühlhäuser, Joachim Vogt, Michael Kreutzer (2020)
    Towards Secure Urban Infrastructures: Cyber Security Challenges to Information and Communication Technology in Smart Cities
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.

    @inproceedings{reuter_towards_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Towards {Secure} {Urban} {Infrastructures}: {Cyber} {Security} {Challenges} to {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/33550/muc2020-ws-408.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408},
    abstract = {The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Haunschild, Jasmin and Hollick, Matthias and Mühlhäuser, Max and Vogt, Joachim and Kreutzer, Michael},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2020)
    Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche Fragen im militärischen Cyber- und Informationsraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Parlamentsvorbehalts, der Zurechenbarkeit von Cyberangriffen sowie einer möglichen Anpassung nationaler und internationaler Normen
    In: : Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß. Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, , 1–9.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{reinhold_verfassungs-_2020,
    title = {Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche {Fragen} im militärischen {Cyber}- und {Informationsraum} unter besonderer {Berücksichtigung} des {Parlamentsvorbehalts}, der {Zurechenbarkeit} von {Cyberangriffen} sowie einer möglichen {Anpassung} nationaler und internationaler {Normen}},
    url = {https://www.bundestag.de/resource/blob/812024/67fc9db4f856a8445355562500d2a134/stellungnahme-Thomas-Reinhold_14-12-2020-data.pdf},
    booktitle = {Deutscher {Bundestag}, {Verteidigungsausschuß}},
    publisher = {Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

    CYWARN: Analyse und Kommunikation des Lagebilds im Cyberraum (1.10.2020-30.9.2023, BMBF)

    CYWARN: Analyse und Kommunikation des Lagebilds im Cyberraum (1.10.2020-30.9.2023, BMBF)

    Die Zunahme komplexer Cyberangriffe, wie die Hackerangriffe auf den Deutschen Bundestag (2015) oder auf das Lukaskrankenhaus in Neuss (2016), verdeutlichen die Verletzbarkeit der Gesellschaft und Informationsinfrastruktur. Neben Technologien zur Informations- und IT-Sicherheit braucht es Frühwarnsysteme und Reaktionsstrategien zur Stärkung der zivilen Sicherheit. Sogenannte Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) sind die zentrale Anlaufstelle für präventive und reaktive Maßnahmen bei IT-Sicherheitsvorfällen. Aufgrund der unüber-sichtlichen Informationslage bei Cyberangriffen ist die Auswertung und zielgruppengerechte Aufbereitung der Vorfälle für diese Teams eine große Herausforderung.

    Das Projekt CYWARN verfolgt das Ziel, CERTs durch neue Strategien und Technologien bei der Analyse und Kommunikation des Cyber-Lagebilds zu unterstützen. Es entsteht ein Demonstrator, der die automatisierte Sammlung öffentlicher und geschlossener Datenquellen sowie eine Datenauswertung mit Glaubwürdigkeitsanalyse und Informationspriorisierung ermöglicht. Durch den hohen Grad an Automatisierung werden die Teams durch den Demonstrator darin befähigt, effizienter Cyberbedrohungen zu erkennen, zu analysieren und zu kommunizieren. Die Ergebnisse fließen in Handlungsempfehlungen, Sensibilisierungsmaßnahmen, Lageberichte und Warnmeldungen ein, die dann von den Teams für die adressatengerechte Kommunikation mit der Bevölkerung, Behörden oder KRITIS-Betreibern verwendet werden. Akzeptanz und Anwenderfreundlichkeit werden bei der Entwicklung ebenso berücksichtigt, wie ethische, rechtliche und soziale Rahmenbedingungen. Langfristig ist ein Einsatz auch bei anderen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben oder Unternehmen, die ein eigenes CERT betreiben, denkbar.

    Projektumriss_CYWARN

    2022

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2022)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2022,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

    2021

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

  • Rolf Egert, Nina Gerber, Jasmin Haunschild, Philipp Kuehn, Zimmermann Verena (2021)
    Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;20(2):161–175. doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0021
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers – capable of producing and consuming electricity – who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

    @article{egert_towards_2021,
    series = {i-com},
    title = {Towards {Resilient} {Critical} {Infrastructures} - {Motivating} {Users} to {Contribute} to {Smart} {Grid} {Resilience}},
    volume = {20},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2021-0021},
    abstract = {Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers - capable of producing and consuming electricity - who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Egert, Rolf and Gerber, Nina and Haunschild, Jasmin and Kuehn, Philipp and Verena, Zimmermann},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {161--175},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tristan Wirth, Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volker Knauthe, Stefan Guthe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CySecAlert: An Alert Generation System for Cyber Security Events Using Open Source Intelligence Data
    Information and Communications Security . doi:10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.

    @inproceedings{riebe_cysecalert_2021,
    title = {{CySecAlert}: {An} {Alert} {Generation} {System} for {Cyber} {Security} {Events} {Using} {Open} {Source} {Intelligence} {Data}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    abstract = {Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.},
    booktitle = {Information and {Communications} {Security}},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Wirth, Tristan and Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Knauthe, Volker and Guthe, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {429--446},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jennifer Fromm, Thea Riebe, Milad Mirbabaie, Philipp Kuehn, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Markus Bayer, Marc Stöttinger, Kaan Eyilmez, Reinhard Möller, Christoph Fuchß, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CYWARN: Strategy and Technology Development for Cross-Platform Cyber Situational Awareness and Actor-Specific Cyber Threat Communication
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_cywarn_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {{CYWARN}: {Strategy} and {Technology} {Development} for {Cross}-{Platform} {Cyber} {Situational} {Awareness} and {Actor}-{Specific} {Cyber} {Threat} {Communication}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Kaufholdetal_CYWARN-CyberSituationalAwareness_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263},
    abstract = {Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Fromm, Jennifer and Riebe, Thea and Mirbabaie, Milad and Kuehn, Philipp and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Bayer, Markus and Stöttinger, Marc and Eyilmez, Kaan and Möller, Reinhard and Fuchß, Christoph and Stieglitz, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Perceptions of Police Technology Use and Attitudes Towards the Police – A Representative Survey of the German Population
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:20.500.12116/37410
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Perceptions of {Police} {Technology} {Use} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Police} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {German} {Population}},
    volume = {Mensch und Computer 2021 - Workshopband},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_PoliceTechnologyUseSurvey_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {20.500.12116/37410},
    abstract = {Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Design and Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Real-Time Credibility Assessment in Twitter
    30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN2021) Bratislava. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2021,
    address = {Bratislava},
    title = {Design and {Evaluation} of {Deep} {Learning} {Models} for {Real}-{Time} {Credibility} {Assessment} in {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdBayerHartungReuter_DeepLearningCredibilityAssessmentTwitter_ICANN.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32},
    abstract = {Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.},
    booktitle = {30th {International} {Conference} on {Artificial} {Neural} {Networks} ({ICANN2021})},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Björn Buchhold, Marcel Keller, Jörg Dallmeyer, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Data Augmentation in Natural Language Processing: A Novel Text Generation Approach for Long and Short Text Classifiers
    2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. In a simulated low data regime additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% are achieved. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1 score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives, we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.

    @techreport{bayer_data_2021,
    title = {Data {Augmentation} in {Natural} {Language} {Processing}: {A} {Novel} {Text} {Generation} {Approach} for {Long} and {Short} {Text} {Classifiers}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.14453},
    abstract = {In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. In a simulated low data regime additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% are achieved. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1 score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives, we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Buchhold, Björn and Keller, Marcel and Dallmeyer, Jörg and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2021)
    8. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen: Ausnahmezustand
    Ingolstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{mentler_8_2021,
    address = {Ingolstadt},
    title = {8. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}: {Ausnahmezustand}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/37338},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3447527.3474869
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    series = {{MobileHCI} '21 {Adjunct}},
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    doi = {10.1145/3447527.3474869},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–17.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_einleitung_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {3--17},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Survey on Data Augmentation for Text Classification
    2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data over regularizing the objective to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation (C1) and a taxonomy for existing works (C2), this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to achieve a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners (C3). Derived from the taxonomy, we divided more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and provide state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising (C4). Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are given (C5).

    @techreport{bayer_survey_2021,
    title = {Survey on {Data} {Augmentation} for {Text} {Classification}},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2107.03158},
    abstract = {Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data over regularizing the objective to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation (C1) and a taxonomy for existing works (C2), this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to achieve a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners (C3). Derived from the taxonomy, we divided more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and provide state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising (C4). Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are given (C5).},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

    2020

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

    ATHENE-FANCY: Future Data Economy and Society (1.1.2019-31.12.2022, BMBF+HMWK)

    FANCY: Future Data Economy and Society  (1.4.2019-31.12.2022, BMBF+HMWK)

    Daten können einen hohen Wert für Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft haben. Analyse, Zusammenführung und Nutzung von Daten stellen neben dem hohen ökonomischen Wert auch einen hohen gesellschaftlichen Nutzen dar, man denke z. B. an die Medizin. Auch im Bereich der Künstlichen Intelligenz nimmt die Bedeutung der Daten­ökonomie zu, vor allem durch die vielfältigen Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Maschinellen Lernens. Durch solch selbstlernende Algorithmen ergibt sich ein potenzieller Vorteil bei der Analyse von großen Datenmengen, die oft menschliche Analysefähigkeiten an ihre Grenzen bringen. Demgegenüber stehen jedoch große Risiken für den Schutz der Privatsphäre jedes Einzelnen.

    Im Rahmen der ATHENE-Forschung erfolgt eine integrierte und interdisziplinäre Analyse des Trade-offs zwischen dem Wert von Daten einerseits und Privatsphäre-Risiken andererseits. Ein Schwerpunkt der For­schungs­arbeiten ist die gemeinsame Entwicklung von Privacy-Enhancing-Technologies (PETs), die einerseits die Kontrolle des Einzelnen über die eigenen persönlichen Daten erhöhen und andererseits die Analyse und Zusammenführung von großen Datenmengen ermöglichen. Auf dieser Grundlage werden Bausteine für faire und rechtskonforme digitale Ge­schäfts­modelle mithilfe von PETs entwickelt, die den Wert der Daten nutzen und gleichzeitig die Privatsphäre der Menschen schützen.

    2022

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2022)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2022,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

    2021

  • Tom Biselli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    On the Relationship between IT Privacy and Security Behavior: A Survey among German Private Users
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.

    @inproceedings{biselli_relationship_2021,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {On the {Relationship} between {IT} {Privacy} and {Security} {Behavior}: {A} {Survey} among {German} {Private} {Users}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BiselliReuter_RelationshipITPrivacyandSecurityBehavior_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Who Should Get My Private Data in Which Case? Evidence in the Wild
    Mensch und Computer 2021 – Tagungsband New York. doi:10.1145/3473856.3473879
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{herbert_who_2021,
    address = {New York},
    title = {Who {Should} {Get} {My} {Private} {Data} in {Which} {Case}? {Evidence} in the {Wild}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/37257},
    doi = {10.1145/3473856.3473879},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Lilian Reichert, Michelle Mende, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Digital Privacy Perceptions of Asylum Seekers in Germany – An Empirical Study about Smartphone Usage during the Flight
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479526
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increas-ingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach theirtargeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communicationpurposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have toconsider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobileinformation technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, itexamines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conductinga qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results showthat asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, suchas surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this,this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy andtrust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design ofassistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacyin the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.

    @article{steinbrink_digital_2021,
    title = {Digital {Privacy} {Perceptions} of {Asylum} {Seekers} in {Germany} - {An} {Empirical} {Study} about {Smartphone} {Usage} during the {Flight}},
    volume = {5},
    doi = {10.1145/3479526},
    abstract = {Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increas-ingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach theirtargeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communicationpurposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have toconsider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobileinformation technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, itexamines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conductinga qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results showthat asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, suchas surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this,this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy andtrust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design ofassistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacyin the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Reichert, Lilian and Mende, Michelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

    2020

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Differences in IT Security Behavior and Knowledge of Private Users in Germany
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users‘ IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.

    @inproceedings{herbert_differences_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Differences in {IT} {Security} {Behavior} and {Knowledge} of {Private} {Users} in {Germany}},
    url = {https://library.gito.de/open-access-pdf/V3_Herbert-Differences_in_IT_Security_Behavior_and_Knowledge-541_c.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert},
    abstract = {The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users' IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

    2019

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Häusser, Mona Bien, Franziska Herbert (2019)
    Between Effort and Security: User Assessment of the Adequacy of Security Mechanisms for App Categories
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users‘ choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users‘ choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user’s preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users‘ choice of security mechanism.

