Definition

Friedensinformatik beschäftigt sich mit der Rolle technischer Erkenntnisse und Entwicklungen aus der Informatik im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden, Auf- und Abrüstung.

Zur Definition des Bereichs:

Christian Reuter (2020) Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science, S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security 38(1), S. 10-16, pdf, doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10

Christian Reuter (2019) Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace, S. 1-424, Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, url, doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4

Ausgewählte Publikationen

Auswahl:

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Laura Guntrum, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Vision or Threat – Awareness for Dual-Use in the Development of Autonomous Driving
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;3(3):163–174. doi:10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.

    @article{schwartz_vision_2022,
    title = {Vision or {Threat} – {Awareness} for {Dual}-{Use} in the {Development} of {Autonomous} {Driving}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchwartzGuntrumReuter_VisionorThreatAwarenessDualUseAutonomousDriving_IEEE-TTS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310},
    abstract = {In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Guntrum, Laura and Reuter, Christian},
    month = sep,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-TRACE},
    pages = {163--174},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Towards a Cyber Weapons Assessment Model – Assessment of the Technical Features of Malicious Software
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;3(3):226–239. doi:10.1109/TTS.2021.3131817
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The revelation of the Stuxnet malware in 2010 shed light on the presence of state actors that are willing and capable of developing and using highly sophisticated, specialized malicious software for their political interests. These tools -often dubbed cyber weapons -are expected to become the next major advancement in weaponry technology. Besides the threats of offensive cyber operations for civil IT systems due to the interconnected nature of the cyberspace, international regulation of cyber weapons is -among other aspects -hindered by the fact that the military development and the strategic and tactical deployment of cyber weapons differ significantly from other weapons technologies. In order to establish measures of cyber arms related control treaties, it is crucial to identify these particular characteristics. Based on this premise, the article analyzes the current perspectives on cyber weapons, identifying their weaknesses of being either based on assumptions about adversarial actors or being applicable only after the usage of a malicious tool. In contrast to these approaches, the article focuses on the specific functional aspects of malware and presents an indicator-based assessment model based on parameters that can be measured prior to the application of malicious software. This enables the categorization of malicious tools as cyber weapons. Besides this, the article aims to introduce thought-provoking impulses with regard to social responsibility in computer science.

    @article{reinhold_towards_2022,
    title = {Towards a {Cyber} {Weapons} {Assessment} {Model} – {Assessment} of the {Technical} {Features} of {Malicious} {Software}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReinholdReuter_CyberWeapons_IEEETransactionsTechnologySociety.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2021.3131817},
    abstract = {The revelation of the Stuxnet malware in 2010 shed light on the presence of state actors that are willing and capable of developing and using highly sophisticated, specialized malicious software for their political interests. These tools -often dubbed cyber weapons -are expected to become the next major advancement in weaponry technology. Besides the threats of offensive cyber operations for civil IT systems due to the interconnected nature of the cyberspace, international regulation of cyber weapons is -among other aspects -hindered by the fact that the military development and the strategic and tactical deployment of cyber weapons differ significantly from other weapons technologies. In order to establish measures of cyber arms related control treaties, it is crucial to identify these particular characteristics. Based on this premise, the article analyzes the current perspectives on cyber weapons, identifying their weaknesses of being either based on assumptions about adversarial actors or being applicable only after the usage of a malicious tool. In contrast to these approaches, the article focuses on the specific functional aspects of malware and presents an indicator-based assessment model based on parameters that can be measured prior to the application of malicious software. This enables the categorization of malicious tools as cyber weapons. Besides this, the article aims to introduce thought-provoking impulses with regard to social responsibility in computer science.},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = sep,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {226--239},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Dual-Use and Trustworthy? A Mixed Methods Analysis of AI Diffusion between Civilian and Defense R&D
    Science and Engineering Ethics ;28(12):1–23. doi:10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R&D.

    @article{schmid_dual-use_2022,
    title = {Dual-{Use} and {Trustworthy}? {A} {Mixed} {Methods} {Analysis} of {AI} {Diffusion} between {Civilian} and {Defense} {R}\&{D}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchmidRiebeReuter_DualUseandTrustworthy_ScienceEngineeringEthics.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7},
    abstract = {Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R\&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R\&D.},
    number = {12},
    journal = {Science and Engineering Ethics},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-TRACE},
    pages = {1--23},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuehnBayerWendelbornReuter_OVANAQualityVulnerabilityDatabases_ARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Ranking-CORE-B, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics ;32(7):773–785. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2021,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    volume = {32},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {773--785},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_MHC_IEEETechScieMag.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Special Issue: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural Science/Technical Peace Research – S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security
    Nomos. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2020,
    title = {Special {Issue}: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural} {Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research} - {S}+{F} {Sicherheit} und {Frieden} / {Peace} and {Security}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1/s-f-sicherheit-und-frieden-volume-38-2020-issue-1},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I},
    note = {Publication Title: S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    }

    Alle Publikationen

    2022

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Laura Guntrum, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Vision or Threat – Awareness for Dual-Use in the Development of Autonomous Driving
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;3(3):163–174. doi:10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.

    @article{schwartz_vision_2022,
    title = {Vision or {Threat} – {Awareness} for {Dual}-{Use} in the {Development} of {Autonomous} {Driving}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchwartzGuntrumReuter_VisionorThreatAwarenessDualUseAutonomousDriving_IEEE-TTS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310},
    abstract = {In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Guntrum, Laura and Reuter, Christian},
    month = sep,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-TRACE},
    pages = {163--174},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cyber Weapons and Artificial Intelligence: Impact, Influence and the Challenges for Arms Control
    In: Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold: Armament, Arms Control and Artificial Intelligence – The Janus-faced Nature of Machine Learning in the Military Realm. Springer, , 145–158.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2022,
    title = {Cyber {Weapons} and {Artificial} {Intelligence}: {Impact}, {Influence} and the {Challenges} for {Arms} {Control}},
    booktitle = {Armament, {Arms} {Control} and {Artificial} {Intelligence} - {The} {Janus}-faced {Nature} of {Machine} {Learning} in the {Military} {Realm}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security},
    pages = {145--158},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Book Review: Artificial Intelligence and The Future of Warfare, James Johnson (2021)
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) . doi:10.1007/s12399-022-00918-4
    [BibTeX]