    @inproceedings{reuter_between_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Between {Effort} and {Security}: {User} {Assessment} of the {Adequacy} of {Security} {Mechanisms} for {App} {Categories}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHaeusserBienHerbert_EffortSecurity_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340770},
    abstract = {With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users' choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users' choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user's preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users' choice of security mechanism.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Häusser, Katja and Bien, Mona and Herbert, Franziska},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {287--297},
    }

  • Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Ein Kampf gegen Windmühlen: qualitative Studie über Informatikabsolvent_innen und ihre Datenprivatheit
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-302-06
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie werden eigene private Daten geschützt? Um dieser Frage nachzugehen, wurde in einer qualitativen Studie mit sechs Informatikabsolvent_innen erfragt, wie diese die Privatheit ihrer Daten schützen. Das Ziel der teilstrukturierten Inter- views war es einen möglichst breiten Überblick über tatsäch- lich verwendete Techniken und Technologien zum Schutz der privaten Daten zu gewinnen. Während sich die Vermu- tung bestätigte, dass alle Teilnehmer_innen ein Bewusstsein für die Brisanz ihrer privaten Daten hatten, unterschieden sich die Definitionen ebendieser privaten Daten sowie das Verhalten, um diese zu schützen. Es konnte beobachtet wer- den, dass viel Wissen in diesem Bereich nicht zwangsläufig zu einem vorsichtigeren Handeln führt. Mögliche genannte Strategien zum Schutz der eigenen Daten sind: Informiert bleiben, Datensparsamkeit, Vermeidung der Produkte be- stimmter Konzerne sowie Resignation. Als Motivation für das jeweilige Verhalten wurden sowohl politische, philoso- phische, utilitaristische, als auch angstgetriebene Gründe genannt. Letztere können in Angst vor Diebstahl und Angst vor Andersbehandlung unterschieden werden.

    @inproceedings{schmidbauer-wolf_kampf_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Ein {Kampf} gegen {Windmühlen}: qualitative {Studie} über {Informatikabsolvent}\_innen und ihre {Datenprivatheit}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25168/302-06.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-302-06},
    abstract = {Wie werden eigene private Daten geschützt? Um dieser Frage nachzugehen, wurde in einer qualitativen Studie mit sechs Informatikabsolvent\_innen erfragt, wie diese die Privatheit ihrer Daten schützen. Das Ziel der teilstrukturierten Inter- views war es einen möglichst breiten Überblick über tatsäch- lich verwendete Techniken und Technologien zum Schutz der privaten Daten zu gewinnen. Während sich die Vermu- tung bestätigte, dass alle Teilnehmer\_innen ein Bewusstsein für die Brisanz ihrer privaten Daten hatten, unterschieden sich die Definitionen ebendieser privaten Daten sowie das Verhalten, um diese zu schützen. Es konnte beobachtet wer- den, dass viel Wissen in diesem Bereich nicht zwangsläufig zu einem vorsichtigeren Handeln führt. Mögliche genannte Strategien zum Schutz der eigenen Daten sind: Informiert bleiben, Datensparsamkeit, Vermeidung der Produkte be- stimmter Konzerne sowie Resignation. Als Motivation für das jeweilige Verhalten wurden sowohl politische, philoso- phische, utilitaristische, als auch angstgetriebene Gründe genannt. Letztere können in Angst vor Diebstahl und Angst vor Andersbehandlung unterschieden werden.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {256--264},
    }

  • Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Responsible Data Usage in Smart Cities: Privacy in Everyday Life vs. Reacting to Emergency Situations
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Smart cities want to provide a better life to their citizens, e.g. regarding health care, infrastruc- ture, better safety and security. This can be achieved by using more and new technology and by interconnecting and analysing new and existent devices. Thus, public spaces and buildings will be equipped with more interconnected input and output modalities. This ongoing technolo- gization of public spaces creates opportunities for making everyone’s life more secure, while at the same time everyone’s personal privacy is endangered. So how is this balancing act tackled and dealt with right now? What fears do citizens have regarding their security as well as their privacy? This paper provides first insights into the topic privacy in smart cities regarding that smart cities need data which can be provided by and of people. The paper raises the question if collecting people’s data, and thus enabling smart cities, is ethical and if not, how it can be assured to be ethical.

    @inproceedings{schmidbauer-wolf_responsible_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Responsible {Data} {Usage} in {Smart} {Cities}: {Privacy} in {Everyday} {Life} vs. {Reacting} to {Emergency} {Situations}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Smart cities want to provide a better life to their citizens, e.g. regarding health care, infrastruc- ture, better safety and security. This can be achieved by using more and new technology and by interconnecting and analysing new and existent devices. Thus, public spaces and buildings will be equipped with more interconnected input and output modalities. This ongoing technolo- gization of public spaces creates opportunities for making everyone's life more secure, while at the same time everyone's personal privacy is endangered. So how is this balancing act tackled and dealt with right now? What fears do citizens have regarding their security as well as their privacy? This paper provides first insights into the topic privacy in smart cities regarding that smart cities need data which can be provided by and of people. The paper raises the question if collecting people's data, and thus enabling smart cities, is ethical and if not, how it can be assured to be ethical.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {70--74},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    TrustyTweet: An Indicator-based Browser-Plugin to Assist Users in Dealing with Fake News on Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users’assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_trustytweet_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {{TrustyTweet}: {An} {Indicator}-based {Browser}-{Plugin} to {Assist} {Users} in {Dealing} with {Fake} {News} on {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_HartwigReuter_TrustyTweet_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users'assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1858--1869},
    }

    Geobox-II: Standardisierung der GeoBox-Infrastruktur II: Standardisierter Datenaustausch mit amtlichen Informationsportalen (1.7.2020-30.06.2022, BMEL)

    Standardisierung der GeoBox-Infrastruktur – Phase 2: Standardisierter Datenaustausch mit amtlichen Informationsportalen

    2021

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) für krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_low_2021,
    address = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga},
    title = {Low {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) für krisentaugliche {Datenübertragung} in landwirtschaftlichen {Betrieben}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnLinsnerReuter_LowPowerWideAreaNetworks_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {193--198},
    }

  • Daniel Eberz-Eder, Franz Kuntke, Wolfgang Schneider, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Technologische Umsetzung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) durch den Einsatz von Edge-Computing
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_technologische_2021,
    title = {Technologische {Umsetzung} des {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) durch den {Einsatz} von {Edge}-{Computing}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_EberzEderKuntkeSchneiderReuter_TechnischeUmsetzungResilientSmartFarming_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Schneider, Wolfgang and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {79--84},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Reliable Data Transmission using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for Agricultural Applications
    Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Frontiers in Availability, Reliability and Security (FARES 2021) . doi:10.1145/3465481.3469191
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_reliable_2021,
    title = {Reliable {Data} {Transmission} using {Low} {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) for {Agricultural} {Applications}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnReuter_LPWANAgriculture_FARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3469191},
    abstract = {Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Workshop} on {Frontiers} in {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security} ({FARES} 2021)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

    2020

  • Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Ansgar Bernardi (2020)
    Die GeoBox-Vision: Resiliente Interaktion und Kooperation in der Landwirtschaft durch dezentrale Systeme
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_geobox-vision_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Die {GeoBox}-{Vision}: {Resiliente} {Interaktion} und {Kooperation} in der {Landwirtschaft} durch dezentrale {Systeme}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33548},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407},
    abstract = {Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bernardi, Ansgar},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Jonas Höchst, Lars Baumgärtner, Franz Kuntke, Alvar Penning, Artur Sterz, Bernd Freisleben (2020)
    LoRa-based Device-to-Device Smartphone Communication for Crisis Scenarios
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{hochst_lora-based_2020,
    title = {{LoRa}-based {Device}-to-{Device} {Smartphone} {Communication} for {Crisis} {Scenarios}},
    url = {http://idl.iscram.org/files/jonashochst/2020/2291_JonasHochst_etal2020.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Höchst, Jonas and Baumgärtner, Lars and Kuntke, Franz and Penning, Alvar and Sterz, Artur and Freisleben, Bernd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {996--1011},
    }

    2019

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz (2019)
    Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) – Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resilient_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Resilient {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) – {Nutzung} digitaler {Technologien} in krisensicherer {Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_177.pdf},
    abstract = {Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {177--182},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Rashmi Varma, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Vulnerability Assessment in the Smart Farming Infrastructure through Cyberattacks
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Wien, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.

    @inproceedings{linsner_vulnerability_2019,
    address = {Wien, Austria},
    title = {Vulnerability {Assessment} in the {Smart} {Farming} {Infrastructure} through {Cyberattacks}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_119.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Varma, Rashmi and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {119--124},
    }

  • Timo Kalle, Marc-André Kaufhold, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Amr Rizk, Ralf Steinmetz (2019)
    Resilience in Security and Crises through Adaptions and Transitions
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws60
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, – monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.

    @inproceedings{kalle_resilience_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {Resilience in {Security} and {Crises} through {Adaptions} and {Transitions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25097/paper12_02.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws60},
    abstract = {Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, - monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kalle, Timo and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Rizk, Amr and Steinmetz, Ralf},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {571--584},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

    SFB1119 CROSSING: Kryptographiebasierte Sicherheitslösungen als Grundlage für Vertrauen in heutigen und zukünftigen IT-Systemen (seit 1.8.2018, DFG)

    SFB CROSSING: Nudging as a Security Mechanism (seit 2018, DFG) – Website

    The goal of the Collaborative Research Center CROSSING is to provide cryptography-based security solutions enabling trust in new and next generation computing environments. The solutions will meet the efficiency and security requirements of the new environments and will have sound implementations. They will be easy to use for developers, administrators, and end users of IT, even if they are not cryptography experts.

    Our focus are user studies and aspects of usable security.

    2021

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nudging Users Towards Better Security Decisions in Password Creation Using Whitebox-based Multidimensional Visualizations
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) . doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users‘ perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.

    @article{hartwig_nudging_2021,
    title = {Nudging {Users} {Towards} {Better} {Security} {Decisions} in {Password} {Creation} {Using} {Whitebox}-based {Multidimensional} {Visualizations}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_WhiteboxMultidimensionalNudges_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167},
    abstract = {Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users' perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Anjuli Franz, Gregor Albrecht, Verena Zimmermann, Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter, Alexander Benlian, Joachim Vogt (2021)
    Still Plenty of Phish in the Sea — A Review of User-Oriented Phishing Interventions and Avenues for Future Research
    USENIX Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Phishing is a prevalent cyber threat, targeting individuals and organizations alike. Previous approaches on anti-phishing measures have started to recognize the role of the user, who, at the center of the target, builds the last line of defense. However, user-oriented phishing interventions are fragmented across a diverse research landscape, which has not been systematized to date. This makes it challenging to gain an overview of the various approaches taken by prior works. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of phishing interventions based on a systematic literature analysis. We shed light on the diversity of existing approaches by analyzing them with respect to the intervention type, the addressed phishing attack vector, the time at which the intervention takes place, and the required user interaction. Furthermore, we highlight shortcomings and challenges emerging from both our literature sample and prior meta-analyses, and discuss them in the light of current movements in the field of usable security. With this article, we hope to provide useful directions for future works on phishing interventions.

    @inproceedings{franz_still_2021,
    title = {Still {Plenty} of {Phish} in the {Sea} — {A} {Review} of {User}-{Oriented} {Phishing} {Interventions} and {Avenues} for {Future} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-1-939133-25-0},
    url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/soups2021-franz.pdf},
    abstract = {Phishing is a prevalent cyber threat, targeting individuals and
    organizations alike. Previous approaches on anti-phishing
    measures have started to recognize the role of the user, who,
    at the center of the target, builds the last line of defense.
    However, user-oriented phishing interventions are fragmented
    across a diverse research landscape, which has not been
    systematized to date. This makes it challenging to gain an
    overview of the various approaches taken by prior works.
    In this paper, we present a taxonomy of phishing interventions
    based on a systematic literature analysis. We shed light
    on the diversity of existing approaches by analyzing them
    with respect to the intervention type, the addressed phishing
    attack vector, the time at which the intervention takes place,
    and the required user interaction. Furthermore, we highlight
    shortcomings and challenges emerging from both our literature
    sample and prior meta-analyses, and discuss them in
    the light of current movements in the field of usable security.
    With this article, we hope to provide useful directions for
    future works on phishing interventions.},
    booktitle = {{USENIX} {Symposium} on {Usable} {Privacy} and {Security} ({SOUPS})},
    author = {Franz, Anjuli and Albrecht, Gregor and Zimmermann, Verena and Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian and Benlian, Alexander and Vogt, Joachim},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    }

    2020

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://www.fiff.de/publikationen/fiff-kommunikation/fk-2020/fk-2020-1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

    2019

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Rashmi Varma, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Vulnerability Assessment in the Smart Farming Infrastructure through Cyberattacks
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Wien, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.

    @inproceedings{linsner_vulnerability_2019,
    address = {Wien, Austria},
    title = {Vulnerability {Assessment} in the {Smart} {Farming} {Infrastructure} through {Cyberattacks}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_119.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Varma, Rashmi and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {119--124},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Häusser, Mona Bien, Franziska Herbert (2019)
    Between Effort and Security: User Assessment of the Adequacy of Security Mechanisms for App Categories
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users‘ choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users‘ choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user’s preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users‘ choice of security mechanism.

    @inproceedings{reuter_between_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Between {Effort} and {Security}: {User} {Assessment} of the {Adequacy} of {Security} {Mechanisms} for {App} {Categories}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHaeusserBienHerbert_EffortSecurity_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340770},
    abstract = {With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users' choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users' choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user's preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users' choice of security mechanism.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Häusser, Katja and Bien, Mona and Herbert, Franziska},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {287--297},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – Introduction and Overview
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_information_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {Introduction} and {Overview}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Larissa Aldehoff, Jürgen Altmann, Johannes Buchmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Alfred Nordmann, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Annette Ripper, Ingo Ruhmann, Klaus-Peter Saalbach, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2019)
    The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 405–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_future_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {The {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Aldehoff, Larissa and Altmann, Jürgen and Buchmann, Johannes and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Nordmann, Alfred and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ripper, Annette and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Peace},
    pages = {405--413},
    }

    2017

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Jonas Klös (2017)
    Benutzbare Sicherheit: Usability, Safety und Security bei Passwörtern
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_benutzbare_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Benutzbare {Sicherheit}: {Usability}, {Safety} und {Security} bei {Passwörtern}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3214/2017_WS01_384.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384},
    abstract = {Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klös, Jonas},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec},
    pages = {33--41},
    }

    DualUse: IT Research of Concern - Bewertung von Dual-Use Risiken in der Softwareentwicklung (1.1.2019-31.12.2021, FIF-IANUS)

    IT Research of Concern: Bewertung von Dual-Use Risiken in der Softwareentwicklung (1.1.2019-31.12.2021, FIF-IANUS)

    (gemeinsames Projekt mit dem Institut für Philosophie, Prof. Dr. Alfred Nordmann)

    Dual-Use Potentiale werden in Risikobereichen der Physik, Chemie und Biologie in der Forschung und Entwicklung diskutiert, um den Missbrauch einflussreicher Technologien zu verhindern. Diese Ansätze der Dual-use Bewertung werden in diesem Projekt systematisiert und ihre Übertragbarkeit von den klassischen Natur- und Ingenieurwissenschaften in die Informatik, mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf den Prozess der Softwareentwicklung, überprüft.

    2021

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    LinkedIn als Barometer: Austausch zwischen zivlier und militärischer F&E
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.

    @techreport{riebe_linkedin_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {{LinkedIn} als {Barometer}: {Austausch} zwischen zivlier und militärischer {F}\&{E}},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_LinkedInalsBarometer_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F\&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F\&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

    2020

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Christian Reuter (2020)
    90.000 Tonnen Diplomatie 2.0: Die Integration von unbemannten Systemen in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X-47B
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) ;13(1). doi:10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.

    @article{schwartz_90000_2020,
    title = {90.000 {Tonnen} {Diplomatie} 2.0: {Die} {Integration} von unbemannten {Systemen} in den operativen {Flugzeugträgerbetrieb} am {Beispiel} der {X}-{47B}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y},
    abstract = {Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebeetal_VDSinEuropa_DuD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {316--321},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9288988},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Special Issue: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural Science/Technical Peace Research
    Nomos. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2020,
    title = {Special {Issue}: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural} {Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1/s-f-sicherheit-und-frieden-volume-38-2020-issue-1},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I},
    note = {Publication Title: S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://www.fiff.de/publikationen/fiff-kommunikation/fk-2020/fk-2020-1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Thea Riebe (2020)
    Umgang mit Killerrobotern
    (Wissenschaft & Frieden 2020-2: Frieden begreifen).
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{riebe_umgang_2020,
    title = {Umgang mit {Killerrobotern}},
    url = {https://www.wissenschaft-und-frieden.de/seite.php?artikelID=2444},
    number = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2020-2: Frieden begreifen},
    author = {Riebe, Thea},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

    2019

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.

    @book{reuter_science_2019-1,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tarun Kumar, Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Threat Intelligence Application for Cyber Attribution
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.

    @inproceedings{riebe_threat_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Threat {Intelligence} {Application} for {Cyber} {Attribution}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kumar, Tarun and Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {56--60},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    Accessing Dual Use in IT Development
    Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of information technology (IT) in peace, conflict and security raises some questions, i.e. whether the use of IT can be limited exclusively to so-called advantageous purposes and applications and whether improper use can be prevented. This ambivalence is called a dual- use dilemma, meaning that objects, knowledge and technology can find both useful and harm- ful applications. Dual-use questions have been addressed in various disciplines, in particular in nuclear technology and the production of nuclear weapons, but also in chemistry and biology. In all these disciplines, dual-use topics in technical development and education have been discussed and addressed. Nevertheless, the importance of dual-use differs slightly, depending on the technology and its risks, as well as its distribution and application. Nuclear technology is less accessible than biotechnology, which in turn is less accessible than IT.

    @inproceedings{riebe_accessing_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Accessing {Dual} {Use} in {IT} {Development}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {The use of information technology (IT) in peace, conflict and security raises some questions, i.e. whether the use of IT can be limited exclusively to so-called advantageous purposes and applications and whether improper use can be prevented. This ambivalence is called a dual- use dilemma, meaning that objects, knowledge and technology can find both useful and harm- ful applications. Dual-use questions have been addressed in various disciplines, in particular in nuclear technology and the production of nuclear weapons, but also in chemistry and biology. In all these disciplines, dual-use topics in technical development and education have been discussed and addressed. Nevertheless, the importance of dual-use differs slightly, depending on the technology and its risks, as well as its distribution and application. Nuclear technology is less accessible than biotechnology, which in turn is less accessible than IT.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--49},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 196–200.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.

    @incollection{schmid_meaningful_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {Systems}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {196--200},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Larissa Aldehoff, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold (2019)
    Cyberwar zwischen Fiktion und Realität – technologische Möglichkeiten
    In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner, Niklas Schörnig: Cyberwar – die Digitalisierung der Kriegsführung. Springer VS, , 15–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.

    @incollection{reuter_cyberwar_2019,
    title = {Cyberwar zwischen {Fiktion} und {Realität} – technologische {Möglichkeiten}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-27713-0},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0_2},
    abstract = {Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.},
    booktitle = {Cyberwar – die {Digitalisierung} der {Kriegsführung}},
    publisher = {Springer VS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Aldehoff, Larissa and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Werkner, Ines-Jacqueline and Schörnig, Niklas},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {15--38},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual-Use in der IT: Bewertung in der Softwareentwicklung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden 2019-1: 2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.

    @techreport{riebe_dual-use_2019,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2019-1},
    title = {Dual-{Use} in der {IT}: {Bewertung} in der {Softwareentwicklung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_RiebeReuter_DualUse_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--48},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual Use and Dilemmas for Cybersecurity, Peace and Technology Assessment
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 165–184. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.

    @incollection{riebe_dual_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Dual {Use} and {Dilemmas} for {Cybersecurity}, {Peace} and {Technology} {Assessment}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {165--184},
    }

    2018

  • Markus Lederer, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    IANUS am FiF und darüber hinaus: Die Bedeutung natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Friedensforschung für die TU Darmstadt
    In: Andreas Großmann, Heike Krebs, Josef Wiemeyer: Zwischendrin. 10 Jahre Forum interdisziplinäre Forschung der TU Darmstadt. Darmstadt: , , 71–89.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    IANUS steht seit 30 wechselhaften Jahren für natur- und ingenieur- wissenschaftliche Friedensforschung im Austausch mit den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften. Seit Januar 2018 ist IANUS ein Teil des Forums interdisziplinäre Forschung. Das FiF stellt das Dach, unter dem einige Aspekte der bisherigen IANUS-Arbeit weitergeführt werden sollen. Insofern das FiF nicht selbst wissenschaftlich arbeitet oder ein inhalt- liches Programm verfolgt, besteht das gemeinsame Dach in der admini- strativen Zusammenarbeit und dem Gedanken der Interdisziplinarität. Insofern IANUS von weitreichenderen Ambitionen geprägt ist, kann es unter dem gemeinsamen Dach derzeit nur auf sehr kleiner Flamme wei- terarbeiten. Freilich ergeben sich andererseits auch neue Perspektiven. Und wenn sich diese Perspektiven fruchtbar entwickeln lassen, würde ein erneuertes IANUS wesentlich zur internationalen Sichtbarkeit des FiF als Ausweis einer verantwortungsbewussten Forschungskultur an der TU Darmstadt beitragen. Was war IANUS und wofür steht es? Was ist IANUS heute – was kann und will es? Was könnte ein erneuertes IANUS werden – wie kann sein friedenspolitisch ausgerichteter wissenschaftlicher Anspruch zukünftig für das FiF und die TU Darmstadt wirksam werden? Diesen drei Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Abschnitte zu – und feiern somit, was nach 10 Jahren FiF, 30 Jahren IANUS und 140 Jahren TH/TU Darmstadt im Wandel der Forschungskulturen möglich war, ist und wird.

    @incollection{lederer_ianus_2018,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    title = {{IANUS} am {FiF} und darüber hinaus: {Die} {Bedeutung} natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher {Friedensforschung} für die {TU} {Darmstadt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_LedererNordmannReuter_IANUS_FIF-Festschrift.pdf},
    abstract = {IANUS steht seit 30 wechselhaften Jahren für natur- und ingenieur- wissenschaftliche Friedensforschung im Austausch mit den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften. Seit Januar 2018 ist IANUS ein Teil des Forums interdisziplinäre Forschung. Das FiF stellt das Dach, unter dem einige Aspekte der bisherigen IANUS-Arbeit weitergeführt werden sollen. Insofern das FiF nicht selbst wissenschaftlich arbeitet oder ein inhalt- liches Programm verfolgt, besteht das gemeinsame Dach in der admini- strativen Zusammenarbeit und dem Gedanken der Interdisziplinarität. Insofern IANUS von weitreichenderen Ambitionen geprägt ist, kann es unter dem gemeinsamen Dach derzeit nur auf sehr kleiner Flamme wei- terarbeiten. Freilich ergeben sich andererseits auch neue Perspektiven. Und wenn sich diese Perspektiven fruchtbar entwickeln lassen, würde ein erneuertes IANUS wesentlich zur internationalen Sichtbarkeit des FiF als Ausweis einer verantwortungsbewussten Forschungskultur an der TU Darmstadt beitragen. Was war IANUS und wofür steht es? Was ist IANUS heute – was kann und will es? Was könnte ein erneuertes IANUS werden – wie kann sein friedenspolitisch ausgerichteter wissenschaftlicher Anspruch zukünftig für das FiF und die TU Darmstadt wirksam werden? Diesen drei Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Abschnitte zu – und feiern somit, was nach 10 Jahren FiF, 30 Jahren IANUS und 140 Jahren TH/TU Darmstadt im Wandel der Forschungskulturen möglich war, ist und wird.},
    booktitle = {Zwischendrin. 10 {Jahre} {Forum} interdisziplinäre {Forschung} der {TU} {Darmstadt}},
    author = {Lederer, Markus and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Großmann, Andreas and Krebs, Heike and Wiemeyer, Josef},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {71--89},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    Responsible Research and Innovation: Interdisziplinärer Workshop von IANUS und Schader-Stiftung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?

    @techreport{riebe_responsible_2018,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {Responsible {Research} and {Innovation}: {Interdisziplinärer} {Workshop} von {IANUS} und {Schader}-{Stiftung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_RiebeNordmannReuter_RRI_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {60--61},
    }

    HyServ: Hybride Dienstleistungen in digitalisierten Kooperationen (1.8.2018-31.7.2021, BMBF)

    HyServ: Hybride Dienstleistungen in digitalisierten Kooperationen (1.8.2018-31.12.2021, BMBF, FKZ: 01IS17030B)

    Die zunehmende Digitalisierung technischer Arbeitsmittel verlangt eine geänderte Sichtweise auf einzelne Dienstleistungen in kooperativen Arbeitsszenarien: Durch Kombination konventioneller Maschinenleistung mit notwendig begleitenden Datendiensten entstehen hybride Services.

    Mit Beauftragung und Durchführung derartiger Dienstleistungen müssen detaillierte Vereinbarungen über die bereitzustellenden Daten und über die Verwendung der bei der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte formuliert und automatisiert und dezentral überwacht werden.
    HyServ erforscht und entwickelt innovative Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen für Anbieter und Nutzer hybrider Dienste und illustriert und erprobt dies am Beispiel kollaborativer Arbeitsprozesse in der Landwirtschaft.

    Zentrale Komponenten sind die Formulierung von Smart Contracts über Bereitstellung und Weiterleitung zweckgebundener betrieblicher Daten; Orchestrierte Micro-Services und Datenquellen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch und Überwachung der vereinbarten Datenflüsse in Blockchain-basierten dezentralen Strukturen; eine insbesondere für Nutzer im KMU-Bereich adäquat bedienungsfreundliche Zugangslösung; schließlich begleitende Schulungskonzepte für potentielle Anwender und Kunden, welche die innovativen Möglichkeiten der hybriden Dienstleistungen breiten Nutzerschichten zugänglich machen.