    @article{reinhold_book_2022,
    title = {Book {Review}: {Artificial} {Intelligence} and {The} {Future} of {Warfare}, {James} {Johnson} (2021)},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-022-00918-4},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Peace},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2022)
    Arms Control for Artificial Intelligence
    In: Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold: Armament, Arms Control and Artificial Intelligence – The Janus-faced Nature of Machine Learning in the Military Realm. Springer, , 211–226.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{reinhold_arms_2022,
    title = {Arms {Control} for {Artificial} {Intelligence}},
    booktitle = {Armament, {Arms} {Control} and {Artificial} {Intelligence} - {The} {Janus}-faced {Nature} of {Machine} {Learning} in the {Military} {Realm}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security},
    pages = {211--226},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Thomas Reinhold, Stefka Schmid (2022)
    Zur Schnittmenge von Informatik mit Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung: Erfahrungen aus der interdisziplinären Lehre in der Friedensinformatik
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) . doi:10.1007/s42597-022-00078-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Lehre zwischen Informatik sowie Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung ist vor dem Hintergrund, dass Konflikte im Cyberspace nicht mehr eine in der Zukunft liegende Fiktion, sondern eine realitätsnahe Möglichkeit darstellen, unabdingbar. Auch wenn zahlreiche etablierte Lehrveranstaltungen und Lehrbücher in der einen oder anderen Disziplin existieren, gilt dies nicht für deren Schnittmenge. Dieser Beitrag reflektiert die Einführung der in Bezug auf Thematik und Hörer*innenschaft interdisziplinären Lehrveranstaltung „Informationstechnologie für Frieden und Sicherheit“ für Studierende der Informatik, IT-Sicherheit und Wirtschaftsinformatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt, sowie Friedens- und Konfliktforschung der TU Darmstadt in Kooperation mit der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Hierbei werden Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze der interdisziplinären Lehre dargestellt und die Bedeutung dieser Lehre hervorgehoben.

    @article{reuter_zur_2022,
    title = {Zur {Schnittmenge} von {Informatik} mit {Friedens}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}: {Erfahrungen} aus der interdisziplinären {Lehre} in der {Friedensinformatik}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-022-00078-4.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-022-00078-4},
    abstract = {Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Lehre zwischen Informatik sowie Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung ist vor dem Hintergrund, dass Konflikte im Cyberspace nicht mehr eine in der Zukunft liegende Fiktion, sondern eine realitätsnahe Möglichkeit darstellen, unabdingbar. Auch wenn zahlreiche etablierte Lehrveranstaltungen und Lehrbücher in der einen oder anderen Disziplin existieren, gilt dies nicht für deren Schnittmenge. Dieser Beitrag reflektiert die Einführung der in Bezug auf Thematik und Hörer*innenschaft interdisziplinären Lehrveranstaltung „Informationstechnologie für Frieden und Sicherheit“ für Studierende der Informatik, IT-Sicherheit und Wirtschaftsinformatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt, sowie Friedens- und Konfliktforschung der TU Darmstadt in Kooperation mit der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Hierbei werden Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze der interdisziplinären Lehre dargestellt und die Bedeutung dieser Lehre hervorgehoben.},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reinhold, Thomas and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum, Mira Keßler, Jignesh Patel, Anna Varfolomeeva (2022)
    Remotely Accessing the Field and Building Trust with Distant Sources. Perspectives from Journalism Practice for Ethnographic Research
    Global Media Journal – German Edition ;12(1).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Journalists and ethnographic researchers, such as anthropologists, sociologists or media scholars, have comparable ways of establishing initial contacts with people from their fields of interest. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and consequential travel restrictions and social distancing, it has become increasingly difficult to access a field. Taking inspiration from social anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (2004, p. 226), who compared journalists and anthropologists as “neighboring groups engaged in a somehow parallel pursuit,” this article explores what researchers may learn from practitioners who conduct research without being on-site. Fed by various practical journalists’ experiences, the article aims to investigate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digitally mediated methods, such as online search tools and social media, can be used to establish contacts and gain trust remotely. Here, the relevance of these methods for accessing a field in general goes beyond the limitations imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic and can be of interest to all those who face difficulties of field access of any kind. Ultimately, this article reflects on corresponding ethical challenges that may arise while conducting research remotely.

    @article{guntrum_remotely_2022,
    title = {Remotely {Accessing} the {Field} and {Building} {Trust} with {Distant} {Sources}. {Perspectives} from {Journalism} {Practice} for {Ethnographic} {Research}},
    volume = {12},
    url = {https://globalmediajournal.de/index.php/gmj/article/view/220},
    abstract = {Journalists and ethnographic researchers, such as anthropologists, sociologists or media scholars, have comparable ways of establishing initial contacts with people from their fields of interest. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and consequential travel restrictions and social distancing, it has become increasingly difficult to access a field. Taking inspiration from social anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (2004, p. 226), who compared journalists and anthropologists as “neighboring groups engaged in a somehow parallel pursuit,” this article explores what researchers may learn from practitioners who conduct research without being on-site. Fed by various practical journalists’ experiences, the article aims to investigate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digitally mediated methods, such as online search tools and social media, can be used to establish contacts and gain trust remotely. Here, the relevance of these methods for accessing a field in general goes beyond the limitations imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic and can be of interest to all those who face difficulties of field access of any kind. Ultimately, this article reflects on corresponding ethical challenges that may arise while conducting research remotely.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Global Media Journal - German Edition},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Keßler, Mira and Patel, Jignesh and Varfolomeeva, Anna},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum (2022)
    Justice-oriented Research in Peace and Conflict Studies in Times of Social Distancing
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @inproceedings{guntrum_justice-oriented_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {Justice-oriented {Research} in {Peace} and {Conflict} {Studies} in {Times} of {Social} {Distancing}},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TRACE},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid (2022)
    Trustworthy and Explainable: A European Vision of (Weaponised) Artificial Intelligence
    Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO) ;95(3-4).
    [BibTeX]

    @article{schmid_trustworthy_2022,
    title = {Trustworthy and {Explainable}: {A} {European} {Vision} of ({Weaponised}) {Artificial} {Intelligence}},
    volume = {95},
    number = {3-4},
    journal = {Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO)},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Peace, Projekt-TRACE},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum, Sebastian Schwartz, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Dual-Use Technologies in the Context of Autonomous Driving – An Empirical Case Study from Germany
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{guntrum_dual-use_2022,
    title = {Dual-{Use} {Technologies} in the {Context} of {Autonomous} {Driving} - {An} {Empirical} {Case} {Study} from {Germany}},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Schwartz, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TRACE},
    }

  • Malte Göttsche, Sibylle Bauer, Anja Dahlmann, Friederike Frieß, Filippa Lentzos, Götz Neuneck, Irmgard Niemeyer, Thea Riebe, Jantje Silomon, Christian Reuter, Jakob Brochhaus, Lukas Rademacher (2022)
    Conference Proceedings : Science, Peace, Security ’21 : The Impact of new Technologies: Destabilizing or Enabling Resilience? : 8-10 September 2021
    Aachen: RWTH Aachen University. doi:10.18154/RWTH-2022-02256
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The impact of the rapid technological change on peace and security continuously grows and becomes increasingly complex. Against the background of a quickly deteriorating security environment, the international conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’21 (RWTH Aachen University, 8-10 September 2021) examined the role of emerging technologies. The 60 speakers and 220 participants came from the natural, technical and social sciences. Diplomats and representatives from international organisations participated in the discussions. Topics included nuclear, chemical and biological arms control, autonomy in weapon systems, cybersecurity and the militarization of space among others. The main outcome was that all of these issues could be more effectively addressed by new approaches to rigorous interdisciplinary research collaboration to create policy-relevant knowledge and by tightening the nexus between the scientist and policy communities. Both can only be achieved and sustained by funding novel structures that enable scientific-technical scholars to engage on these topics. Key problems to be addressed by integrating natural, technical and social science perspectives include early risk assessment of potential dual-use research and technologies – especially in bio-security and epidemiology as well as IT and robotic research. Ways forward are the inclusion of norms into technology design as well as addressing questions of responsibility and standards. For military-usable technologies, entirely new regulatory approaches are necessary to prevent escalatory dynamics and to maintain accountability structures, moving from object-based to behaviour-based approaches. Scientific-technical research contributes to peace and security in positive ways. A prominent example are nuclear verification techniques. While instruments to monitor nonproliferation and test ban commitments benefit from further improvement, many gaps on how to verify future arms control and disarmament agreements still exist and must be urgently closed. The best cutting-edge scientific and academic expertise that is required for these complex research tasks is found in universities and other independent research institutes. Typically, however, decisionmakers draw knowledge from governmental institutions because of ease and existing connections. Therefore, efforts should be made to better connect the policy and academic communities. Communication between both can be improved by meeting on a regular basis and not only when advice on a specific issue is sought. This can foster more stable relationships and increase an understanding of each other. Lastly, opportunities should be improved for the younger generation of scientists and technologists to engage with policymakers. It is crucial to educate and engage early-on the next generation of scientifically-literate policymakers and security-aware scientists.

    @book{gottsche_conference_2022,
    address = {Aachen},
    title = {Conference {Proceedings} : {Science}, {Peace}, {Security} '21 : {The} {Impact} of new {Technologies}: {Destabilizing} or {Enabling} {Resilience}? : 8-10 {September} 2021},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_Goettscheetal_ProceedingsSciencePeaceSecurity21ImpactOfNewTechnologies.pdf},
    abstract = {The impact of the rapid technological change on peace and security continuously grows and becomes increasingly complex. Against the background of a quickly deteriorating security environment, the international conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’21 (RWTH Aachen University, 8-10 September 2021) examined the role of emerging technologies. The 60 speakers and 220 participants came from the natural, technical and social sciences. Diplomats and representatives from international organisations participated in the discussions. Topics included nuclear, chemical and biological arms control, autonomy in weapon systems, cybersecurity and the militarization of space among others.
    The main outcome was that all of these issues could be more effectively addressed by new approaches to rigorous interdisciplinary research collaboration to create policy-relevant knowledge and by tightening the nexus between the scientist and policy communities. Both can only be achieved and sustained by funding novel structures that enable scientific-technical scholars to engage on these topics.
    Key problems to be addressed by integrating natural, technical and social science perspectives include early risk assessment of potential dual-use research and technologies – especially in bio-security and epidemiology as well as IT and robotic research. Ways forward are the inclusion of norms into technology design as well as addressing questions of responsibility and standards. For military-usable technologies, entirely new regulatory approaches are necessary to prevent escalatory dynamics and to maintain accountability structures, moving from object-based to behaviour-based approaches.
    Scientific-technical research contributes to peace and security in positive ways. A prominent example are nuclear verification techniques. While instruments to monitor nonproliferation and test ban commitments benefit from further improvement, many gaps on how to verify future arms control and disarmament agreements still exist and must be urgently closed.
    The best cutting-edge scientific and academic expertise that is required for these complex research tasks is found in universities and other independent research institutes. Typically, however, decisionmakers draw knowledge from governmental institutions because of ease and existing connections. Therefore, efforts should be made to better connect the policy and academic communities. Communication between both can be improved by meeting on a regular basis and not only when advice on a specific issue is sought. This can foster more stable relationships and increase an understanding of each other.
    Lastly, opportunities should be improved for the younger generation of scientists and technologists to engage with policymakers. It is crucial to educate and engage early-on the next generation of scientifically-literate policymakers and security-aware scientists.},
    publisher = {RWTH Aachen University},
    author = {Göttsche, Malte and Bauer, Sibylle and Dahlmann, Anja and Frieß, Friederike and Lentzos, Filippa and Neuneck, Götz and Niemeyer, Irmgard and Riebe, Thea and Silomon, Jantje and Reuter, Christian and Brochhaus, Jakob and Rademacher, Lukas},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {10.18154/RWTH-2022-02256},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2022)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2022,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    isbn = {978-1-00-905708-0},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Malte Göttsche, Friederike Frieß (2022)
    Special Issue on The Impact of New Technologies: Between Destabilization and Enabling Resilience – Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO)
    Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2022-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {The} {Impact} of {New} {Technologies}: {Between} {Destabilization} and {Enabling} {Resilience} - {Die} {Friedens}-{Warte} / {Journal} of {International} {Peace} and {Organization} ({JIPO})},
    volume = {95},
    publisher = {Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Göttsche, Malte and Frieß, Friederike},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Malte Göttsche, Friederike Frieß (2022)
    Editorial: The Impact of New Technologies: Between Destabilization and Enabling Resilience
    Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO) ;95(3-4).
    [BibTeX]

    @article{reuter_editorial_2022,
    title = {Editorial: {The} {Impact} of {New} {Technologies}: {Between} {Destabilization} and {Enabling} {Resilience}},
    volume = {95},
    number = {3-4},
    journal = {Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Göttsche, Malte and Frieß, Friederike},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Luigi Lo Iacono, Alexander Benlian (2022)
    Special Issue on Usable Security and Privacy with User-Centered Interventions and Transparency Mechanisms – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2022,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Usable} {Security} and {Privacy} with {User}-{Centered} {Interventions} and {Transparency} {Mechanisms} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Benlian, Alexander},
    year = {2022},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Dual-Use and Trustworthy? A Mixed Methods Analysis of AI Diffusion between Civilian and Defense R&D
    Science and Engineering Ethics ;28(12):1–23. doi:10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R&D.

    @article{schmid_dual-use_2022,
    title = {Dual-{Use} and {Trustworthy}? {A} {Mixed} {Methods} {Analysis} of {AI} {Diffusion} between {Civilian} and {Defense} {R}\&{D}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchmidRiebeReuter_DualUseandTrustworthy_ScienceEngineeringEthics.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7},
    abstract = {Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R\&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R\&D.},
    number = {12},
    journal = {Science and Engineering Ethics},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-TRACE},
    pages = {1--23},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Towards a Cyber Weapons Assessment Model – Assessment of the Technical Features of Malicious Software
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;3(3):226–239. doi:10.1109/TTS.2021.3131817
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The revelation of the Stuxnet malware in 2010 shed light on the presence of state actors that are willing and capable of developing and using highly sophisticated, specialized malicious software for their political interests. These tools -often dubbed cyber weapons -are expected to become the next major advancement in weaponry technology. Besides the threats of offensive cyber operations for civil IT systems due to the interconnected nature of the cyberspace, international regulation of cyber weapons is -among other aspects -hindered by the fact that the military development and the strategic and tactical deployment of cyber weapons differ significantly from other weapons technologies. In order to establish measures of cyber arms related control treaties, it is crucial to identify these particular characteristics. Based on this premise, the article analyzes the current perspectives on cyber weapons, identifying their weaknesses of being either based on assumptions about adversarial actors or being applicable only after the usage of a malicious tool. In contrast to these approaches, the article focuses on the specific functional aspects of malware and presents an indicator-based assessment model based on parameters that can be measured prior to the application of malicious software. This enables the categorization of malicious tools as cyber weapons. Besides this, the article aims to introduce thought-provoking impulses with regard to social responsibility in computer science.