    2021

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) für krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_low_2021,
    address = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga},
    title = {Low {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) für krisentaugliche {Datenübertragung} in landwirtschaftlichen {Betrieben}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnLinsnerReuter_LowPowerWideAreaNetworks_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {193--198},
    }

  • Ansgar Bernardi, Sandra Becker, Carsten Struve, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter, Georg Müller (2021)
    Erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistung: Neue Perspektiven für die landwirtschaftliche Arbeitsteilung durch hybride Dienstleistungen
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Projekt HyServ werden landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen als Hybrid aus klassischem Arbeitsauftrag und Auftrag zur Datenverarbeitung verstanden, der sowohl den Auftrag als auch das Ergebnis umfasst. Die hybriden Dienstleistungen mit fälschungssicheren Vereinbarungen und technischen Kontrollmöglichkeiten sichern besseres Vertrauen in intensiven Datenaustausch und innovative Produktionsformen in komplexen Kooperationen. Die integrierte Betrachtung von konventionell-physischer Arbeitsleistung und Datenverarbeitung erlaubt neuartige landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen: Anstelle der reinen Aktivität kann das Erreichen definierter Ziele vereinbart und nachprüfbar dokumentiert werden. So können auch Ergebnisse, die erst nach längerer Zeit erkennbar werden, in die vereinbarte Leistung einbezogen und erfolgsabhängig entlohnt werden. Derartige erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistungen verbinden Ausführung und Garantieleistungen und eröffnen so gerade in kritischen Zeiten neue Formen der Risikoverteilung und innovativer Geschäftsmodelle.

    @inproceedings{bernardi_erfolgsorientierte_2021,
    title = {Erfolgsorientierte {Dienstleistung}: {Neue} {Perspektiven} für die landwirtschaftliche {Arbeitsteilung} durch hybride {Dienstleistungen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Bernardietal_ErfolgsorientierteDienstleistung_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Projekt HyServ werden landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen als Hybrid aus klassischem Arbeitsauftrag und Auftrag zur Datenverarbeitung verstanden, der sowohl den Auftrag als auch das Ergebnis umfasst. Die hybriden Dienstleistungen mit fälschungssicheren Vereinbarungen und technischen Kontrollmöglichkeiten sichern besseres Vertrauen in intensiven Datenaustausch und innovative Produktionsformen in komplexen Kooperationen. Die integrierte Betrachtung von konventionell-physischer Arbeitsleistung und Datenverarbeitung erlaubt neuartige landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen: Anstelle der reinen Aktivität kann das Erreichen definierter Ziele vereinbart und nachprüfbar dokumentiert werden. So können auch Ergebnisse, die erst nach längerer Zeit erkennbar werden, in die vereinbarte Leistung einbezogen und erfolgsabhängig entlohnt werden. Derartige erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistungen verbinden Ausführung und Garantieleistungen und eröffnen so gerade in kritischen Zeiten neue Formen der Risikoverteilung und innovativer Geschäftsmodelle.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Bernardi, Ansgar and Becker, Sandra and Struve, Carsten and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian and Müller, Georg},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {37},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Reliable Data Transmission using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for Agricultural Applications
    Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Frontiers in Availability, Reliability and Security (FARES 2021) . doi:10.1145/3465481.3469191
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_reliable_2021,
    title = {Reliable {Data} {Transmission} using {Low} {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) for {Agricultural} {Applications}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnReuter_LPWANAgriculture_FARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3469191},
    abstract = {Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Workshop} on {Frontiers} in {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security} ({FARES} 2021)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

    2020

  • Sohaib S. Hassan, Christian Reuter, Levan Bzhalava (2020)
    Perception or capability? – An empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in German SMEs
    International Journal of Innovation Management ;2150002:1–26. doi:10.1142/S136391962150002X
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and public cloud computing (SM&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker’s perception-related and SME’s capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.

    @article{s_hassan_perception_2020,
    title = {Perception or capability? – {An} empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in {German} {SMEs}},
    volume = {2150002},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HassanReuterBzhalava_AdoptionSocialMediaSME_IJIM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S136391962150002X},
    abstract = {Social media and public cloud computing (SM\&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM\&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM\&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker's perception-related and SME's capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM\&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM\&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.},
    journal = {International Journal of Innovation Management},
    author = {S. Hassan, Sohaib and Reuter, Christian and Bzhalava, Levan},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

    2019

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz (2019)
    Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) – Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resilient_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Resilient {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) – {Nutzung} digitaler {Technologien} in krisensicherer {Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_177.pdf},
    abstract = {Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {177--182},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Rashmi Varma, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Vulnerability Assessment in the Smart Farming Infrastructure through Cyberattacks
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Wien, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.

    @inproceedings{linsner_vulnerability_2019,
    address = {Wien, Austria},
    title = {Vulnerability {Assessment} in the {Smart} {Farming} {Infrastructure} through {Cyberattacks}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_119.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Varma, Rashmi and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {119--124},
    }

  • Ansgar Bernardi, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Sebastian Linsner, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    Hybride Dienstleistungen in digitalisierten Kooperationen in der Landwirtschaft
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Arbeitsteilung und Kooperation sind essentielle Bestandteil von Landwirtschaft, die sich im Laufe der Geschichte stetig weiterentwickelt haben. Nun ermöglicht die voranschreitende Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft erneut Innovationen und neue Arten der Kooperation. Moderne Dienstleistungen – wie optimierte Logistik oder umweltschonende Bewirtschaftung – verbinden zunehmend Maschinenleistungen und Datendienste zu untrennbaren Hybriden Services. Im Zuge dessen werden detaillierte Vereinbarungen bezüglich der bereitzustellenden betrieblichen Daten sowie der Verwendung der während der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte getroffen. Im Rahmen des Projektes HyServ werden Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen entwickelt, welche es den Akteuren erlauben, die Hoheit über die eigenen Daten zu behalten und dennoch kooperative Dienstleistungsverträge zu erstellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden dezentrale Strukturen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch etabliert, welche als Infrastruktur für orchestrierte Micro-Services und Smart Contracts dienen.

    @inproceedings{bernardi_hybride_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Hybride {Dienstleistungen} in digitalisierten {Kooperationen} in der {Landwirtschaft}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_25-30.pdf},
    abstract = {Arbeitsteilung und Kooperation sind essentielle Bestandteil von Landwirtschaft, die sich im Laufe der Geschichte stetig weiterentwickelt haben. Nun ermöglicht die voranschreitende Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft erneut Innovationen und neue Arten der Kooperation. Moderne Dienstleistungen – wie optimierte Logistik oder umweltschonende Bewirtschaftung – verbinden zunehmend Maschinenleistungen und Datendienste zu untrennbaren Hybriden Services. Im Zuge dessen werden detaillierte Vereinbarungen bezüglich der bereitzustellenden betrieblichen Daten sowie der Verwendung der während der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte getroffen. Im Rahmen des Projektes HyServ werden Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen entwickelt, welche es den Akteuren erlauben, die Hoheit über die eigenen Daten zu behalten und dennoch kooperative Dienstleistungsverträge zu erstellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden dezentrale Strukturen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch etabliert, welche als Infrastruktur für orchestrierte Micro-Services und Smart Contracts dienen.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Bernardi, Ansgar and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Linsner, Sebastian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {25--30},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tobias Ermert (2018)
    Interaktionsdesign eines Risiko-Bewertungskonzepts für KMU
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_interaktionsdesign_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Interaktionsdesign eines {Risiko}-{Bewertungskonzepts} für {KMU}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16626/Beitrag_356_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ermert, Tobias},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {309--312},
    }

     

    Frühere Projekte

    Frühere Projekte an der TU Darmstadt:

    Geobox-I: Standardisierung der GeoBox-Infrastruktur I: Dezentrale Datenhaltung und regionale Vernetzung (1.10.2018-31.12.2020, BMEL)

    Geobox-I – Standardisierung der GeoBox-Infrastruktur (1.10.2018-31.12.2020, BMEL) – Website

    Förderkennzeichnen TU Darmstadt: ptBLE-FKz 28-RZ-5.058

    Standardisierung der GeoBox-Infrastruktur – Phase 1: Dezentrale Datenhaltung und regionale Vernetzung

    Ziel des Vorhabens GeoBox-I ist die experimentelle Entwicklung, Erprobung und Verbreitung eines praxistauglichen Prototyps einer standardisierten und resilienten GeoBox-Infrastruktur zur dezentralen Datenhaltung und regionalen Vernetzung. Dies umfasst (1) die Vorgabe von Datenstrukturen und Vokabularien für austauschrelevante Informationen in einfach verständlicher Form in einem geeigneten Webportal als öffentliche Dienstleistung für die Branche, (2) die Spezifikation der GeoBox als betriebliche Datendrehscheibe mit Zwischenspeicher für vielfältige relevante Informationen, unter der alleinigen Kontrolle des jeweiligen landwirtschaftlichen Betriebes, (3) die Bereitstellung von wichtigen Geobasis- und Fachdaten für die landwirtschaftlichen Betriebe mit dezentraler Speicherung in den Betrieben, (4) die Realisierung von Kommunikationsprotokollen und Formularassistenten für den standardisierten Datenaustausch mit Dritten, (5) die Konzeption exemplarischer Dienste, die aus den standardisiert vorliegenden Daten extrahierte, unmittelbar nützliche Beratungsleistungen für Landwirte bereitstellen und (6) die Implementierung aller essentiellen Funktionen in Form offengelegter Referenz-Implementierungen exemplarischer Anwendungen. Diese werden auf hoheitliche Informations- und Beratungsinhalte im Bereich des Pflanzenschutzes fokussiert und im Rahmen der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum Thema Resilientes Smart Farming in die Praxis transferiert.

    2021

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) für krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_low_2021,
    address = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga},
    title = {Low {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) für krisentaugliche {Datenübertragung} in landwirtschaftlichen {Betrieben}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnLinsnerReuter_LowPowerWideAreaNetworks_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {193--198},
    }

  • Daniel Eberz-Eder, Franz Kuntke, Wolfgang Schneider, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Technologische Umsetzung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) durch den Einsatz von Edge-Computing
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_technologische_2021,
    title = {Technologische {Umsetzung} des {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) durch den {Einsatz} von {Edge}-{Computing}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_EberzEderKuntkeSchneiderReuter_TechnischeUmsetzungResilientSmartFarming_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Schneider, Wolfgang and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {79--84},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Reliable Data Transmission using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for Agricultural Applications
    Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Frontiers in Availability, Reliability and Security (FARES 2021) . doi:10.1145/3465481.3469191
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_reliable_2021,
    title = {Reliable {Data} {Transmission} using {Low} {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) for {Agricultural} {Applications}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnReuter_LPWANAgriculture_FARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3469191},
    abstract = {Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Workshop} on {Frontiers} in {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security} ({FARES} 2021)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

    2020

  • Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Ansgar Bernardi (2020)
    Die GeoBox-Vision: Resiliente Interaktion und Kooperation in der Landwirtschaft durch dezentrale Systeme
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_geobox-vision_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Die {GeoBox}-{Vision}: {Resiliente} {Interaktion} und {Kooperation} in der {Landwirtschaft} durch dezentrale {Systeme}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33548},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407},
    abstract = {Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bernardi, Ansgar},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Jonas Höchst, Lars Baumgärtner, Franz Kuntke, Alvar Penning, Artur Sterz, Bernd Freisleben (2020)
    LoRa-based Device-to-Device Smartphone Communication for Crisis Scenarios
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{hochst_lora-based_2020,
    title = {{LoRa}-based {Device}-to-{Device} {Smartphone} {Communication} for {Crisis} {Scenarios}},
    url = {http://idl.iscram.org/files/jonashochst/2020/2291_JonasHochst_etal2020.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Höchst, Jonas and Baumgärtner, Lars and Kuntke, Franz and Penning, Alvar and Sterz, Artur and Freisleben, Bernd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {996--1011},
    }

    2019

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz (2019)
    Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) – Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resilient_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Resilient {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) – {Nutzung} digitaler {Technologien} in krisensicherer {Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_177.pdf},
    abstract = {Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {177--182},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Rashmi Varma, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Vulnerability Assessment in the Smart Farming Infrastructure through Cyberattacks
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Wien, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.

    @inproceedings{linsner_vulnerability_2019,
    address = {Wien, Austria},
    title = {Vulnerability {Assessment} in the {Smart} {Farming} {Infrastructure} through {Cyberattacks}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_119.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Varma, Rashmi and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {119--124},
    }

  • Timo Kalle, Marc-André Kaufhold, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Amr Rizk, Ralf Steinmetz (2019)
    Resilience in Security and Crises through Adaptions and Transitions
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws60
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, – monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.