    @article{reinhold_towards_2022,
    title = {Towards a {Cyber} {Weapons} {Assessment} {Model} – {Assessment} of the {Technical} {Features} of {Malicious} {Software}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReinholdReuter_CyberWeapons_IEEETransactionsTechnologySociety.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2021.3131817},
    abstract = {The revelation of the Stuxnet malware in 2010 shed light on the presence of state actors that are willing and capable of developing and using highly sophisticated, specialized malicious software for their political interests. These tools -often dubbed cyber weapons -are expected to become the next major advancement in weaponry technology. Besides the threats of offensive cyber operations for civil IT systems due to the interconnected nature of the cyberspace, international regulation of cyber weapons is -among other aspects -hindered by the fact that the military development and the strategic and tactical deployment of cyber weapons differ significantly from other weapons technologies. In order to establish measures of cyber arms related control treaties, it is crucial to identify these particular characteristics. Based on this premise, the article analyzes the current perspectives on cyber weapons, identifying their weaknesses of being either based on assumptions about adversarial actors or being applicable only after the usage of a malicious tool. In contrast to these approaches, the article focuses on the specific functional aspects of malware and presents an indicator-based assessment model based on parameters that can be measured prior to the application of malicious software. This enables the categorization of malicious tools as cyber weapons. Besides this, the article aims to introduce thought-provoking impulses with regard to social responsibility in computer science.},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = sep,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {226--239},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation. Routledge, , 48–63.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    isbn = {978-0-367-62674-7},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaAndFragmentation_Routledge.pdf},
    abstract = {Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Politics}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Transformations} and {Political} {Fragmentation}},
    publisher = {Routledge},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {48--63},
    }

  • Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold (2022)
    Armament, Arms Control and Artificial Intelligence – The Janus-faced Nature of Machine Learning in the Military Realm
    Springer.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{schornig_armament_2022,
    title = {Armament, {Arms} {Control} and {Artificial} {Intelligence} - {The} {Janus}-faced {Nature} of {Machine} {Learning} in the {Military} {Realm}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security},
    }

  • Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold (2022)
    Introduction
    In: Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold: Armament, Arms Control and Artificial Intelligence – The Janus-faced Nature of Machine Learning in the Military Realm. Springer, , 1–10.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{schornig_introduction_2022,
    title = {Introduction},
    booktitle = {Armament, {Arms} {Control} and {Artificial} {Intelligence} - {The} {Janus}-faced {Nature} of {Machine} {Learning} in the {Military} {Realm}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

    2021

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuehnBayerWendelbornReuter_OVANAQualityVulnerabilityDatabases_ARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Ranking-CORE-B, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Fake News technisch begegnen – Detektions- und Behandlungsansätze zur Unterstützung von NutzerInnen
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Wahrheit und Fake News im postfaktischen Zeitalter. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 133–150.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.

    @incollection{hartwig_fake_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    series = {ars digitalis},
    title = {Fake {News} technisch begegnen – {Detektions}- und {Behandlungsansätze} zur {Unterstützung} von {NutzerInnen}},
    volume = {3},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32956-3},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_FakeNewstechnischbegegnen_WahrheitundFake.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.},
    booktitle = {Wahrheit und {Fake} {News} im postfaktischen {Zeitalter}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {133--150},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics ;32(7):773–785. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2021,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    volume = {32},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {773--785},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    LinkedIn als Barometer: Austausch zwischen ziviler und militärischer F&E
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.

    @techreport{riebe_linkedin_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {{LinkedIn} als {Barometer}: {Austausch} zwischen ziviler und militärischer {F}\&{E}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_LinkedInalsBarometer_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F\&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F\&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Neue Technologien und Resilienz
    Wissenschaft und Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Science · Peace · Security ’21 (SPS21) Konferenz fand in diesem Jahr virtuell statt. Ausgerichtet wurde sie durch Prof. Malte Göttsche, Leiter der Forschungsgruppe »Nukleare Verifikation und Abrüstung« an der RWTH Aachen mit Unterstützung eines international besetzten Programmkomitees. Die Konferenz brachte Wissenschaftler*innen aus vielen Disziplinen und aus aller Welt, Diplomat*innen sowie Mitglieder der Bundeswehr zusammen, um über aktuelle Fragen der Rüstungskontrolle und Abrüstung unter dem diesjährigen Motto »The Impact of New Technologies: Destabilizing or Enabling Resilience?« zu diskutieren.

    @techreport{riebe_neue_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft und Frieden},
    title = {Neue {Technologien} und {Resilienz}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeReuter_NeueTechnologienResilienz.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Science · Peace · Security ’21 (SPS21) Konferenz fand in diesem Jahr virtuell statt. Ausgerichtet wurde sie durch Prof. Malte Göttsche, Leiter der Forschungsgruppe »Nukleare Verifikation und Abrüstung« an der RWTH Aachen mit Unterstützung eines international besetzten Programmkomitees. Die Konferenz brachte Wissenschaftler*innen aus vielen Disziplinen und aus aller Welt, Diplomat*innen sowie Mitglieder der Bundeswehr zusammen, um über aktuelle Fragen der Rüstungskontrolle und Abrüstung unter dem diesjährigen Motto »The Impact of New Technologies: Destabilizing or Enabling Resilience?« zu diskutieren.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2021)
    Zur Rolle und Verantwortung der Informatik für die Friedensforschung und Rüstungskontrolle
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;38:47–49.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reinhold_zur_2021,
    title = {Zur {Rolle} und {Verantwortung} der {Informatik} für die {Friedensforschung} und {Rüstungskontrolle}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Reinhold_RolleVerantwortungInformatikFriedensforschung_FIFF.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {47--49},
    }

    2020

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Sabrina Gabel, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Discussing Conflict in Social Media – The Use of Twitter in the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict
    Media, War & Conflict :1–26.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.

    @article{gabel_discussing_2020,
    title = {Discussing {Conflict} in {Social} {Media} – {The} {Use} of {Twitter} in the {Jammu} and {Kashmir} {Conflict}},
    url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635220970997},
    abstract = {Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani's impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.},
    journal = {Media, War \& Conflict},
    author = {Gabel, Sabrina and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Christian Reuter (2020)
    90.000 Tonnen Diplomatie 2.0: Die Integration von unbemannten Systemen in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X-47B
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) ;13(1). doi:10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.