    @inproceedings{kalle_resilience_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {Resilience in {Security} and {Crises} through {Adaptions} and {Transitions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25097/paper12_02.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws60},
    abstract = {Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, - monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kalle, Timo and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Rizk, Amr and Steinmetz, Ralf},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {571--584},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

    SFB1053 MAKI: Multi-Mechanismen-Adaptation für das künftige Internet (2018-2019, DFG)

    SFB MAKI: Multi-Mechanismen-Adaptation für das künftige Internet (seit 2018, DFG) – Website

    Wie wird das Internet der Zukunft aussehen? Welche bereits bekannten Arten der Kommunikation bleiben erhalten, welche neuen müssen darüber hinaus berücksichtigt werden? Welche zusätzlichen Herausforderungen stellt die zunehmend mobile Nutzung der Netze? Der Sonderforschungsbereich MAKI (Multi-Mechanismen-Adaptation für das künftige Internet) schafft neue Voraussetzungen für die Kommunikationssysteme der Zukunft. Diese sollen sich sehr viel einfacher und im laufenden Betrieb an Veränderungen anpassen können. So könnte zum Beispiel ein Videostream in hoher Qualität und ohne Unterbrechung auf dem Smartphone abgespielt werden, auch wenn das Mobilfunknetz aufgrund von enormen Menschenansammlungen überlastet ist. Selbst auf Volksfesten und bei großen Sportveranstaltungen hätte der Nutzer zukünftig stabilen Empfang.

    X3: Infrastructure-Centered Perspective: Human-Computer-Interaction and Transitions: Das Teilprojekt X3 untersucht Transitionen bei Infrastrukturstörungen, etwa Abweichungen oder komplette Ausfälle. Es werden sowohl qualitative empirische Studien als auch repräsentative quantitative Studien durchgeführt, um Daten zur Wahrnehmung von Infrastrukturstörungen aus Sicht verschiedener Akteure zu sammeln und auszuwerten. Unter Berücksichtigung der empirischen Ergebnisse ist es das Ziel, technische Parameter abzuleiten, die im Einklang zu den Bedürfnissen der Akteure stehen, um Transitionen bei Infrastrukturstörungen proaktiv auszulösen. Darüber hinaus werden gebrauchstaugliche Demonstratoren zur Warnung und Information der Bevölkerung bei Infrastrukturstörungen entwickelt, um die Evaluation von Anwendungen und Dienste im Hinblick auf Benutzerfreundlichkeit, Verlässlichkeit und Widerstandsfähigkeit zu ermöglichen.

    2020

  • Jonas Höchst, Lars Baumgärtner, Franz Kuntke, Alvar Penning, Artur Sterz, Bernd Freisleben (2020)
    LoRa-based Device-to-Device Smartphone Communication for Crisis Scenarios
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{hochst_lora-based_2020,
    title = {{LoRa}-based {Device}-to-{Device} {Smartphone} {Communication} for {Crisis} {Scenarios}},
    url = {http://idl.iscram.org/files/jonashochst/2020/2291_JonasHochst_etal2020.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Höchst, Jonas and Baumgärtner, Lars and Kuntke, Franz and Penning, Alvar and Sterz, Artur and Freisleben, Bernd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {996--1011},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

    2019

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Margarita Grinko, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Crisis Apps in Germany: A Representative Survey
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340782
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.

    @inproceedings{grinko_adoption_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Adoption, {Use} and {Diffusion} of {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340782},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340782},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Grinko, Margarita and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {263--274},
    }

  • Timo Kalle, Marc-André Kaufhold, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Amr Rizk, Ralf Steinmetz (2019)
    Resilience in Security and Crises through Adaptions and Transitions
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws60
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, – monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.

    @inproceedings{kalle_resilience_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {Resilience in {Security} and {Crises} through {Adaptions} and {Transitions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25097/paper12_02.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws60},
    abstract = {Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, - monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kalle, Timo and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Rizk, Amr and Steinmetz, Ralf},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {571--584},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Julian Hester, Danny Jeske, Lisa Knüver, Viktoria Richert (2018)
    Business Continuity Management in Micro Enterprises: Perception, Strategies and Use of ICT
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):1–19. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.

    @article{kaufhold_business_2018,
    title = {Business {Continuity} {Management} in {Micro} {Enterprises}: {Perception}, {Strategies} and {Use} of {ICT}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRiebeReuteretal_BusinessContinuityManagementinMicroEnterprises_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101},
    abstract = {Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Hester, Julian and Jeske, Danny and Knüver, Lisa and Richert, Viktoria},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Cooperation, RSF, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

    CRISP: Center for Research in Security and Privacy (2017-2018, BMBF+HMWK) – in ATHENE aufgegangen

    CRISP – Center for Research in Security and Privacy (1.10.2017-31.12.2018, BMBF+HMWK) – in ATHENE überführt

    Die bisher vom Bund (EC SPRIDE) und dem Land Hessen (CASED) finanzierten IT-Sicherheits-Forschungszentren bündeln ihre Kräfte als „Nationales Forschungszentrum für angewandte Cybersicherheit“, kurz CRISP.

    Mit dem Kernthema „Security at Large“ steht die Erforschung von Sicherheit für große Systeme, von den Komponenten bis zu ihrem Zusammenspiel in umfassenden Si­cher­heits­lö­sun­gen, im Fokus der For­schungs­aktivitäten. Die beiden For­schungs­feld­er „Sichere Internet-Infrastrukturen“ und „Sichere Web-Anwendungen“ nehmen dabei als Leucht­turm­projekte einen herausgehobenen Stellenwert ein.

    Mitglieder von CRISP sind die TU Darmstadt mit ihrem Profilbereich für IT-Sicher­heits­forschung CYSEC, die Hochschule Darmstadt sowie das Fraunhofer-Institut für Sichere Informations­technologie SIT und das Fraunhofer-Institut für Graphische Da­ten­verarbeitung IGD, die beide in Darmstadt ihren Sitz haben. Diese Part­ner­schaft weist die europaweit größte Allianz von For­schungs­ein­rich­tun­gen im Bereich Cyber­sicher­heit auf.

    2019

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Häusser, Mona Bien, Franziska Herbert (2019)
    Between Effort and Security: User Assessment of the Adequacy of Security Mechanisms for App Categories
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users‘ choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users‘ choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user’s preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users‘ choice of security mechanism.

    @inproceedings{reuter_between_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Between {Effort} and {Security}: {User} {Assessment} of the {Adequacy} of {Security} {Mechanisms} for {App} {Categories}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHaeusserBienHerbert_EffortSecurity_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340770},
    abstract = {With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users' choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users' choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user's preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users' choice of security mechanism.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Häusser, Katja and Bien, Mona and Herbert, Franziska},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {287--297},
    }

  • Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Responsible Data Usage in Smart Cities: Privacy in Everyday Life vs. Reacting to Emergency Situations
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Smart cities want to provide a better life to their citizens, e.g. regarding health care, infrastruc- ture, better safety and security. This can be achieved by using more and new technology and by interconnecting and analysing new and existent devices. Thus, public spaces and buildings will be equipped with more interconnected input and output modalities. This ongoing technolo- gization of public spaces creates opportunities for making everyone’s life more secure, while at the same time everyone’s personal privacy is endangered. So how is this balancing act tackled and dealt with right now? What fears do citizens have regarding their security as well as their privacy? This paper provides first insights into the topic privacy in smart cities regarding that smart cities need data which can be provided by and of people. The paper raises the question if collecting people’s data, and thus enabling smart cities, is ethical and if not, how it can be assured to be ethical.

    @inproceedings{schmidbauer-wolf_responsible_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Responsible {Data} {Usage} in {Smart} {Cities}: {Privacy} in {Everyday} {Life} vs. {Reacting} to {Emergency} {Situations}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Smart cities want to provide a better life to their citizens, e.g. regarding health care, infrastruc- ture, better safety and security. This can be achieved by using more and new technology and by interconnecting and analysing new and existent devices. Thus, public spaces and buildings will be equipped with more interconnected input and output modalities. This ongoing technolo- gization of public spaces creates opportunities for making everyone's life more secure, while at the same time everyone's personal privacy is endangered. So how is this balancing act tackled and dealt with right now? What fears do citizens have regarding their security as well as their privacy? This paper provides first insights into the topic privacy in smart cities regarding that smart cities need data which can be provided by and of people. The paper raises the question if collecting people's data, and thus enabling smart cities, is ethical and if not, how it can be assured to be ethical.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {70--74},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    TrustyTweet: An Indicator-based Browser-Plugin to Assist Users in Dealing with Fake News on Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users’assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_trustytweet_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {{TrustyTweet}: {An} {Indicator}-based {Browser}-{Plugin} to {Assist} {Users} in {Dealing} with {Fake} {News} on {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_HartwigReuter_TrustyTweet_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users'assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1858--1869},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Cultural Violence and Peace in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 361–381. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} in {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {361--381},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Verification in Cyberspace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 257–276. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Verification is one of the pillars of arms control and non-proliferation treaties as well as an important part of confidence building measures. It defines practical measures that enable treaty members to check the treaty compliance by observing, counting or moni-toring specific actions and their accordance with the respective rules. In contrast to his-torical examples of former military technologies, cyberspace features some unique char-acteristics making it hard to apply established measures. The chapter describes these peculiarities and assesses distinguishing problems compared to selected verification measures for nuclear, biological and chemicals weapons technology. Yet, cyberspace is a human-made domain and adjusting its technical setting, rules and principles may help to reduce the threat of ongoing militarisation. Offering some alternatives, the chapter elaborates on suitable and measurable parameters for this domain and presents potential-ly useful verification approaches.

    @incollection{reinhold_verification_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Verification in {Cyberspace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Verification is one of the pillars of arms control and non-proliferation treaties as well as an important part of confidence building measures. It defines practical measures that enable treaty members to check the treaty compliance by observing, counting or moni-toring specific actions and their accordance with the respective rules. In contrast to his-torical examples of former military technologies, cyberspace features some unique char-acteristics making it hard to apply established measures. The chapter describes these peculiarities and assesses distinguishing problems compared to selected verification measures for nuclear, biological and chemicals weapons technology. Yet, cyberspace is a human-made domain and adjusting its technical setting, rules and principles may help to reduce the threat of ongoing militarisation. Offering some alternatives, the chapter elaborates on suitable and measurable parameters for this domain and presents potential-ly useful verification approaches.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_12},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {257--276},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – Introduction and Overview
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_information_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {Introduction} and {Overview}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Larissa Aldehoff, Jürgen Altmann, Johannes Buchmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Alfred Nordmann, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Annette Ripper, Ingo Ruhmann, Klaus-Peter Saalbach, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2019)
    The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 405–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_future_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {The {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Aldehoff, Larissa and Altmann, Jürgen and Buchmann, Johannes and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Nordmann, Alfred and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ripper, Annette and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Peace},
    pages = {405--413},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Larissa Aldehoff, Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    IT in Peace, Conflict, and Security Research
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 11–37. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.

    @incollection{reuter_it_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {{IT} in {Peace}, {Conflict}, and {Security} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aldehoff, Larissa and Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Infrastructure, Peace},
    pages = {11--37},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual Use and Dilemmas for Cybersecurity, Peace and Technology Assessment
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 165–184. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.

    @incollection{riebe_dual_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Dual {Use} and {Dilemmas} for {Cybersecurity}, {Peace} and {Technology} {Assessment}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {165--184},
    }

    2018

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tobias Ermert (2018)
    Interaktionsdesign eines Risiko-Bewertungskonzepts für KMU
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_interaktionsdesign_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Interaktionsdesign eines {Risiko}-{Bewertungskonzepts} für {KMU}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16626/Beitrag_356_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ermert, Tobias},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {309--312},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Usable Safety Engineering sicherheitskritischer interaktiver Systeme
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 17–40. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.

    @incollection{reuter_usable_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Usable {Safety} {Engineering} sicherheitskritischer interaktiver {Systeme}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    abstract = {Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {17--40},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    Responsible Research and Innovation: Interdisziplinärer Workshop von IANUS und Schader-Stiftung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?