    @article{schwartz_90000_2020,
    title = {90.000 {Tonnen} {Diplomatie} 2.0: {Die} {Integration} von unbemannten {Systemen} in den operativen {Flugzeugträgerbetrieb} am {Beispiel} der {X}-{47B}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y},
    abstract = {Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebeetal_VDSinEuropa_DuD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {316--321},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_MHC_IEEETechScieMag.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Special Issue: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural Science/Technical Peace Research – S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security
    Nomos. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2020,
    title = {Special {Issue}: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural} {Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research} - {S}+{F} {Sicherheit} und {Frieden} / {Peace} and {Security}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1/s-f-sicherheit-und-frieden-volume-38-2020-issue-1},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I},
    note = {Publication Title: S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Natural Science and Technical Peace Research: Definition, History and Current Work
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):1–4. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of uninhabited weapon systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons remain urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes natural science/technical as well as interdisciplinary contribu-tions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management. This special issue presents selected contributions based on discussions at the conference.

    @article{reuter_natural_2020,
    title = {Natural {Science} and {Technical} {Peace} {Research}: {Definition}, {History} and {Current} {Work}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1/natural-science-and-technical-peace-research-definition-history-and-},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of uninhabited weapon systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons remain urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes natural science/technical as well as interdisciplinary contribu-tions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management. This special issue presents selected contributions based on discussions at the conference.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2020)
    Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche Fragen im militärischen Cyber- und Informationsraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Parlamentsvorbehalts, der Zurechenbarkeit von Cyberangriffen sowie einer möglichen Anpassung nationaler und internationaler Normen
    In: : Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß. Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, , 1–9.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{reinhold_verfassungs-_2020,
    title = {Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche {Fragen} im militärischen {Cyber}- und {Informationsraum} unter besonderer {Berücksichtigung} des {Parlamentsvorbehalts}, der {Zurechenbarkeit} von {Cyberangriffen} sowie einer möglichen {Anpassung} nationaler und internationaler {Normen}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Reinhold_VerfassungsVoelkerrechtlicheFragenCyberInformationsraum.pdf},
    booktitle = {Deutscher {Bundestag}, {Verteidigungsausschuß}},
    publisher = {Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://www.fiff.de/publikationen/fiff-kommunikation/fk-2020/fk-2020-1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Editorial: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural-Science/Technical Peace Research
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):III–IV. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2020,
    title = {Editorial: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural}-{Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterAltmannGoettscheHimmel_Editorial_NaturalScienceTechnicalPeaceResarch_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I},
    abstract = {This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY '19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace},
    pages = {III--IV},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Conflicts and Crises – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @book{reuter_special_2020-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Conflicts} and {Crises} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/39/3},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Thea Riebe (2020)
    Umgang mit Killerrobotern
    (Wissenschaft & Frieden 2020-2: Frieden begreifen).
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{riebe_umgang_2020,
    title = {Umgang mit {Killerrobotern}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebe_UmgangmitKillerbotobern_WF.pdf},
    number = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2020-2: Frieden begreifen},
    author = {Riebe, Thea},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

    2019

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fighting Misinformation on Twitter: The Plugin based approach TrustyTweet
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_fighting_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Fighting {Misinformation} on {Twitter}: {The} {Plugin} based approach {TrustyTweet}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {67--69},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News und manipulierte Meinungsbildung
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation: Gesellschaftliche Trends und der Wandel von Organisationen. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 15–19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019-1,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} und manipulierte {Meinungsbildung}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47852/PolicyPaper5_Digitalisierung_Kommunikation_deutsch.pdf},
    abstract = {Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.},
    booktitle = {Die {Digitalisierung} der {Kommunikation}: {Gesellschaftliche} {Trends} und der {Wandel} von {Organisationen}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {15--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Larissa Aldehoff, Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    IT in Peace, Conflict, and Security Research
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 11–37. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.

    @incollection{reuter_it_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {{IT} in {Peace}, {Conflict}, and {Security} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aldehoff, Larissa and Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Infrastructure, Peace},
    pages = {11--37},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Larissa Aldehoff, Jürgen Altmann, Johannes Buchmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Alfred Nordmann, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Annette Ripper, Ingo Ruhmann, Klaus-Peter Saalbach, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2019)
    The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 405–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_future_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {The {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Aldehoff, Larissa and Altmann, Jürgen and Buchmann, Johannes and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Nordmann, Alfred and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ripper, Annette and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Peace},
    pages = {405--413},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – Introduction and Overview
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_information_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {Introduction} and {Overview}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Verification in Cyberspace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 257–276. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Verification is one of the pillars of arms control and non-proliferation treaties as well as an important part of confidence building measures. It defines practical measures that enable treaty members to check the treaty compliance by observing, counting or moni-toring specific actions and their accordance with the respective rules. In contrast to his-torical examples of former military technologies, cyberspace features some unique char-acteristics making it hard to apply established measures. The chapter describes these peculiarities and assesses distinguishing problems compared to selected verification measures for nuclear, biological and chemicals weapons technology. Yet, cyberspace is a human-made domain and adjusting its technical setting, rules and principles may help to reduce the threat of ongoing militarisation. Offering some alternatives, the chapter elaborates on suitable and measurable parameters for this domain and presents potential-ly useful verification approaches.

    @incollection{reinhold_verification_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Verification in {Cyberspace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Verification is one of the pillars of arms control and non-proliferation treaties as well as an important part of confidence building measures. It defines practical measures that enable treaty members to check the treaty compliance by observing, counting or moni-toring specific actions and their accordance with the respective rules. In contrast to his-torical examples of former military technologies, cyberspace features some unique char-acteristics making it hard to apply established measures. The chapter describes these peculiarities and assesses distinguishing problems compared to selected verification measures for nuclear, biological and chemicals weapons technology. Yet, cyberspace is a human-made domain and adjusting its technical setting, rules and principles may help to reduce the threat of ongoing militarisation. Offering some alternatives, the chapter elaborates on suitable and measurable parameters for this domain and presents potential-ly useful verification approaches.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_12},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {257--276},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Cultural Violence and Peace in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 361–381. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} in {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {361--381},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual-Use in der IT: Bewertung in der Softwareentwicklung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden 2019-1: 2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.

    @techreport{riebe_dual-use_2019,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2019-1},
    title = {Dual-{Use} in der {IT}: {Bewertung} in der {Softwareentwicklung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_RiebeReuter_DualUse_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--48},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Larissa Aldehoff, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold (2019)
    Cyberwar zwischen Fiktion und Realität – technologische Möglichkeiten
    In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner, Niklas Schörnig: Cyberwar – die Digitalisierung der Kriegsführung. Springer VS, , 15–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.

    @incollection{reuter_cyberwar_2019,
    title = {Cyberwar zwischen {Fiktion} und {Realität} – technologische {Möglichkeiten}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-27713-0},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterRiebeAldehoffKaufholdReinhold2019_CyberwarZwischenFiktionUndReal_Cyberwar.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.},
    booktitle = {Cyberwar – die {Digitalisierung} der {Kriegsführung}},
    publisher = {Springer VS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Aldehoff, Larissa and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Werkner, Ines-Jacqueline and Schörnig, Niklas},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {15--38},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katrin Hartwig, Jan Kirchner, Noah Schlegel (2019)
    Fake News Perception in Germany: A Representative Study of People’s Attitudes and Approaches to Counteract Disinformation
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people’s attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news

    @inproceedings{reuter_fake_2019-2,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Fake {News} {Perception} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Study} of {People}'s {Attitudes} and {Approaches} to {Counteract} {Disinformation}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHartwigKirchnerSchlegel_FakeNewsPerceptionGermany_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people's attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hartwig, Katrin and Kirchner, Jan and Schlegel, Noah},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace},
    pages = {1069--1083},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Social Media Misuse: Cultural Violence, Peace and Security in Digital Networks
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Misuse}: {Cultural} {Violence}, {Peace} and {Security} in {Digital} {Networks}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {61--66},
    }

  • Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elena Runft, Christian Reuter, Margarita Grinko, Volkmar Pipek (2019)
    Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.

    @inproceedings{langer_counter_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Counter {Narratives} in {Social} {Media}: {An} {Empirical} {Study} on {Combat} and {Prevention} of {Terrorism}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Langeretal_Counternarratives_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Runft, Elena and Reuter, Christian and Grinko, Margarita and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {746--755},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    TrustyTweet: An Indicator-based Browser-Plugin to Assist Users in Dealing with Fake News on Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users’assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_trustytweet_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {{TrustyTweet}: {An} {Indicator}-based {Browser}-{Plugin} to {Assist} {Users} in {Dealing} with {Fake} {News} on {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_HartwigReuter_TrustyTweet_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users'assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1858--1869},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 196–200.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.

    @incollection{schmid_meaningful_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {Systems}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {196--200},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    Accessing Dual Use in IT Development
    Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of information technology (IT) in peace, conflict and security raises some questions, i.e. whether the use of IT can be limited exclusively to so-called advantageous purposes and applications and whether improper use can be prevented. This ambivalence is called a dual- use dilemma, meaning that objects, knowledge and technology can find both useful and harm- ful applications. Dual-use questions have been addressed in various disciplines, in particular in nuclear technology and the production of nuclear weapons, but also in chemistry and biology. In all these disciplines, dual-use topics in technical development and education have been discussed and addressed. Nevertheless, the importance of dual-use differs slightly, depending on the technology and its risks, as well as its distribution and application. Nuclear technology is less accessible than biotechnology, which in turn is less accessible than IT.

    @inproceedings{riebe_accessing_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Accessing {Dual} {Use} in {IT} {Development}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {The use of information technology (IT) in peace, conflict and security raises some questions, i.e. whether the use of IT can be limited exclusively to so-called advantageous purposes and applications and whether improper use can be prevented. This ambivalence is called a dual- use dilemma, meaning that objects, knowledge and technology can find both useful and harm- ful applications. Dual-use questions have been addressed in various disciplines, in particular in nuclear technology and the production of nuclear weapons, but also in chemistry and biology. In all these disciplines, dual-use topics in technical development and education have been discussed and addressed. Nevertheless, the importance of dual-use differs slightly, depending on the technology and its risks, as well as its distribution and application. Nuclear technology is less accessible than biotechnology, which in turn is less accessible than IT.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--49},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tarun Kumar, Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Threat Intelligence Application for Cyber Attribution
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.

    @inproceedings{riebe_threat_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Threat {Intelligence} {Application} for {Cyber} {Attribution}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kumar, Tarun and Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {56--60},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.

    @book{reuter_science_2019-1,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – An Editorial
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 7–10.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In its recommendations for the further development of peace and conflict research published in July 2019, the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat), as the most important science policy advisory body in Germany, stated that urgent action was needed to strengthen scientific and technical peace and conflict research. As a positive example of the permanent establishment of this field of research at a university, the TU Darmstadt was named. This is where the first edition of the conference series „SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY“ took place.

    @incollection{reuter_science_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 – {An} {Editorial}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In its recommendations for the further development of peace and conflict research published in July 2019, the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat), as the most important science policy advisory body in Germany, stated that urgent action was needed to strengthen scientific and technical peace and conflict research. As a positive example of the permanent establishment of this field of research at a university, the TU Darmstadt was named. This is where the first edition of the conference series "SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY" took place.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    pages = {7--10},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News and the Manipulation of Public Opinion
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Digitalisation and Communication: Societal Trends and the Change in Organisations. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 13–16.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Per a recent study, a majority of Germans wants to see strict action taken against the targeted spread of disinformation in the news. Researchers in the Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) research group at Technische Universität Darmstadt investigated how German citizens perceive and react to fake news and asked them what countermeasures they would consider to be most appropriate.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} and the {Manipulation} of {Public} {Opinion}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47853/SPPaper6_Digitalisation_Communication_English.pdf},
    abstract = {Per a recent study, a majority of Germans wants to see strict action taken against the targeted spread of disinformation in the news. Researchers in the Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) research group at Technische Universität Darmstadt investigated how German citizens perceive and react to fake news and asked them what countermeasures they would consider to be most appropriate.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisation and {Communication}: {Societal} {Trends} and the {Change} in {Organisations}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Peace},
    pages = {13--16},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual Use and Dilemmas for Cybersecurity, Peace and Technology Assessment
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 165–184. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.

    @incollection{riebe_dual_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Dual {Use} and {Dilemmas} for {Cybersecurity}, {Peace} and {Technology} {Assessment}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {165--184},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Erste Auflage)
    Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Erste} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19522-9},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658195229},
    abstract = {Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Markus Lederer, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    IANUS am FiF und darüber hinaus: Die Bedeutung natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Friedensforschung für die TU Darmstadt
    In: Andreas Großmann, Heike Krebs, Josef Wiemeyer: Zwischendrin. 10 Jahre Forum interdisziplinäre Forschung der TU Darmstadt. Darmstadt: , , 71–89.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    IANUS steht seit 30 wechselhaften Jahren für natur- und ingenieur- wissenschaftliche Friedensforschung im Austausch mit den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften. Seit Januar 2018 ist IANUS ein Teil des Forums interdisziplinäre Forschung. Das FiF stellt das Dach, unter dem einige Aspekte der bisherigen IANUS-Arbeit weitergeführt werden sollen. Insofern das FiF nicht selbst wissenschaftlich arbeitet oder ein inhalt- liches Programm verfolgt, besteht das gemeinsame Dach in der admini- strativen Zusammenarbeit und dem Gedanken der Interdisziplinarität. Insofern IANUS von weitreichenderen Ambitionen geprägt ist, kann es unter dem gemeinsamen Dach derzeit nur auf sehr kleiner Flamme wei- terarbeiten. Freilich ergeben sich andererseits auch neue Perspektiven. Und wenn sich diese Perspektiven fruchtbar entwickeln lassen, würde ein erneuertes IANUS wesentlich zur internationalen Sichtbarkeit des FiF als Ausweis einer verantwortungsbewussten Forschungskultur an der TU Darmstadt beitragen. Was war IANUS und wofür steht es? Was ist IANUS heute – was kann und will es? Was könnte ein erneuertes IANUS werden – wie kann sein friedenspolitisch ausgerichteter wissenschaftlicher Anspruch zukünftig für das FiF und die TU Darmstadt wirksam werden? Diesen drei Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Abschnitte zu – und feiern somit, was nach 10 Jahren FiF, 30 Jahren IANUS und 140 Jahren TH/TU Darmstadt im Wandel der Forschungskulturen möglich war, ist und wird.