    @techreport{riebe_responsible_2018,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {Responsible {Research} and {Innovation}: {Interdisziplinärer} {Workshop} von {IANUS} und {Schader}-{Stiftung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_RiebeNordmannReuter_RRI_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {60--61},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Informatik für Frieden und Sicherheit
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 573–595. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden} und {Sicherheit}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    abstract = {Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {573--595},
    }

    2017

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Jonas Klös (2017)
    Benutzbare Sicherheit: Usability, Safety und Security bei Passwörtern
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_benutzbare_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Benutzbare {Sicherheit}: {Usability}, {Safety} und {Security} bei {Passwörtern}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3214/2017_WS01_384.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384},
    abstract = {Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klös, Jonas},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec},
    pages = {33--41},
    }

    Frühere Projekte an der Universität Siegen:

    KontiKat: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität durch sozio-technische Vernetzung in Katastrophenlagen (1.6.2017-31.5.2021, BMBF)

    KontiKat: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität durch sozio-technische Vernetzung in Katastrophenlagen (1.6.2017-31.5.2021, BMBF) – Details

    Krisen und Schadensereignisse können das gesellschaftliche Leben und wirtschaftliche Prozesse erheblich beinträchtigen. Dabei muss es sich nicht um Katastrophen handeln. Auch der regionale Ausfall von Telekommunikationsanlagen über Stunden oder Tage kann bereits weitreichende Folgen haben. Im Fokus des Projekts KontiKat steht die Aufrechterhaltung und Wiederherstellung des gesellschaftlichen Lebens nach größeren Schadensereignissen und Katastrophen. Hierzu sollen empirische Studien zur Erfassung der sozialen Vernetzung der Bevölkerung sowie von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen durchgeführt werden. Die Ergebnisse tragen dazu bei, die Selbstorganisation, Hilfeleistungen und Notfallkommunikation in Krisensituationen zu fördern. (PDF Projektumriss_KontiKat)

    2021

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

    2020

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebeetal_VDSinEuropa_DuD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {316--321},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9288988},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Quo Vadis? Digitalisierung und Social Media im Bevölkerungsschutz
    In: Sandra Ückert, Hasan Sürgit, Gerd Diesel: Digitalisierung als Erfolgsfaktor für das Sozial- und Wohlfahrtswesen. Nomos, , 311–318.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.

    @incollection{reuter_quo_2020,
    title = {Quo {Vadis}? {Digitalisierung} und {Social} {Media} im {Bevölkerungsschutz}},
    isbn = {978-3-8487-6250-7},
    url = {https://www.nomos-shop.de/{\"{U}}ckert-S{\"{u}}rgit-Diesel-Digitalisierung-Erfolgsfaktor-Sozial-Wohlfahrtswesen/productview.aspx},
    abstract = {Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisierung als {Erfolgsfaktor} für das {Sozial}- und {Wohlfahrtswesen}},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ückert, Sandra and Sürgit, Hasan and Diesel, Gerd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {311--318},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Sohaib S. Hassan, Christian Reuter, Levan Bzhalava (2020)
    Perception or capability? – An empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in German SMEs
    International Journal of Innovation Management ;2150002:1–26. doi:10.1142/S136391962150002X
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and public cloud computing (SM&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker’s perception-related and SME’s capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.

    @article{s_hassan_perception_2020,
    title = {Perception or capability? – {An} empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in {German} {SMEs}},
    volume = {2150002},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HassanReuterBzhalava_AdoptionSocialMediaSME_IJIM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S136391962150002X},
    abstract = {Social media and public cloud computing (SM\&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM\&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM\&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker's perception-related and SME's capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM\&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM\&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.},
    journal = {International Journal of Innovation Management},
    author = {S. Hassan, Sohaib and Reuter, Christian and Bzhalava, Levan},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

    2019

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Flow Experience in Software Engineering: Development and Evaluation of Design Options for Eclipse
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In positive psychology, flow is described as a holistic mental condition in which an individual delves into an activity with full concentration. Even in software engineering, the promotion of flow experience fosters effects such as positive affect, improved learning, and higher product loyalty in computer-aided environments. However, from a practice-based perspective it is not obvious how to design ICT to support flow experience. With this paper, we, therefore, contribute concrete design implications, paving the way for a good flow experience in ICT. This paper be-gins by examining the current state of flow research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We then go on to present a study comprising the development and evaluation of design options that aim to support flow in integrated development environments such as Eclipse, one of the most prominent open-source IDEs. The findings reveal practical implications on the use of four flow design options for software engineering and are integrated into a preliminary research framework.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_flow_2019,
    address = {Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden},
    title = {Flow {Experience} in {Software} {Engineering}: {Development} and {Evaluation} of {Design} {Options} for {Eclipse}},
    isbn = {978-1-73363-250-8},
    url = {https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2019_rip/17/},
    abstract = {In positive psychology, flow is described as a holistic mental condition in which an individual delves into an activity with full concentration. Even in software engineering, the promotion of flow experience fosters effects such as positive affect, improved learning, and higher product loyalty in computer-aided environments. However, from a practice-based perspective it is not obvious how to design ICT to support flow experience. With this paper, we, therefore, contribute concrete design implications, paving the way for a good flow experience in ICT. This paper be-gins by examining the current state of flow research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We then go on to present a study comprising the development and evaluation of design options that aim to support flow in integrated development environments such as Eclipse, one of the most prominent open-source IDEs. The findings reveal practical implications on the use of four flow design options for software engineering and are integrated into a preliminary research framework.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Margarita Grinko, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Crisis Apps in Germany: A Representative Survey
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340782
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.

    @inproceedings{grinko_adoption_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Adoption, {Use} and {Diffusion} of {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340782},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340782},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Grinko, Margarita and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {263--274},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Spielhoferetal_SocialMediaCrisesUKSurvey_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Alexis Gizikis, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank, Margarita Grinko (2019)
    Avoiding Chaotic Use of Social Media before, during, and after Emergencies: Design and Evaluation of Citizens‘ Guidelines
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;27(3):198–213. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12249
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens‘ guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.

    @article{kaufhold_avoiding_2019,
    title = {Avoiding {Chaotic} {Use} of {Social} {Media} before, during, and after {Emergencies}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of {Citizens}' {Guidelines}},
    volume = {27},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGizikisReuterHabdankGrinko_DesignEvaluationCitizenGuidelines_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12249},
    abstract = {Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens' guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Gizikis, Alexis and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias and Grinko, Margarita},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {198--213},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Arne Schmidt, Fabienne Seifert, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    SentiNet: Twitter-basierter Ansatz zur kombinierten Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalyse in Katastrophenlagen
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_sentinet_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{SentiNet}: {Twitter}-basierter {Ansatz} zur kombinierten {Netzwerk}- und {Stimmungsanalyse} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25149/133-04.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04},
    abstract = {Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmidt, Arne and Seifert, Fabienne and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {297--308},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Cross-Media Usage of Social Big Data for Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities: Approaches, Development and Challenges of Multi-Platform Social Media Services
    2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.

    @techreport{kaufhold_cross-media_2019,
    title = {Cross-{Media} {Usage} of {Social} {Big} {Data} for {Emergency} {Services} and {Volunteer} {Communities}: {Approaches}, {Development} and {Challenges} of {Multi}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Services}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07725.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Patrick Mischur (2019)
    RescueGlass: Collaborative Applications involving Head-Mounted Displays for Red Cross Rescue Dog Units
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;28(1-2):209–246. doi:10.1007/s10606-018-9339-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    On-site work of emergency service teams consists of highly cooperative tasks. Especially during distributed search and rescue tasks there is a constant mix of routinized and non-routinized activities. Within this paper we focus on the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dog Units who deal with several uncertainties regarding the involved dogs, the fragility of the respective situations as well as issues of using technologies under enormous time pressure. Smart glasses provide possibilities for enhanced and hands-free interaction in various contexts and a number of approaches have already been applied, aiming at efficient use of the respective technological innovation in private and professional contexts. However, the collaborative potential of smart glasses in time-critical and uncertain situations is still unexplored. Our design case study examines how the on-site work of emergency service teams can be supported by smart glasses: Based on examining the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dogs, we introduce ‘RescueGlass‘ as a coordinative concept, encompassing hands-free head-mounted display (HMD) application as well as a corresponding smartphone application. Finally, we describe the evaluation of its use in the field of emergency response and management. We show how current features such as ‘fog of war‘ or various sensors support the cooperative practices of dog handlers, and outline current technical limitations offering future research questions. Our paper provides an initial design probe using smart glasses to engage in the field of collaborative professional mobile tasks.

    @article{reuter_rescueglass_2019,
    title = {{RescueGlass}: {Collaborative} {Applications} involving {Head}-{Mounted} {Displays} for {Red} {Cross} {Rescue} {Dog} {Units}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterLudwigMischur_RescueGlass_JCSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-018-9339-8},
    abstract = {On-site work of emergency service teams consists of highly cooperative tasks. Especially during distributed search and rescue tasks there is a constant mix of routinized and non-routinized activities. Within this paper we focus on the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dog Units who deal with several uncertainties regarding the involved dogs, the fragility of the respective situations as well as issues of using technologies under enormous time pressure. Smart glasses provide possibilities for enhanced and hands-free interaction in various contexts and a number of approaches have already been applied, aiming at efficient use of the respective technological innovation in private and professional contexts. However, the collaborative potential of smart glasses in time-critical and uncertain situations is still unexplored. Our design case study examines how the on-site work of emergency service teams can be supported by smart glasses: Based on examining the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dogs, we introduce ‘RescueGlass' as a coordinative concept, encompassing hands-free head-mounted display (HMD) application as well as a corresponding smartphone application. Finally, we describe the evaluation of its use in the field of emergency response and management. We show how current features such as ‘fog of war' or various sensors support the cooperative practices of dog handlers, and outline current technical limitations offering future research questions. Our paper provides an initial design probe using smart glasses to engage in the field of collaborative professional mobile tasks.},
    number = {1-2},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Mischur, Patrick},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {209--246},
    }

  • Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elena Runft, Christian Reuter, Margarita Grinko, Volkmar Pipek (2019)
    Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.

    @inproceedings{langer_counter_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Counter {Narratives} in {Social} {Media}: {An} {Empirical} {Study} on {Combat} and {Prevention} of {Terrorism}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Langeretal_Counternarratives_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Runft, Elena and Reuter, Christian and Grinko, Margarita and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {746--755},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual-Use in der IT: Bewertung in der Softwareentwicklung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden 2019-1: 2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.

    @techreport{riebe_dual-use_2019,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2019-1},
    title = {Dual-{Use} in der {IT}: {Bewertung} in der {Softwareentwicklung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_RiebeReuter_DualUse_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--48},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual Use and Dilemmas for Cybersecurity, Peace and Technology Assessment
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 165–184. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.

    @incollection{riebe_dual_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Dual {Use} and {Dilemmas} for {Cybersecurity}, {Peace} and {Technology} {Assessment}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {165--184},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Christoph Amelunxen, Massimo Cristaldi (2018)
    112.SOCIAL: Design and Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis App for Bidirectional Communication between Emergency Services and Citizen
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Portsmouth, UK.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities‘ and citizens‘ information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_112social_2018,
    address = {Portsmouth, UK},
    title = {112.{SOCIAL}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Mobile} {Crisis} {App} for {Bidirectional} {Communication} between {Emergency} {Services} and {Citizen}},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRuppReuterAmelunxenCristaldi_112Social_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities' and citizens' information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Amelunxen, Christoph and Cristaldi, Massimo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 379–402. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia},
    pages = {379--402},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Informatik für Frieden und Sicherheit
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 573–595. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden} und {Sicherheit}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    abstract = {Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {573--595},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2018)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 621–630. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {621--630},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Einleitung und Überblick
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–14. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} – {Einleitung} und Überblick},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {3--14},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    Responsible Research and Innovation: Interdisziplinärer Workshop von IANUS und Schader-Stiftung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?

    @techreport{riebe_responsible_2018,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {Responsible {Research} and {Innovation}: {Interdisziplinärer} {Workshop} von {IANUS} und {Schader}-{Stiftung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_RiebeNordmannReuter_RRI_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {60--61},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on IT-Support for Crisis and Continuity Management
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):v–viii.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_guest_2018,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Crisis} and {Continuity} {Management}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterPottebaum_EditorialCrisisContinuityManagement_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {v--viii},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Editorial of the Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):277–279. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2018,
    title = {Editorial of the {Special} {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesHiltzImranPlotnik_EditorialSpecialIssueSocialMediaCrisisManagement_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833},
    abstract = {Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, RSF, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {277--279},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gerhard Backfried, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr (2018)
    ISCRAM turns 15: A Trend Analysis of Social Media Papers 2004-2017
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Rochester, New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_iscram_2018,
    address = {Rochester, New York, USA},
    title = {{ISCRAM} turns 15: {A} {Trend} {Analysis} of {Social} {Media} {Papers} 2004-2017},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterBackfriedKaufholdSpahn_15YearsISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Backfried, Gerhard and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian},
    editor = {Boersma, Kees and Tomaszewski, Brian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2018)
    Studie: Wie sehen Mitarbeiter von Feuerwehr und THW den Einsatz sozialer Medien in Gefahrenlagen?
    2018.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{reuter_studie_2018,
    title = {Studie: {Wie} sehen {Mitarbeiter} von {Feuerwehr} und {THW} den {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Gefahrenlagen}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_FeuerwehrTHWSozialeMedienGefahrenlagen_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {64--66},
    }

  • Simon Scholl, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    SocialML: EUD im Maschine Learning zur Analyse sozialer Medien
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.

    @inproceedings{scholl_socialml_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {{SocialML}: {EUD} im {Maschine} {Learning} zur {Analyse} sozialer {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16668/Beitrag_347_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Scholl, Simon and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {443--446},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tobias Ermert (2018)
    Interaktionsdesign eines Risiko-Bewertungskonzepts für KMU
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_interaktionsdesign_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Interaktionsdesign eines {Risiko}-{Bewertungskonzepts} für {KMU}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16626/Beitrag_356_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ermert, Tobias},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {309--312},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Julian Hester, Danny Jeske, Lisa Knüver, Viktoria Richert (2018)
    Business Continuity Management in Micro Enterprises: Perception, Strategies and Use of ICT
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):1–19. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.

    @article{kaufhold_business_2018,
    title = {Business {Continuity} {Management} in {Micro} {Enterprises}: {Perception}, {Strategies} and {Use} of {ICT}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRiebeReuteretal_BusinessContinuityManagementinMicroEnterprises_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101},
    abstract = {Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Hester, Julian and Jeske, Danny and Knüver, Lisa and Richert, Viktoria},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Cooperation, RSF, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    Special Issue on IT Support for Crisis and Continuity Management
    .
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-2,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {IT} {Support} for {Crisis} and {Continuity} {Management}},
    volume = {10},
    number = {1},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Michael Herczeg, Stefan Geisler, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    5. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten. Da in solchen Feldern – etwa Katastrophenmanagement, Verkehr, Produktion oder Medizin – MCI eine immer größere Relevanz erhält, sind viele wissenschaftliche Gebiete, unter anderem die Informatik oder Mensch-Maschine Interaktion, zunehmend gefragt. Die Herausfor-derung besteht darin, bestehende Ansätze und Methoden zu diskutieren, anzupassen und innovative Lösungen zu entwickeln, die von den Nutzenden sicher und effizient verwendet werden können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_5_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {5. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16929/Beitrag_328_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten. Da in solchen Feldern – etwa Katastrophenmanagement, Verkehr, Produktion oder Medizin – MCI eine immer größere Relevanz erhält, sind viele wissenschaftliche Gebiete, unter anderem die Informatik oder Mensch-Maschine Interaktion, zunehmend gefragt. Die Herausfor-derung besteht darin, bestehende Ansätze und Methoden zu diskutieren, anzupassen und innovative Lösungen zu entwickeln, die von den Nutzenden sicher und effizient verwendet werden können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Herczeg, Michael and Geisler, Stefan and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {565--569},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Elmar von Radziewski (2018)
    Design eines BCM-Dashboards für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Design eines {BCM}-{Dashboards} für kleine und mittlere {Unternehmen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16796/Beitrag_453_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and von Radziewski, Elmar},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Infrastructure},
    pages = {579--586},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/hihc20/34/4?nav=tocList},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Usable Safety Engineering sicherheitskritischer interaktiver Systeme
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 17–40. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.

    @incollection{reuter_usable_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Usable {Safety} {Engineering} sicherheitskritischer interaktiver {Systeme}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    abstract = {Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {17--40},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Erste Auflage)
    Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Erste} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19522-9},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658195229},
    abstract = {Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2018)
    Resilienz durch Kooperationstechnologien
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 443–465. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anforderungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteure. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt unser Kapitel anhand von praktischen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_resilienz_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Resilienz durch {Kooperationstechnologien}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22},
    abstract = {Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anforderungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteure. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt unser Kapitel anhand von praktischen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {443--465},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Special Issue on Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems
    Wiley.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jccm.2018.26.issue-1/issuetoc},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Wiley},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2018)
    Soziale Medien und Apps in Notsituationen: Eine repräsentative Studie über die Wahrnehmung in Deutschland
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.

    @techreport{reuter_soziale_2018,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} und {Apps} in {Notsituationen}: {Eine} repräsentative {Studie} über die {Wahrnehmung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SozialeMedienAppsNotsituationen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--24},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler (2018)
    Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems – Editorial
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):2–3. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12192
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_human-computer-interaction_2018,
    title = {Human-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} – {Editorial}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-5973.12192/abstract},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12192},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {2--3},
    }

    2017

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Simon Scholl (2017)
    Social Media Analytics: Eine Marktstudie im Krisenmanagement
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Gesellschaft für Informatik Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Social {Media} {Analytics}: {Eine} {Marktstudie} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuterLudwigScholl_SocialMediaAnalytcisMarktstudie_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik}},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1325--1338},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Katwarn, NINA or FEMA? Multi-Method Study on Distribution, Use and Public Views on Crisis Apps
    European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Guimarães, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens‘ perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.

    @inproceedings{reuter_katwarn_2017,
    address = {Guimarães, Portugal},
    title = {Katwarn, {NINA} or {FEMA}? {Multi}-{Method} {Study} on {Distribution}, {Use} and {Public} {Views} on {Crisis} {Apps}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdLeopoldKnipp_CrisisApps_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens' perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.},
    booktitle = {European {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {2187--2201},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Daniel Wiegärtner, Claudia Müller (2017)
    DIVOA – Unterstützung der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-mci-0352
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der demographische Wandel und die Urbanisierung können als die Megatrends der kommenden Jahre betrachten werden, wodurch sich neue Herausforderungen und Chancen für Städte ergeben. Gerade im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren benötigt das System Stadt resiliente Ansätze, die mittels neuer Technologien gewährleistet werden können. Da IKT zeitnahe, kontextspezifische und persönliche Informationen ortsunabhängig liefern können, ist diese Entwicklung von hoher Relevanz für die Sicherstellung des Systems Stadt und dessen Bewohner. Im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren weisen ältere Menschen aufgrund ihrer eingeschränkten physischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Fähigkeiten jedoch eine erhöhte Vulnerabilität auf. Diese Arbeit möchte, dies adressierend, einen Beitrag zur Integration der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen darstellen und ein Konzept vorstellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_divoa_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {{DIVOA} – {Unterstützung} der älteren {Bevölkerung} bei {Schadenslagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3279/2017_MCI_352.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-mci-0352},
    abstract = {Der demographische Wandel und die Urbanisierung können als die Megatrends der kommenden Jahre betrachten werden, wodurch sich neue Herausforderungen und Chancen für Städte ergeben. Gerade im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren benötigt das System Stadt resiliente Ansätze, die mittels neuer Technologien gewährleistet werden können. Da IKT zeitnahe, kontextspezifische und persönliche Informationen ortsunabhängig liefern können, ist diese Entwicklung von hoher Relevanz für die Sicherstellung des Systems Stadt und dessen Bewohner. Im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren weisen ältere Menschen aufgrund ihrer eingeschränkten physischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Fähigkeiten jedoch eine erhöhte Vulnerabilität auf. Diese Arbeit möchte, dies adressierend, einen Beitrag zur Integration der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen darstellen und ein Konzept vorstellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Wiegärtner, Daniel and Müller, Claudia},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student},
    pages = {295--298},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    IT for Peace? Fighting Against Terrorism in Social Media – An Explorative Twitter Study
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;16(2):181–195. doi:10.1515/icom-2017-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.

    @article{reuter_it_2017,
    title = {{IT} for {Peace}? {Fighting} {Against} {Terrorism} in {Social} {Media} – {An} {Explorative} {Twitter} {Study}},
    volume = {16},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_ITforPeaceTerrorismSocialMedia_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2017-0013},
    abstract = {The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {181--195},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Marén Schorch, Jan Gerwinski, Christian Soost, Sohaib S. Hassan, Gebhard Rusch, Petra Moog, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2017)
    Digitalisierung und Zivile Sicherheit: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität in Katastrophenlagen (KontiKat)
    In: Gero Hoch, Hildegard Schröteler von Brandt, Volker Stein, Angela Schwarz: Sicherheit (DIAGONAL Jahrgang 38). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, , 207–224. doi:10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.

    @incollection{reuter_digitalisierung_2017,
    address = {Göttingen},
    title = {Digitalisierung und {Zivile} {Sicherheit}: {Zivilgesellschaftliche} und betriebliche {Kontinuität} in {Katastrophenlagen} ({KontiKat})},
    isbn = {978-3-8471-0739-2},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSchorchetal_DigitalisierungSicherheitKontiKat_Diagonal.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheit ({DIAGONAL} {Jahrgang} 38)},
    publisher = {Vandenhoeck \& Ruprecht},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schorch, Marén and Gerwinski, Jan and Soost, Christian and Hassan, Sohaib S. and Rusch, Gebhard and Moog, Petra and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Hoch, Gero and Schröteler von Brandt, Hildegard and Stein, Volker and Schwarz, Angela},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {207--224},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler (2017)
    4. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_4_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {4. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3170/2017_WS01_380.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380},
    abstract = {Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {5--8},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Informing the Population: Mobile Warning Apps
    In: Michael Klafft: Risk and Crisis Communication in Disaster Prevention and Management. Wilhelmshaven: epubli, , 31–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.

    @incollection{reuter_informing_2017,
    address = {Wilhelmshaven},
    title = {Informing the {Population}: {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-7450-5448-4},
    url = {http://publica.fraunhofer.de/eprints/urn_nbn_de_0011-n-4527283.pdf#page=35},
    abstract = {Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.},
    booktitle = {Risk and {Crisis} {Communication} in {Disaster} {Prevention} and {Management}},
    publisher = {epubli},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    editor = {Klafft, Michael},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Peace},
    pages = {31--41},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    The Impact of Social Media for Emergency Situations: A Case Study with the Fire Department of Frankfurt
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_impact_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {The {Impact} of {Social} {Media} for {Emergency} {Situations}: {A} {Case} {Study} with the {Fire} {Department} of {Frankfurt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_ImpactSocialMediaFrankfurt_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {603--612},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Erfurth, Christian Reuter (2017)
    IT-Rettung 2017: IT-Unterstützung in Emergency Management & Response
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Notfallsituationen sind kritische Situationen, in denen eine Gefahr für Menschen, Infrastrukturen und die Umwelt besteht. IT-Unterstützung kann in der Vermeidung sowie der Verbesserung der Vorbereitung, der Abwehr und der Bewältigung helfenkomplexe und kritische Situationen zu beherrschen. Allerdings zeigen Erfahrungen, dass der Einsatz von IT als operatives Einsatzmittel oder Entscheidungsunterstützungswerkzeug auch für eine Zunahme der gefühlten Komplexität einer Einsatzlage bei vielen Beteiligten sorgen kann. Im Fokus des Workshops stehen die Herausforderungen und technischen Konsequenzen, die sich für die IT in diesem Umfeld ergeben. Neben der Ergebnisdarstellung werdenvor allem Erfahrungen aus der Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Methoden im Kontext der zivilen Sicherheit adressiert. Zieldes Workshops ist es, aus fallstudienorientierten Beiträgen –diese ergeben sich unter anderem aus der Struktur der Förderlandschaft in der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung –übertragbare Schlüsse abzuleiten.

    @inproceedings{pottebaum_it-rettung_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {{IT}-{Rettung} 2017: {IT}-{Unterstützung} in {Emergency} {Management} \& {Response}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3891/B16-0.pdf},
    abstract = {Notfallsituationen sind kritische Situationen, in denen eine Gefahr für Menschen, Infrastrukturen und die Umwelt besteht. IT-Unterstützung kann in der Vermeidung sowie der Verbesserung der Vorbereitung, der Abwehr und der Bewältigung helfenkomplexe und kritische Situationen zu beherrschen. Allerdings zeigen Erfahrungen, dass der Einsatz von IT als operatives Einsatzmittel oder Entscheidungsunterstützungswerkzeug auch für eine Zunahme der gefühlten Komplexität einer Einsatzlage bei vielen Beteiligten sorgen kann. Im Fokus des Workshops stehen die Herausforderungen und technischen Konsequenzen, die sich für die IT in diesem Umfeld ergeben. Neben der Ergebnisdarstellung werdenvor allem Erfahrungen aus der Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Methoden im Kontext der zivilen Sicherheit adressiert. Zieldes Workshops ist es, aus fallstudienorientierten Beiträgen –diese ergeben sich unter anderem aus der Struktur der Förderlandschaft in der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung –übertragbare Schlüsse abzuleiten.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Erfurth, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C},
    pages = {1281--1282},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2017)
    Social Media in Emergencies: A Representative Study on Citizens‘ Perception in Germany
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;1(2):1–19. doi:10.1145/3134725
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones‘ weather and first aid apps.

    @article{reuter_social_2017,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Representative} {Study} on {Citizens}' {Perception} in {Germany}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SocialMediaEmergenciesGermany_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3134725},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens' perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones' weather and first aid apps.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Place: New York, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Projekt-EmerGent, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, René Steinfort (2017)
    Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information’s believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rumors_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {Rumors, {Fake} {News} and {Social} {Bots} in {Conflicts} and {Emergencies}: {Towards} a {Model} for {Believability} in {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSteinfort_RumorsFakeNewsBotsBelievability_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information's believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Steinfort, René},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {583--591},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Integration von Flow in die Mensch- Computer-Interaktion? Potenziale für die Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme
    Mittelstand-Digital „Wissenschaft trifft Praxis“ ;7(1):78–88.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Flow-Erleben beschreibt das „reflexionsfreie, gänzliche Aufgehen in einer glatt laufenden Tätigkeit, die man trotz hoher Beanspruchung noch unter Kontrolle hat“. Dabei zeigt die bestehende Literatur vielversprechende Effekte der Flow-Theorie auf, etwa positiver Affekt, verbessertes Lernen, Mitarbeiterproduktivität und Kundenloyalität, die einen Mehrwert in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme darstellen. Die Betrachtung der theoretischen Grundlagen zeigt, dass Flow ein komponentenreiches Konstrukt ist, welches kontextsensitiv erforscht werden muss: Die Beschaffenheit der gegenwärtigen Aufgabe und des interaktiven Systems, sowie demografische, individuelle und situative Faktoren beeinflussen das Flow-erleben. Zur Messung des Flow-erlebens wurden eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden entwickelt, welche die gegenwärtige Erfahrung, etwa der FQ oder die esM, oder eine vergangene Erfahrung im Nachgang, etwa komponentenbasierte Fragebogen und qualitative Methoden, erfassen. In der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme im Sinne der MCI wird einerseits die Betrachtung pragmatischer Qualitätskriterien (Effizienz, Durchschaubarkeit, Verlässlichkeit) der Usability und hedonistischer Qualitätskriterien (Attraktivität, Neuheit, Stimulation) der User Experience angestrebt. Andererseits untersucht ein separater Forschungsstrang die Relevanz der Flow-Theorie für die MCI. Während der Einfluss theoretischer Konstrukte des Flow-erlebens bereits deutlich untersucht wurde, fehlt die systematische Verknüpfung zu konkreten Designanforderungen zur Unterstützung des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen. Damit die Potenziale der Flow-Theorie in der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme bestmöglich berücksichtigt werden können, sind vor allem vier Herausforderungen in der Forschung und Praxis zu adressieren: 1. Definition der theoretischen Kontextfaktoren: Wie kann die Flow-Theorie in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ganzheitlich bestimmt werden? 2. Operationalisierung der Flow-Theorie: Wie können Bedingungen, Erleben und Auswirkungen des Flow-erlebens genau und systematisch gemessen werden? 3. Integration in die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: In welchem exakten Zusammenhang stehen die Konzepte Flow, Usability und User Experience? 4. Ableitung praktischer Designanforderungen: Wie können praktische Anforderungen zum Design des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen abgeleitet werden? Dieser Beitrag hat dazu die theoretischen Grundlagen des Flow-erlebens, bestehende Methoden und Metriken sowie verwandte Konzepte der MCI eingeleitet und diskutiert, um einerseits die systematische Erforschung der Flow-Theorie in der MCI und andererseits die Ableitung praktischer Design-Anforderungen zu motivieren.

    @article{kaufhold_integration_2017,
    title = {Integration von {Flow} in die {Mensch}- {Computer}-{Interaktion}? {Potenziale} für die {Gestaltung} interaktiver {Systeme}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_FlowMCI_MittelstandDigital.pdf},
    abstract = {Flow-Erleben beschreibt das „reflexionsfreie, gänzliche Aufgehen in einer glatt laufenden Tätigkeit, die man trotz hoher Beanspruchung noch unter Kontrolle hat“. Dabei zeigt die bestehende Literatur vielversprechende Effekte der Flow-Theorie auf, etwa positiver Affekt, verbessertes Lernen, Mitarbeiterproduktivität und Kundenloyalität, die einen Mehrwert in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme darstellen. Die Betrachtung der theoretischen Grundlagen zeigt, dass Flow ein komponentenreiches Konstrukt ist, welches kontextsensitiv erforscht werden muss: Die Beschaffenheit der gegenwärtigen Aufgabe und des interaktiven Systems, sowie demografische, individuelle und situative Faktoren beeinflussen das Flow-erleben. Zur Messung des Flow-erlebens wurden eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden entwickelt, welche die gegenwärtige Erfahrung, etwa der FQ oder die esM, oder eine vergangene Erfahrung im Nachgang, etwa komponentenbasierte Fragebogen und qualitative Methoden, erfassen. In der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme im Sinne der MCI wird einerseits die Betrachtung pragmatischer Qualitätskriterien (Effizienz, Durchschaubarkeit, Verlässlichkeit) der Usability und hedonistischer Qualitätskriterien (Attraktivität, Neuheit, Stimulation) der User Experience angestrebt. Andererseits untersucht ein separater Forschungsstrang die Relevanz der Flow-Theorie für die MCI. Während der Einfluss theoretischer Konstrukte des Flow-erlebens bereits deutlich untersucht wurde, fehlt die systematische Verknüpfung zu konkreten Designanforderungen zur Unterstützung des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen. Damit die Potenziale der Flow-Theorie in der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme bestmöglich berücksichtigt werden können, sind vor allem vier Herausforderungen in der Forschung und Praxis zu adressieren: 1. Definition der theoretischen Kontextfaktoren: Wie kann die Flow-Theorie in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ganzheitlich bestimmt werden? 2. Operationalisierung der Flow-Theorie: Wie können Bedingungen, Erleben und Auswirkungen des Flow-erlebens genau und systematisch gemessen werden? 3. Integration in die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: In welchem exakten Zusammenhang stehen die Konzepte Flow, Usability und User Experience? 4. Ableitung praktischer Designanforderungen: Wie können praktische Anforderungen zum Design des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen abgeleitet werden? Dieser Beitrag hat dazu die theoretischen Grundlagen des Flow-erlebens, bestehende Methoden und Metriken sowie verwandte Konzepte der MCI eingeleitet und diskutiert, um einerseits die systematische Erforschung der Flow-Theorie in der MCI und andererseits die Ableitung praktischer Design-Anforderungen zu motivieren.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Mittelstand-Digital "Wissenschaft trifft Praxis"},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI},
    pages = {78--88},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on IT-Support for Critical Infrastructure Protection
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;9(4):iv–vii.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{pottebaum_guest_2017,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Critical} {Infrastructure} {Protection}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_PottebaumReuter_EditorialCriticalInfrastructureProtection_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure},
    pages = {iv--vii},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Special Issue on IT-Support for Critical Infrastructure Protection
    IGI Global.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{pottebaum_special_2017,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Critical} {Infrastructure} {Protection}},
    volume = {9},
    number = {4},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Jonas Klös (2017)
    Benutzbare Sicherheit: Usability, Safety und Security bei Passwörtern
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_benutzbare_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Benutzbare {Sicherheit}: {Usability}, {Safety} und {Security} bei {Passwörtern}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3214/2017_WS01_384.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384},
    abstract = {Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klös, Jonas},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec},
    pages = {33--41},
    }

  • Daniel Wiegärtner, Christian Reuter, Claudia Müller (2017)
    Erwartungen der älteren Bevölkerung an IKT für Krisenkommunikation
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws17-0416
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aufgrund des demographischen Wandels und der zunehmenden Bevölkerungsdichte im urbanen Raum wird es in Zukunft zu neuen Herausforderungen in der Planung und Vorbereitung von Katastrophen-lagen in Städten kommen. Dabei wird vor allem der Nutzen von IKT für ältere Menschen in Bezug auf (Groß-)Schadenslagen von hoher Relevanz sein, der in der bisherigen Forschung nicht angemessen be-trachtet wurde. Mittels eines nutzerzentrierten Ansatzes wird untersucht, wie eine geeignete Krisenkommunikation durch IKT für ältere Menschen funktionieren könnte. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Vorbereitung für die ältere Population in Großstädten im Falle einer (Groß-)Schadenslage zu untersuchen und zu un-terstützen. Gerade für das System Stadt sind die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit von Relevanz und können hel-fen, den urbanen Raum resilienter gegen mögliche Katastrophen zu gestalten.

    @inproceedings{wiegartner_erwartungen_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Erwartungen der älteren {Bevölkerung} an {IKT} für {Krisenkommunikation}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3243/2017_WS17_416.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws17-0416},
    abstract = {Aufgrund des demographischen Wandels und der zunehmenden Bevölkerungsdichte im urbanen Raum wird es in Zukunft zu neuen Herausforderungen in der Planung und Vorbereitung von Katastrophen-lagen in Städten kommen. Dabei wird vor allem der Nutzen von IKT für ältere Menschen in Bezug auf (Groß-)Schadenslagen von hoher Relevanz sein, der in der bisherigen Forschung nicht angemessen be-trachtet wurde. Mittels eines nutzerzentrierten Ansatzes wird untersucht, wie eine geeignete Krisenkommunikation durch IKT für ältere Menschen funktionieren könnte. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Vorbereitung für die ältere Population in Großstädten im Falle einer (Groß-)Schadenslage zu untersuchen und zu un-terstützen. Gerade für das System Stadt sind die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit von Relevanz und können hel-fen, den urbanen Raum resilienter gegen mögliche Katastrophen zu gestalten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Wiegärtner, Daniel and Reuter, Christian and Müller, Claudia},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student},
    pages = {609--614},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Marvin Stefan (2017)
    Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_gesellschaftliche_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Gesellschaftliche {Herausforderungen} des {Missbrauchs} von {Bots} und sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3236/2017_WS01_386.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Stefan, Marvin},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {51--58},
    }

    Geobox-D: Düngemittelplaner sowie Geobox-U: Usability Optimierung (2016-2018)
    EmerGent: Emergency Management in Social Media Generation (2014-2017, EU)

    EmerGent: Emergency Management in Social Media Generation
    (1.4.2014-30.7.2017, EU) – Website

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen ist mittlerweile ein verbreitetes Phänomen. Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa 2013 oder das Love-Parade Unglück 2010, zeigen, dass Bürger beispielsweise Facebook oder Twitter nutzen, um miteinander zu kommunizieren und (Selbst-)Hilfe zu organisieren. Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie die Feuerwehr und Polizei, kommunizieren über soziale Medien mit der Öffentlichkeit oder nutzen die bereitgestellten Inhalte zur Lagebeurteilung.

    Quelle: EmerGent (Bild UPB)

    Das Ziel des von der Europäischen Union geförderten Forschungsprojekts ist die Untersuchung der positiven und negativen Auswirkungen sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, um die objektive und gefühlte Sicherheit der Bürger zu erhöhen. Hierzu werden zuerst anhand vergangener Ereignisse, empirischer Untersuchungen und veröffentlichter Studien derzeitige Nutzungsmuster und zukünftige Nutzungspotentiale untersucht. Hierauf aufbauend sollen Prototypen entwickelt und erprobt werden, die sowohl Bürger als auch die zuständigen BOS in der Bewältigung von Schadenslagen unterstützen.

    Neben der Universität Siegen sind die Universität Paderborn als Koordinator, IES Solutions (Italien), Oxford Computer Consultants, Travistock Institute (beide Großbritannien), Vestlandsforsking (Norwegen) sowie die Federation of the European Union Fire Officer Associations (Luxembourg), die European Emergency Number Association (Belgien), das Institut für Feuerwehr- und Rettungstechnologie (Deutschland) sowie das Scientific and Research Centre for Fire Protection (Polen) beteiligt.

    Dieses Projekt wird durch das Siebte Rahmenprogramm der Europäischen Gemeinschaft für Forschung, technologische Entwicklung und Demonstration mit der Fördernummer 608352 finanziert.

    2019

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Spielhoferetal_SocialMediaCrisesUKSurvey_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Alexis Gizikis, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank, Margarita Grinko (2019)
    Avoiding Chaotic Use of Social Media before, during, and after Emergencies: Design and Evaluation of Citizens‘ Guidelines
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;27(3):198–213. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12249
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens‘ guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.

    @article{kaufhold_avoiding_2019,
    title = {Avoiding {Chaotic} {Use} of {Social} {Media} before, during, and after {Emergencies}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of {Citizens}' {Guidelines}},
    volume = {27},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGizikisReuterHabdankGrinko_DesignEvaluationCitizenGuidelines_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12249},
    abstract = {Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens' guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Gizikis, Alexis and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias and Grinko, Margarita},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {198--213},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Cross-Media Usage of Social Big Data for Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities: Approaches, Development and Challenges of Multi-Platform Social Media Services
    2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.

    @techreport{kaufhold_cross-media_2019,
    title = {Cross-{Media} {Usage} of {Social} {Big} {Data} for {Emergency} {Services} and {Volunteer} {Communities}: {Approaches}, {Development} and {Challenges} of {Multi}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Services}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07725.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2018)
    Soziale Medien und Apps in Notsituationen: Eine repräsentative Studie über die Wahrnehmung in Deutschland
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.

    @techreport{reuter_soziale_2018,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} und {Apps} in {Notsituationen}: {Eine} repräsentative {Studie} über die {Wahrnehmung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SozialeMedienAppsNotsituationen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--24},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Special Issue on Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems
    Wiley.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jccm.2018.26.issue-1/issuetoc},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Wiley},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)