    @incollection{lederer_ianus_2018,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    title = {{IANUS} am {FiF} und darüber hinaus: {Die} {Bedeutung} natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher {Friedensforschung} für die {TU} {Darmstadt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_LedererNordmannReuter_IANUS_FIF-Festschrift.pdf},
    abstract = {IANUS steht seit 30 wechselhaften Jahren für natur- und ingenieur- wissenschaftliche Friedensforschung im Austausch mit den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften. Seit Januar 2018 ist IANUS ein Teil des Forums interdisziplinäre Forschung. Das FiF stellt das Dach, unter dem einige Aspekte der bisherigen IANUS-Arbeit weitergeführt werden sollen. Insofern das FiF nicht selbst wissenschaftlich arbeitet oder ein inhalt- liches Programm verfolgt, besteht das gemeinsame Dach in der admini- strativen Zusammenarbeit und dem Gedanken der Interdisziplinarität. Insofern IANUS von weitreichenderen Ambitionen geprägt ist, kann es unter dem gemeinsamen Dach derzeit nur auf sehr kleiner Flamme wei- terarbeiten. Freilich ergeben sich andererseits auch neue Perspektiven. Und wenn sich diese Perspektiven fruchtbar entwickeln lassen, würde ein erneuertes IANUS wesentlich zur internationalen Sichtbarkeit des FiF als Ausweis einer verantwortungsbewussten Forschungskultur an der TU Darmstadt beitragen. Was war IANUS und wofür steht es? Was ist IANUS heute – was kann und will es? Was könnte ein erneuertes IANUS werden – wie kann sein friedenspolitisch ausgerichteter wissenschaftlicher Anspruch zukünftig für das FiF und die TU Darmstadt wirksam werden? Diesen drei Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Abschnitte zu – und feiern somit, was nach 10 Jahren FiF, 30 Jahren IANUS und 140 Jahren TH/TU Darmstadt im Wandel der Forschungskulturen möglich war, ist und wird.},
    booktitle = {Zwischendrin. 10 {Jahre} {Forum} interdisziplinäre {Forschung} der {TU} {Darmstadt}},
    author = {Lederer, Markus and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Großmann, Andreas and Krebs, Heike and Wiemeyer, Josef},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {71--89},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    Responsible Research and Innovation: Interdisziplinärer Workshop von IANUS und Schader-Stiftung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?

    @techreport{riebe_responsible_2018,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {Responsible {Research} and {Innovation}: {Interdisziplinärer} {Workshop} von {IANUS} und {Schader}-{Stiftung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_RiebeNordmannReuter_RRI_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {60--61},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Informatik für Frieden und Sicherheit
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 573–595. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden} und {Sicherheit}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    abstract = {Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {573--595},
    }

    2017

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, René Steinfort (2017)
    Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information’s believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rumors_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {Rumors, {Fake} {News} and {Social} {Bots} in {Conflicts} and {Emergencies}: {Towards} a {Model} for {Believability} in {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSteinfort_RumorsFakeNewsBotsBelievability_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information's believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Steinfort, René},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {583--591},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Katwarn, NINA or FEMA? Multi-Method Study on Distribution, Use and Public Views on Crisis Apps
    European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Guimarães, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens‘ perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.

    @inproceedings{reuter_katwarn_2017,
    address = {Guimarães, Portugal},
    title = {Katwarn, {NINA} or {FEMA}? {Multi}-{Method} {Study} on {Distribution}, {Use} and {Public} {Views} on {Crisis} {Apps}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdLeopoldKnipp_CrisisApps_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens' perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.},
    booktitle = {European {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {2187--2201},
    }

  • Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho, Saqib Saeed, Christian Reuter, Volker Wulf (2017)
    The Role of Technological Infrastructure in Nomadic Practices of a Social Activist Community
    Proceedings of the ECSCW-Workshop on Nomadic Culture Beyond Work Practices, International Reports on Socio-Informatics (IRSI) Sheffield, UK.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Infrastructure is undoubtedly a key resource for people engaged in technologically-mediated nomadicity. Tech-Nomads rely on technological infrastructure components, such as Wi-Fi availability, to mobilise their workplaces and effectively accomplish their productive activities. In this paper, we introduce findings from an investigation focusing on how technological infrastructures are re-instantiated according to emerging demands. We focus particularly on the European Social Forum (ESF) (an activists‘ platform) and the problems faced by the members of this network in mobilising its infrastructure, stressing findings from the literature about the importanceof making infrastructure visible for nomadic practices, which have not yet been sufficiently explored. We suggest that infrastructure (re-) design methods would be a relevant resource for Tech-Nomads engaged in activities such as the ones from ESF

    @inproceedings{pinatti_de_carvalho_role_2017,
    address = {Sheffield, UK},
    title = {The {Role} of {Technological} {Infrastructure} in {Nomadic} {Practices} of a {Social} {Activist} {Community}},
    url = {https://www.iisi.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/6_decarvalho-et-al_v14_n3.pdf},
    abstract = {Infrastructure is undoubtedly a key resource for people engaged in technologically-mediated nomadicity. Tech-Nomads rely on technological infrastructure components, such as Wi-Fi availability, to mobilise their workplaces and effectively accomplish their productive activities. In this paper, we introduce findings from an investigation focusing on how technological infrastructures are re-instantiated according to emerging demands. We focus particularly on the European Social Forum (ESF) (an activists' platform) and the problems faced by the members of this network in mobilising its infrastructure, stressing findings from the literature about the importanceof making infrastructure visible for nomadic practices, which have not yet been sufficiently explored. We suggest that infrastructure (re-) design methods would be a relevant resource for Tech-Nomads engaged in activities such as the ones from ESF},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {ECSCW}-{Workshop} on {Nomadic} {Culture} {Beyond} {Work} {Practices}, {International} {Reports} on {Socio}-{Informatics} ({IRSI})},
    author = {Pinatti de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano and Saeed, Saqib and Reuter, Christian and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {HCI, Infrastructure, Peace, Ranking-WKWI-C},
    pages = {41--47},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Informing the Population: Mobile Warning Apps
    In: Michael Klafft: Risk and Crisis Communication in Disaster Prevention and Management. Wilhelmshaven: epubli, , 31–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.

    @incollection{reuter_informing_2017,
    address = {Wilhelmshaven},
    title = {Informing the {Population}: {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-7450-5448-4},
    url = {http://publica.fraunhofer.de/eprints/urn_nbn_de_0011-n-4527283.pdf#page=35},
    abstract = {Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.},
    booktitle = {Risk and {Crisis} {Communication} in {Disaster} {Prevention} and {Management}},
    publisher = {epubli},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    editor = {Klafft, Michael},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Peace},
    pages = {31--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer Medien – ein explorativer Einblick am Beispiel von Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorbekampfung_2017,
    address = {St. Gallen, Switzerland},
    title = {Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer {Medien} – ein explorativer {Einblick} am {Beispiel} von {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_TerrorbekaempfungSozialeMedien_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Leimeister, J.M. and Brenner, W.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {649--663},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    IT for Peace? Fighting Against Terrorism in Social Media – An Explorative Twitter Study
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;16(2):181–195. doi:10.1515/icom-2017-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.

    @article{reuter_it_2017,
    title = {{IT} for {Peace}? {Fighting} {Against} {Terrorism} in {Social} {Media} – {An} {Explorative} {Twitter} {Study}},
    volume = {16},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_ITforPeaceTerrorismSocialMedia_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2017-0013},
    abstract = {The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {181--195},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Marvin Stefan (2017)
    Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_gesellschaftliche_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Gesellschaftliche {Herausforderungen} des {Missbrauchs} von {Bots} und sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3236/2017_WS01_386.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Stefan, Marvin},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {51--58},
    }

    2016

  • Christian Reuter, Robin Gellert, Gordian Geilen (2016)
    Reception of Terror in Germany – Security, Privacy and Social Media
    Environmental Informatics – Stability, Continuity, Innovation. Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. Adjunct Proceedings of the EnviroInfo 2016 conference Berlin.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{reuter_reception_2016,
    address = {Berlin},
    title = {Reception of {Terror} in {Germany} – {Security}, {Privacy} and {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_ReuterGeilenGellert_ReceptionTerrorGermany-SecurityPrivacySocialMedia_EnviroInfo_selbst.pdf},
    booktitle = {Environmental {Informatics} – {Stability}, {Continuity}, {Innovation}. {Current} trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. {Adjunct} {Proceedings} of the {EnviroInfo} 2016 conference},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Gellert, Robin and Geilen, Gordian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, Volker and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2016)
    Terrorismus und soziale Medien – Propaganda und Gegenpropaganda
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0209
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Terrorismus nutzt das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien bereits seit einiger Zeit zur Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und zur Verbreitung ihrer Ideologie. Aber auch deren Gegner nutzen das Internet zur Terrorbekämpfung. Auch wenn es zum Einsatz sozialer Medien in Krisen bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen gibt, wurde deren Einsatz im Terrorismus, einer besonderen Art der Krise, insbesondere in der digitalen Terrorbekämpfung, noch weniger betrachtet. Dieser Artikel fasst im ersten Teil den Stand der Forschung in jenem Bereich zusammen. Im zweiten Teil stellt er eine explorative empirische Studie zur Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien dar. Hierzu werden verschiedene, möglichst repräsentative Formen am Beispiel von Twitter analysiert und gegliedert. Ziel ist die Schaffung eines Überblicks, der weiteren Forschungsarbeiten als Grundlage dienen kann.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorismus_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Terrorismus und soziale {Medien} – {Propaganda} und {Gegenpropaganda}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/178/bitstream_8792.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0209},
    abstract = {Der Terrorismus nutzt das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien bereits seit einiger Zeit zur Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und zur Verbreitung ihrer Ideologie. Aber auch deren Gegner nutzen das Internet zur Terrorbekämpfung. Auch wenn es zum Einsatz sozialer Medien in Krisen bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen gibt, wurde deren Einsatz im Terrorismus, einer besonderen Art der Krise, insbesondere in der digitalen Terrorbekämpfung, noch weniger betrachtet. Dieser Artikel fasst im ersten Teil den Stand der Forschung in jenem Bereich zusammen. Im zweiten Teil stellt er eine explorative empirische Studie zur Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien dar. Hierzu werden verschiedene, möglichst repräsentative Formen am Beispiel von Twitter analysiert und gegliedert. Ziel ist die Schaffung eines Überblicks, der weiteren Forschungsarbeiten als Grundlage dienen kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gordian Geilen, Robin Gellert (2016)
    Sicherheit vs. Privatsphäre: Zur Akzeptanz von Überwachung in sozialen Medien im Kontext von Terrorkrisen
    Informatik 2016: von Menschen für Menschen Klagenfurt.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nach den terroristischen Anschlägen in Paris 2015 und Brüssel 2016 wurde das Bedürfnis nach mehr Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet laut. Als Folge der Enthüllungen der Überwachungs- und Spionagetechniken der National Security Agency (NSA) durch Edward Snowden 2013 konnte in der Bevölkerung aber auch ein Aufschrei nach erhöhtem Schutz der Privatsphäre im Internet wahrgenommen werden. Die geschilderten Ereignisse verdeutlichen die gegensätzlichen Wünsche nach Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet sowie Schutz der Privatsphäre. Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags stellen wir den Stand der Forschung im Bereich Terror, Sicherheit und Privatsphäre in sozialen Medien dar. Im zweiten Teil führen wir eine explorative Studie durch, um zu beleuchten, ob Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Krisenzeiten bereit wären, ihre Privatsphäre im Internet, vor allem in sozialen Netzwerken, zugunsten von Sicherheit zu reduzieren. Basierend auf qualitativen Daten zeigt diese Arbeit Meinungscluster und Tendenzen in Bezug auf das Nullsummenspiel „Sicherheit und Privatsphäre“.

    @inproceedings{reuter_sicherheit_2016,
    address = {Klagenfurt},
    title = {Sicherheit vs. {Privatsphäre}: {Zur} {Akzeptanz} von Überwachung in sozialen {Medien} im {Kontext} von {Terrorkrisen}},
    url = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings259/P-259.pdf#page=1760},
    abstract = {Nach den terroristischen Anschlägen in Paris 2015 und Brüssel 2016 wurde das Bedürfnis nach mehr Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet laut. Als Folge der Enthüllungen der Überwachungs- und Spionagetechniken der National Security Agency (NSA) durch Edward Snowden 2013 konnte in der Bevölkerung aber auch ein Aufschrei nach erhöhtem Schutz der Privatsphäre im Internet wahrgenommen werden. Die geschilderten Ereignisse verdeutlichen die gegensätzlichen Wünsche nach Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet sowie Schutz der Privatsphäre. Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags stellen wir den Stand der Forschung im Bereich Terror, Sicherheit und Privatsphäre in sozialen Medien dar. Im zweiten Teil führen wir eine explorative Studie durch, um zu beleuchten, ob Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Krisenzeiten bereit wären, ihre Privatsphäre im Internet, vor allem in sozialen Netzwerken, zugunsten von Sicherheit zu reduzieren. Basierend auf qualitativen Daten zeigt diese Arbeit Meinungscluster und Tendenzen in Bezug auf das Nullsummenspiel „Sicherheit und Privatsphäre“.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2016: von {Menschen} für {Menschen}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Geilen, Gordian and Gellert, Robin},
    editor = {Mayr, Heinrich C. and Pinzger, Martin},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }