Definition

Kriseninformatik beschäftigt sich mit der Vernetzung von Menschen, Organisationen, Informationen und IT (insb. soziale Medien und mobile Geräte) in Krisen- und Katastrophenlagen.

Zur Definition des Bereichs:

Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018) Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) 26(1), S. 41–57, pdf, doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196

Ausgewählte Publikationen

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users‘ preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook’s current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).

    @article{kirchner_countering_2020,
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News}: {A} {Comparison} of {Possible} {Solutions} {Regarding} {User} {Acceptance} and {Effectiveness}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415211},
    doi = {10.1145/3415211},
    abstract = {Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users' needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users' preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook's current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Kirchner, Jan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Place: Austin, USA
    Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {140:1--140:28},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2016)
    Emergency Services Attitudes towards Social Media: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey across Europe
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;95:96–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2016,
    title = {Emergency {Services} {Attitudes} towards {Social} {Media}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} across {Europe}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_EmergencyServicesAttiudesSurveySocialMedia_IJHCS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005},
    abstract = {Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent' with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {96--111},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    XHELP: Design of a Cross-Platform Social-Media Application to Support Volunteer Moderators in Disasters
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702171
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with „digital volunteers“ such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application „XHELP“, which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.

    @inproceedings{reuter_xhelp_2015,
    address = {Seoul, Korea},
    title = {{XHELP}: {Design} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Social}-{Media} {Application} to {Support} {Volunteer} {Moderators} in {Disasters}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterLudwigKaufholdPipek_XHELP_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2702123.2702171},
    abstract = {Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with "digital volunteers" such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application "XHELP", which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4093--4102},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Combining Real and Virtual Volunteers through Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.

    @inproceedings{reuter_combining_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Combining {Real} and {Virtual} {Volunteers} through {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterHegerPipek_RealVirtualVolunteersSocialMedia_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {780--790},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Crisis Management 2.0: Towards a Systematization of Social Software Use in Crisis Situations
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;4(1):1–16. doi:10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software‘ we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.

    @article{reuter_crisis_2012,
    title = {Crisis {Management} 2.0: {Towards} a {Systematization} of {Social} {Software} {Use} in {Crisis} {Situations}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterMarxPipek_CrisisManagement20-SystematizationSocialSoftware_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101},
    abstract = {The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software' we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

    Alle Publikationen

    2022

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2022)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2022,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    isbn = {978-1-00-905708-0},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation. Routledge, , 48–63.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    isbn = {978-0-367-62674-7},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaAndFragmentation_Routledge.pdf},
    abstract = {Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Politics}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Transformations} and {Political} {Fragmentation}},
    publisher = {Routledge},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {48--63},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Luigi Lo Iacono, Alexander Benlian (2022)
    Special Issue on Usable Security and Privacy with User-Centered Interventions and Transparency Mechanisms – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2022,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Usable} {Security} and {Privacy} with {User}-{Centered} {Interventions} and {Transparency} {Mechanisms} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Benlian, Alexander},
    year = {2022},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Luigi Lo Iacono, Alexander Benlian (2022)
    A Quarter Century of Usable Security and Privacy Research: Transparency, Tailorability, and the Road Ahead
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) . doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2080908
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the last decades, research has shown that both technical solutions and user perceptions are important to improve security and privacy in the digital realm. The field of ‘usable security’ already started to emerge in the mid-90s, primarily focussed on password and email security. Later on, the research field of ”usable security and privacy” evolved and broadened the aim to design concepts and tools to assist users in enhancing their behaviour with regard to both privacy and security. Nevertheless, many user interventions are not as effective as desired. Because of highly diverse usage contexts, leading to different privacy and security requirements and not always to one-size-fits-all approaches, tailorability is necessary to address this issue. Furthermore, transparency is a crucial requirement, as providing comprehensible information may counter reactance towards security interventions. This article first provides a brief history of the research field in its first quarter-century and then highlights research on the transparency and tailorability of user interventions. Based on this, this article then presents six contributions with regard to (1) privacy concerns in times of COVID-19, (2) authentication on mobile devices, (3) GDPR-compliant data management, (4) privacy notices on websites, (5) data disclosure scenarios in agriculture, as well as (6) rights under data protection law and the concrete process should data subjects want to claim those rights. This article concludes with several research directions on user-centred transparency and tailorability.

    @article{reuter_quarter_2022,
    title = {A {Quarter} {Century} of {Usable} {Security} and {Privacy} {Research}: {Transparency}, {Tailorability}, and the {Road} {Ahead}},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_ReuterLoIaconoBenlian_QuarterCenturyUsableSecurityandPrivacyResearch_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2022.2080908},
    abstract = {In the last decades, research has shown that both technical solutions and user perceptions are important to improve security and privacy in the digital realm. The field of ‘usable security’ already started to emerge in the mid-90s, primarily focussed on password and email security. Later on, the research field of ”usable security and privacy” evolved and broadened the aim to design concepts and tools to assist users in enhancing their behaviour with regard to both privacy and security. Nevertheless, many user interventions are not as effective as desired. Because of highly diverse usage contexts, leading to different privacy and security requirements and not always to one-size-fits-all approaches, tailorability is necessary to address this issue. Furthermore, transparency is a crucial requirement, as providing comprehensible information may counter reactance towards security interventions. This article first provides a brief history of the research field in its first quarter-century and then highlights research on the transparency and tailorability of user interventions. Based on this, this article then presents six contributions with regard to (1) privacy concerns in times of COVID-19, (2) authentication on mobile devices, (3) GDPR-compliant data management, (4) privacy notices on websites, (5) data disclosure scenarios in agriculture, as well as (6) rights under data protection law and the concrete process should data subjects want to claim those rights. This article concludes with several research directions on user-centred transparency and tailorability.},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Benlian, Alexander},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2022)
    Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    Darmstadt: TUprints.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigated the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @book{kaufhold_proceedings_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    title = {Proceedings of the 2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_KaufholdReuterComesMirbabaieStieglitz_Proceedings2ndWorkshopMobileResilience.pdf},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigated the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Perceptions and Use of Warning Apps – Did Recent Crises Lead to Changes in Germany?
    Mensch und Computer 2022 – Tagungsband New York.
    [BibTeX]

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2022,
    address = {New York},
    title = {Perceptions and {Use} of {Warning} {Apps} – {Did} {Recent} {Crises} {Lead} to {Changes} in {Germany}?},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    }

  • Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti De Carvalho, Saqib Saeed, Christian Reuter, Markus Rohde, Dave Randall, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2022)
    Understanding Nomadic Practices of Social Activist Networks through the Lens of Infrastructuring: The Case of the European Social Forum
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Within CSCW and HCI, an increasing body of literature has been demonstrating the essential relevance of infrastructures and infrastructuring to the work of people engaging in technologically mediated nomadicity. Tech Nomads – or T-Nomads, as they are sometimes called – not only rely on technological, human, and environmental infrastructural components – such as Wi-Fi, technical support, space, and basic resources such as light and power outlets – but they also have to engage in infrastructuring to mobilise their workplaces and effectively accomplish work in and across different locations. In this article, we bring an infrastructuring perspective to understanding nomadic practices concerning the organisation of complex collaborative events. We introduce findings from a long-term investigation focusing on how infrastructures are re-instantiated with the help of digital technologies, according to emerging demands from T-Nomads. Our findings demonstrate the need for a ‘nonessentialist’ approach to nomadicity, one which recognises the character of nomadic work and its varied aspects in different contexts. We extend the infrastructuring literature by demonstrating how infrastructuring work is done in a complex collaborative initiative, as the organisation of the annual European Social Forum.

    @article{pinatti_de_carvalho_understanding_2022,
    title = {Understanding {Nomadic} {Practices} of {Social} {Activist} {Networks} through the {Lens} of {Infrastructuring}: {The} {Case} of the {European} {Social} {Forum}},
    abstract = {Within CSCW and HCI, an increasing body of literature has been demonstrating the essential relevance of infrastructures and infrastructuring to the work of people engaging in technologically mediated nomadicity. Tech Nomads – or T-Nomads, as they are sometimes called – not only rely on technological, human, and environmental infrastructural components – such as Wi-Fi, technical support, space, and basic resources such as light and power outlets – but they also have to engage in infrastructuring to mobilise their workplaces and effectively accomplish work in and across different locations. In this article, we bring an infrastructuring perspective to understanding nomadic practices concerning the organisation of complex collaborative events. We introduce findings from a long-term investigation focusing on how infrastructures are re-instantiated with the help of digital technologies, according to emerging demands from T-Nomads. Our findings demonstrate the need for a ‘nonessentialist’ approach to nomadicity, one which recognises the character of nomadic work and its varied aspects in different contexts. We extend the infrastructuring literature by demonstrating how infrastructuring work is done in a complex collaborative initiative, as the organisation of the annual European Social Forum.},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Pinatti De Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano and Saeed, Saqib and Reuter, Christian and Rohde, Markus and Randall, Dave and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {A-Paper, Crisis, HCI, Ranking-ImpactFactor},
    }

    2021

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Transparenz im technischen Umgang mit Fake News
    Technik & Mensch (2):9–11.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].

    @article{hartwig_transparenz_2021,
    title = {Transparenz im technischen {Umgang} mit {Fake} {News}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_TransparenzFakeNews_TechnikMenschVDI.pdf},
    abstract = {In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Technik \& Mensch},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    pages = {9--11},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–17.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_einleitung_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {3--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Fake News technisch begegnen – Detektions- und Behandlungsansätze zur Unterstützung von NutzerInnen
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Wahrheit und Fake News im postfaktischen Zeitalter. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 133–150.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.

    @incollection{hartwig_fake_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    series = {ars digitalis},
    title = {Fake {News} technisch begegnen – {Detektions}- und {Behandlungsansätze} zur {Unterstützung} von {NutzerInnen}},
    volume = {3},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32956-3},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_FakeNewstechnischbegegnen_WahrheitundFake.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.},
    booktitle = {Wahrheit und {Fake} {News} im postfaktischen {Zeitalter}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {133--150},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3447527.3474869
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    series = {{MobileHCI} '21 {Adjunct}},
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdReuterComesMirbabaieStieglitz_2ndWorkshopMobileResilience_MobileHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3447527.3474869},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Bridging from Crisis to Everyday Life – An Analysis of User Reviews of the Warning App NINA and the COVID-19 Information Apps CoroBuddy and DarfIchDas
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481745
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pan-demic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we ana-lyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_bridging_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Bridging from {Crisis} to {Everyday} {Life} – {An} {Analysis} of {User} {Reviews} of the {Warning} {App} {NINA} and the {COVID}-19 {Information} {Apps} {CoroBuddy} and {DarfIchDas}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_UserReviewsWarningCovidApps_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481745},
    abstract = {During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pan-demic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we ana-lyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {72--78},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Ragnark Mogk, Florentin Putz, Kevin T. Logan, Nadja Thiessen, Katharina Kleinschnitger, Lars Baumgärtner, Jan-Philipp Stroscher, Christian Reuter, Michele Knodt, Matthias Hollick (2021)
    Connected Self-Organized Citizens in Crises: An Interdisciplinary Resilience Concept for Neighborhoods
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481749
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.

    @inproceedings{haesler_connected_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Connected {Self}-{Organized} {Citizens} in {Crises}: {An} {Interdisciplinary} {Resilience} {Concept} for {Neighborhoods}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Haesleretal_ConnectedSelfOrganizedCitizensinCrises_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481749},
    abstract = {When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Mogk, Ragnark and Putz, Florentin and Logan, Kevin T. and Thiessen, Nadja and Kleinschnitger, Katharina and Baumgärtner, Lars and Stroscher, Jan-Philipp and Reuter, Christian and Knodt, Michele and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Selina Pauli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Citizens‘ Perceived Information Responsibilities and Information Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    GoodIT ’21: Proceedings of the Conference on Information Technology for Social Good . doi:10.1145/3462203.3475886
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens‘ perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens‘ needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens‘ desire to stay informed.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_citizens_2021,
    title = {Citizens' {Perceived} {Information} {Responsibilities} and {Information} {Challenges} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildPauliReuter_InformationResponsibilitiesCovid19_GoodIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462203.3475886},
    abstract = {In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens' perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens' needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens' desire to stay informed.},
    booktitle = {{GoodIT} '21: {Proceedings} of the {Conference} on {Information} {Technology} for {Social} {Good}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Pauli, Selina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

  • Maike Wäscher, Siemer Denise, Stefka Schmid, Julia Karl (2021)
    Polizei, Protest und Pandemie in Frankfurt am Main
    In: Redaktion Corona-Monitor: Corona und Gesellschaft: Soziale Kämpfe in der Pandemie. Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag, , 165–186.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{wascher_polizei_2021,
    address = {Wien},
    title = {Polizei, {Protest} und {Pandemie} in {Frankfurt} am {Main}},
    isbn = {978-3-85476-911-8},
    url = {https://www.mandelbaum.at/buecher/corona-monitor/corona-und-gesellschaft/},
    booktitle = {Corona und {Gesellschaft}: {Soziale} {Kämpfe} in der {Pandemie}},
    publisher = {Mandelbaum Verlag},
    author = {Wäscher, Maike and Siemer, Denise, and Schmid, Stefka and Karl, Julia},
    editor = {Redaktion Corona-Monitor},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    pages = {165--186},
    }

    2020

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Conflicts and Crises – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @book{reuter_special_2020-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Conflicts} and {Crises} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/39/3},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Jonas Höchst, Lars Baumgärtner, Franz Kuntke, Alvar Penning, Artur Sterz, Bernd Freisleben (2020)
    LoRa-based Device-to-Device Smartphone Communication for Crisis Scenarios
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{hochst_lora-based_2020,
    title = {{LoRa}-based {Device}-to-{Device} {Smartphone} {Communication} for {Crisis} {Scenarios}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Höchstetal_LoRaDeviceSmartphoneCommunicationCrisisScenarios.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Höchst, Jonas and Baumgärtner, Lars and Kuntke, Franz and Penning, Alvar and Sterz, Artur and Freisleben, Bernd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {996--1011},
    }

  • Sabrina Gabel, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Discussing Conflict in Social Media – The Use of Twitter in the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict
    Media, War & Conflict :1–26.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.

    @article{gabel_discussing_2020,
    title = {Discussing {Conflict} in {Social} {Media} – {The} {Use} of {Twitter} in the {Jammu} and {Kashmir} {Conflict}},
    url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635220970997},
    abstract = {Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani's impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.},
    journal = {Media, War \& Conflict},
    author = {Gabel, Sabrina and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users‘ preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook’s current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).

    @article{kirchner_countering_2020,
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News}: {A} {Comparison} of {Possible} {Solutions} {Regarding} {User} {Acceptance} and {Effectiveness}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415211},
    doi = {10.1145/3415211},
    abstract = {Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users' needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users' preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook's current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Kirchner, Jan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Place: Austin, USA
    Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {140:1--140:28},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Ansgar Bernardi (2020)
    Die GeoBox-Vision: Resiliente Interaktion und Kooperation in der Landwirtschaft durch dezentrale Systeme
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_geobox-vision_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Die {GeoBox}-{Vision}: {Resiliente} {Interaktion} und {Kooperation} in der {Landwirtschaft} durch dezentrale {Systeme}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33548},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407},
    abstract = {Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bernardi, Ansgar},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2020)
    7. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.

    @inproceedings{mentler_7_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg, Germany},
    title = {7. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33546},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117},
    abstract = {Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {1--2},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jasmin Haunschild, Matthias Hollick, Max Mühlhäuser, Joachim Vogt, Michael Kreutzer (2020)
    Towards Secure Urban Infrastructures: Cyber Security Challenges to Information and Communication Technology in Smart Cities
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.

    @inproceedings{reuter_towards_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Towards {Secure} {Urban} {Infrastructures}: {Cyber} {Security} {Challenges} to {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/33550/muc2020-ws-408.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408},
    abstract = {The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Haunschild, Jasmin and Hollick, Matthias and Mühlhäuser, Max and Vogt, Joachim and Kreutzer, Michael},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSpahrSpielhoferHahne_EmergencyServiceSocialMediaAttitude20142017_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Quo Vadis? Digitalisierung und Social Media im Bevölkerungsschutz
    In: Sandra Ückert, Hasan Sürgit, Gerd Diesel: Digitalisierung als Erfolgsfaktor für das Sozial- und Wohlfahrtswesen. Nomos, , 311–318.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.

    @incollection{reuter_quo_2020,
    title = {Quo {Vadis}? {Digitalisierung} und {Social} {Media} im {Bevölkerungsschutz}},
    isbn = {978-3-8487-6250-7},
    url = {https://www.nomos-shop.de/{\"{U}}ckert-S{\"{u}}rgit-Diesel-Digitalisierung-Erfolgsfaktor-Sozial-Wohlfahrtswesen/productview.aspx},
    abstract = {Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisierung als {Erfolgsfaktor} für das {Sozial}- und {Wohlfahrtswesen}},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ückert, Sandra and Sürgit, Hasan and Diesel, Gerd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {311--318},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management (IPM) ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management (IPM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

    2019

  • Margarita Grinko, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Crisis Apps in Germany: A Representative Survey
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340782
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.

    @inproceedings{grinko_adoption_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Adoption, {Use} and {Diffusion} of {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340782},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340782},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Grinko, Margarita and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {263--274},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – Introduction and Overview
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_information_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {Introduction} and {Overview}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Cultural Violence and Peace in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 361–381. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} in {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {361--381},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katrin Hartwig, Jan Kirchner, Noah Schlegel (2019)
    Fake News Perception in Germany: A Representative Study of People’s Attitudes and Approaches to Counteract Disinformation
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people’s attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news

    @inproceedings{reuter_fake_2019-2,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Fake {News} {Perception} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Study} of {People}'s {Attitudes} and {Approaches} to {Counteract} {Disinformation}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHartwigKirchnerSchlegel_FakeNewsPerceptionGermany_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people's attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hartwig, Katrin and Kirchner, Jan and Schlegel, Noah},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace},
    pages = {1069--1083},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News und manipulierte Meinungsbildung
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation: Gesellschaftliche Trends und der Wandel von Organisationen. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 15–19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019-1,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} und manipulierte {Meinungsbildung}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47852/PolicyPaper5_Digitalisierung_Kommunikation_deutsch.pdf},
    abstract = {Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.},
    booktitle = {Die {Digitalisierung} der {Kommunikation}: {Gesellschaftliche} {Trends} und der {Wandel} von {Organisationen}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {15--19},
    }

  • Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elena Runft, Christian Reuter, Margarita Grinko, Volkmar Pipek (2019)
    Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.

    @inproceedings{langer_counter_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Counter {Narratives} in {Social} {Media}: {An} {Empirical} {Study} on {Combat} and {Prevention} of {Terrorism}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Langeretal_Counternarratives_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Runft, Elena and Reuter, Christian and Grinko, Margarita and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {746--755},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    TrustyTweet: An Indicator-based Browser-Plugin to Assist Users in Dealing with Fake News on Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users’assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_trustytweet_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {{TrustyTweet}: {An} {Indicator}-based {Browser}-{Plugin} to {Assist} {Users} in {Dealing} with {Fake} {News} on {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_HartwigReuter_TrustyTweet_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users'assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1858--1869},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Patrick Mischur (2019)
    RescueGlass: Collaborative Applications involving Head-Mounted Displays for Red Cross Rescue Dog Units
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;28(1-2):209–246. doi:10.1007/s10606-018-9339-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    On-site work of emergency service teams consists of highly cooperative tasks. Especially during distributed search and rescue tasks there is a constant mix of routinized and non-routinized activities. Within this paper we focus on the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dog Units who deal with several uncertainties regarding the involved dogs, the fragility of the respective situations as well as issues of using technologies under enormous time pressure. Smart glasses provide possibilities for enhanced and hands-free interaction in various contexts and a number of approaches have already been applied, aiming at efficient use of the respective technological innovation in private and professional contexts. However, the collaborative potential of smart glasses in time-critical and uncertain situations is still unexplored. Our design case study examines how the on-site work of emergency service teams can be supported by smart glasses: Based on examining the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dogs, we introduce ‘RescueGlass‘ as a coordinative concept, encompassing hands-free head-mounted display (HMD) application as well as a corresponding smartphone application. Finally, we describe the evaluation of its use in the field of emergency response and management. We show how current features such as ‘fog of war‘ or various sensors support the cooperative practices of dog handlers, and outline current technical limitations offering future research questions. Our paper provides an initial design probe using smart glasses to engage in the field of collaborative professional mobile tasks.

    @article{reuter_rescueglass_2019,
    title = {{RescueGlass}: {Collaborative} {Applications} involving {Head}-{Mounted} {Displays} for {Red} {Cross} {Rescue} {Dog} {Units}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterLudwigMischur_RescueGlass_JCSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-018-9339-8},
    abstract = {On-site work of emergency service teams consists of highly cooperative tasks. Especially during distributed search and rescue tasks there is a constant mix of routinized and non-routinized activities. Within this paper we focus on the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dog Units who deal with several uncertainties regarding the involved dogs, the fragility of the respective situations as well as issues of using technologies under enormous time pressure. Smart glasses provide possibilities for enhanced and hands-free interaction in various contexts and a number of approaches have already been applied, aiming at efficient use of the respective technological innovation in private and professional contexts. However, the collaborative potential of smart glasses in time-critical and uncertain situations is still unexplored. Our design case study examines how the on-site work of emergency service teams can be supported by smart glasses: Based on examining the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dogs, we introduce ‘RescueGlass' as a coordinative concept, encompassing hands-free head-mounted display (HMD) application as well as a corresponding smartphone application. Finally, we describe the evaluation of its use in the field of emergency response and management. We show how current features such as ‘fog of war' or various sensors support the cooperative practices of dog handlers, and outline current technical limitations offering future research questions. Our paper provides an initial design probe using smart glasses to engage in the field of collaborative professional mobile tasks.},
    number = {1-2},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Mischur, Patrick},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {209--246},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Jens Pottebaum, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    6. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen – Neue digitale Realitäten
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nur wenn die technischen (z.B. Zuverlässigkeit) und nutzungs- orientierten Aspekte (z.B. Gebrauchstauglichkeit) angemessen und integriert berücksichtigt werden, können computerbasierte Systeme und vor allem deren Anwendung in komplexen Situati- onen sicher sein. Eine gute Benutzbarkeit ist dabei kein Zusatz, sondern zentraler Bestandteil bei der Verbesserung der System- sicherheit. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen An- wendungsgebieten. Dazu werden Konzepte der Krisenkommuni- kation, der Nutzung sozialer Medien, neuartige Interaktionskon- zepte und Reflektionen zu Forschungsprojekten vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_6_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {6. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen} - {Neue} digitale {Realitäten}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Reuteretal_6WorkshopMenschMaschineInteraktion.pdf},
    abstract = {Nur wenn die technischen (z.B. Zuverlässigkeit) und nutzungs- orientierten Aspekte (z.B. Gebrauchstauglichkeit) angemessen und integriert berücksichtigt werden, können computerbasierte Systeme und vor allem deren Anwendung in komplexen Situati- onen sicher sein. Eine gute Benutzbarkeit ist dabei kein Zusatz, sondern zentraler Bestandteil bei der Verbesserung der System- sicherheit. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen An- wendungsgebieten. Dazu werden Konzepte der Krisenkommuni- kation, der Nutzung sozialer Medien, neuartige Interaktionskon- zepte und Reflektionen zu Forschungsprojekten vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pottebaum, Jens and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {278--280},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.

    @book{reuter_science_2019-1,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz (2019)
    Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) – Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resilient_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Resilient {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) – {Nutzung} digitaler {Technologien} in krisensicherer {Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_177.pdf},
    abstract = {Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {177--182},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News and the Manipulation of Public Opinion
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Digitalisation and Communication: Societal Trends and the Change in Organisations. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 13–16.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Per a recent study, a majority of Germans wants to see strict action taken against the targeted spread of disinformation in the news. Researchers in the Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) research group at Technische Universität Darmstadt investigated how German citizens perceive and react to fake news and asked them what countermeasures they would consider to be most appropriate.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} and the {Manipulation} of {Public} {Opinion}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47853/SPPaper6_Digitalisation_Communication_English.pdf},
    abstract = {Per a recent study, a majority of Germans wants to see strict action taken against the targeted spread of disinformation in the news. Researchers in the Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) research group at Technische Universität Darmstadt investigated how German citizens perceive and react to fake news and asked them what countermeasures they would consider to be most appropriate.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisation and {Communication}: {Societal} {Trends} and the {Change} in {Organisations}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Peace},
    pages = {13--16},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Erfurth, Christian Reuter (2019)
    IT-Rettung 2019: IT-Unterstützung in Emergency Management & Response
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws58
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Digitalisierung verspricht auch in der zivilen Gefahrenabwehr Vorteile z.B. in Form von schneller Lagebilderstellung, höherer Informationsqualität von Entscheidungsgrundlagen, effizienter Einsatz-vorbereitung und Interaktion mit der Öffentlichkeit. Der Workshop IT-Rettung bietet Raum, Forschungserkenntnisse zu präsentieren und zu würdigen sowie fallstudien- und szenarien-orientierte Ergebnisse in einen allgemeinen Kontext einzuordnen

    @inproceedings{pottebaum_it-rettung_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {{IT}-{Rettung} 2019: {IT}-{Unterstützung} in {Emergency} {Management} \& {Response}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_PottebaumErfurthReuter_IT-Rettung.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws58},
    abstract = {Die Digitalisierung verspricht auch in der zivilen Gefahrenabwehr Vorteile z.B. in Form von schneller Lagebilderstellung, höherer Informationsqualität von Entscheidungsgrundlagen, effizienter Einsatz-vorbereitung und Interaktion mit der Öffentlichkeit. Der Workshop IT-Rettung bietet Raum, Forschungserkenntnisse zu präsentieren und zu würdigen sowie fallstudien- und szenarien-orientierte Ergebnisse in einen allgemeinen Kontext einzuordnen},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Erfurth, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C},
    pages = {557--557},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Social Media Misuse: Cultural Violence, Peace and Security in Digital Networks
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Misuse}: {Cultural} {Violence}, {Peace} and {Security} in {Digital} {Networks}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {61--66},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fighting Misinformation on Twitter: The Plugin based approach TrustyTweet
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_fighting_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Fighting {Misinformation} on {Twitter}: {The} {Plugin} based approach {TrustyTweet}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {67--69},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Cross-Media Usage of Social Big Data for Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities: Approaches, Development and Challenges of Multi-Platform Social Media Services
    2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.

    @techreport{kaufhold_cross-media_2019,
    title = {Cross-{Media} {Usage} of {Social} {Big} {Data} for {Emergency} {Services} and {Volunteer} {Communities}: {Approaches}, {Development} and {Challenges} of {Multi}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Services}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07725.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Arne Schmidt, Fabienne Seifert, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    SentiNet: Twitter-basierter Ansatz zur kombinierten Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalyse in Katastrophenlagen
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_sentinet_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{SentiNet}: {Twitter}-basierter {Ansatz} zur kombinierten {Netzwerk}- und {Stimmungsanalyse} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25149/133-04.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04},
    abstract = {Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmidt, Arne and Seifert, Fabienne and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {297--308},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Alexis Gizikis, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank, Margarita Grinko (2019)
    Avoiding Chaotic Use of Social Media before, during, and after Emergencies: Design and Evaluation of Citizens‘ Guidelines
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;27(3):198–213. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12249
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens‘ guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.

    @article{kaufhold_avoiding_2019,
    title = {Avoiding {Chaotic} {Use} of {Social} {Media} before, during, and after {Emergencies}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of {Citizens}' {Guidelines}},
    volume = {27},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGizikisReuterHabdankGrinko_DesignEvaluationCitizenGuidelines_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12249},
    abstract = {Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens' guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Gizikis, Alexis and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias and Grinko, Margarita},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {198--213},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Spielhoferetal_SocialMediaCrisesUKSurvey_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

  • Timo Kalle, Marc-André Kaufhold, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Amr Rizk, Ralf Steinmetz (2019)
    Resilience in Security and Crises through Adaptions and Transitions
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws60
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, – monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.

    @inproceedings{kalle_resilience_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {Resilience in {Security} and {Crises} through {Adaptions} and {Transitions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25097/paper12_02.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws60},
    abstract = {Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, - monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kalle, Timo and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Rizk, Amr and Steinmetz, Ralf},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {571--584},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Christoph Amelunxen, Massimo Cristaldi (2018)
    112.SOCIAL: Design and Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis App for Bidirectional Communication between Emergency Services and Citizen
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Portsmouth, UK.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities‘ and citizens‘ information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_112social_2018,
    address = {Portsmouth, UK},
    title = {112.{SOCIAL}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Mobile} {Crisis} {App} for {Bidirectional} {Communication} between {Emergency} {Services} and {Citizen}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRuppReuterAmelunxenCristaldi_112Social_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities' and citizens' information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Amelunxen, Christoph and Cristaldi, Massimo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 379–402. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia},
    pages = {379--402},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Informatik für Frieden und Sicherheit
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 573–595. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden} und {Sicherheit}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    abstract = {Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {573--595},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2018)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 621–630. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {621--630},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Einleitung und Überblick
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–14. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} – {Einleitung} und Überblick},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {3--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on IT-Support for Crisis and Continuity Management
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):v–viii.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_guest_2018,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Crisis} and {Continuity} {Management}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterPottebaum_EditorialCrisisContinuityManagement_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {v--viii},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Editorial of the Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):277–279. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2018,
    title = {Editorial of the {Special} {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesHiltzImranPlotnik_EditorialSpecialIssueSocialMediaCrisisManagement_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833},
    abstract = {Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, RSF, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {277--279},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gerhard Backfried, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr (2018)
    ISCRAM turns 15: A Trend Analysis of Social Media Papers 2004-2017
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Rochester, New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_iscram_2018,
    address = {Rochester, New York, USA},
    title = {{ISCRAM} turns 15: {A} {Trend} {Analysis} of {Social} {Media} {Papers} 2004-2017},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterBackfriedKaufholdSpahn_15YearsISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Backfried, Gerhard and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian},
    editor = {Boersma, Kees and Tomaszewski, Brian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2018)
    Studie: Wie sehen Mitarbeiter von Feuerwehr und THW den Einsatz sozialer Medien in Gefahrenlagen?
    2018.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{reuter_studie_2018,
    title = {Studie: {Wie} sehen {Mitarbeiter} von {Feuerwehr} und {THW} den {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Gefahrenlagen}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_FeuerwehrTHWSozialeMedienGefahrenlagen_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {64--66},
    }

  • Simon Scholl, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    SocialML: EUD im Maschine Learning zur Analyse sozialer Medien
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.

    @inproceedings{scholl_socialml_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {{SocialML}: {EUD} im {Maschine} {Learning} zur {Analyse} sozialer {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16668/Beitrag_347_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Scholl, Simon and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {443--446},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tobias Ermert (2018)
    Interaktionsdesign eines Risiko-Bewertungskonzepts für KMU
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_interaktionsdesign_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Interaktionsdesign eines {Risiko}-{Bewertungskonzepts} für {KMU}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16626/Beitrag_356_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ermert, Tobias},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {309--312},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Julian Hester, Danny Jeske, Lisa Knüver, Viktoria Richert (2018)
    Business Continuity Management in Micro Enterprises: Perception, Strategies and Use of ICT
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):1–19. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.

    @article{kaufhold_business_2018,
    title = {Business {Continuity} {Management} in {Micro} {Enterprises}: {Perception}, {Strategies} and {Use} of {ICT}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRiebeReuteretal_BusinessContinuityManagementinMicroEnterprises_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101},
    abstract = {Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Hester, Julian and Jeske, Danny and Knüver, Lisa and Richert, Viktoria},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Cooperation, RSF, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    Special Issue on IT Support for Crisis and Continuity Management – International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)
    .
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-2,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {IT} {Support} for {Crisis} and {Continuity} {Management} - {International} {Journal} of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({IJISCRAM})},
    volume = {10},
    number = {1},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Michael Herczeg, Stefan Geisler, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    5. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten. Da in solchen Feldern – etwa Katastrophenmanagement, Verkehr, Produktion oder Medizin – MCI eine immer größere Relevanz erhält, sind viele wissenschaftliche Gebiete, unter anderem die Informatik oder Mensch-Maschine Interaktion, zunehmend gefragt. Die Herausfor-derung besteht darin, bestehende Ansätze und Methoden zu diskutieren, anzupassen und innovative Lösungen zu entwickeln, die von den Nutzenden sicher und effizient verwendet werden können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_5_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {5. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16929/Beitrag_328_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten. Da in solchen Feldern – etwa Katastrophenmanagement, Verkehr, Produktion oder Medizin – MCI eine immer größere Relevanz erhält, sind viele wissenschaftliche Gebiete, unter anderem die Informatik oder Mensch-Maschine Interaktion, zunehmend gefragt. Die Herausfor-derung besteht darin, bestehende Ansätze und Methoden zu diskutieren, anzupassen und innovative Lösungen zu entwickeln, die von den Nutzenden sicher und effizient verwendet werden können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Herczeg, Michael and Geisler, Stefan and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {565--569},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Elmar von Radziewski (2018)
    Design eines BCM-Dashboards für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Design eines {BCM}-{Dashboards} für kleine und mittlere {Unternehmen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16796/Beitrag_453_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and von Radziewski, Elmar},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Infrastructure},
    pages = {579--586},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management – International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management} - {International} {Journal} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} ({IJHCI})},
    volume = {34},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/hihc20/34/4?nav=tocList},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Special Issue on Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems – Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)
    Wiley.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} - {Journal} of {Contingencies} and {Crisis} {Management} ({JCCM})},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jccm.2018.26.issue-1/issuetoc},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Wiley},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2018)
    Soziale Medien und Apps in Notsituationen: Eine repräsentative Studie über die Wahrnehmung in Deutschland
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.

    @techreport{reuter_soziale_2018,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} und {Apps} in {Notsituationen}: {Eine} repräsentative {Studie} über die {Wahrnehmung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SozialeMedienAppsNotsituationen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--24},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler (2018)
    Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems – Editorial
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):2–3. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12192
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_human-computer-interaction_2018,
    title = {Human-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} – {Editorial}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-5973.12192/abstract},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12192},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {2--3},
    }

    2017

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Spielhofer (2017)
    Towards Social Resilience: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey on Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media in Emergencies in Europe
    Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;121:168–180. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.038
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is increasingly being used during emergencies. Most available studies are focused on how citizens and/or authorities use these technologies in concrete events. However, larger quantitative studies with significant results on attitudes, needs and future plans of citizens in such events are not available – especially such of a comparative nature related to emergency services. As part of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ this article presents the findings of a survey of 1034 citizens across 30 European countries conducted between February and June 2015 to explore citizens‘ attitudes towards the use of social media for private purposes and in emergency situations. The article briefly compares these findings with a second survey conducted with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The aim of the overall study is to discuss citizens‘ attitudes towards social media in emergencies in order to derive challenges and opportunities for social resilience.

    @article{reuter_towards_2017,
    title = {Towards {Social} {Resilience}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} on {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies} in {Europe}},
    volume = {121},
    url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162516301986},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.038},
    abstract = {Social media is increasingly being used during emergencies. Most available studies are focused on how citizens and/or authorities use these technologies in concrete events. However, larger quantitative studies with significant results on attitudes, needs and future plans of citizens in such events are not available - especially such of a comparative nature related to emergency services. As part of the EU project ‘EmerGent' this article presents the findings of a survey of 1034 citizens across 30 European countries conducted between February and June 2015 to explore citizens' attitudes towards the use of social media for private purposes and in emergency situations. The article briefly compares these findings with a second survey conducted with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The aim of the overall study is to discuss citizens' attitudes towards social media in emergencies in order to derive challenges and opportunities for social resilience.},
    journal = {Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF},
    pages = {168--180},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, René Steinfort (2017)
    Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information’s believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rumors_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {Rumors, {Fake} {News} and {Social} {Bots} in {Conflicts} and {Emergencies}: {Towards} a {Model} for {Believability} in {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSteinfort_RumorsFakeNewsBotsBelievability_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information's believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Steinfort, René},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {583--591},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    IT for Peace? Fighting Against Terrorism in Social Media – An Explorative Twitter Study
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;16(2):181–195. doi:10.1515/icom-2017-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.

    @article{reuter_it_2017,
    title = {{IT} for {Peace}? {Fighting} {Against} {Terrorism} in {Social} {Media} – {An} {Explorative} {Twitter} {Study}},
    volume = {16},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_ITforPeaceTerrorismSocialMedia_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2017-0013},
    abstract = {The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {181--195},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Marén Schorch, Jan Gerwinski, Christian Soost, Sohaib S. Hassan, Gebhard Rusch, Petra Moog, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2017)
    Digitalisierung und Zivile Sicherheit: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität in Katastrophenlagen (KontiKat)
    In: Gero Hoch, Hildegard Schröteler von Brandt, Volker Stein, Angela Schwarz: Sicherheit (DIAGONAL Jahrgang 38). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, , 207–224. doi:10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.

    @incollection{reuter_digitalisierung_2017,
    address = {Göttingen},
    title = {Digitalisierung und {Zivile} {Sicherheit}: {Zivilgesellschaftliche} und betriebliche {Kontinuität} in {Katastrophenlagen} ({KontiKat})},
    isbn = {978-3-8471-0739-2},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSchorchetal_DigitalisierungSicherheitKontiKat_Diagonal.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheit ({DIAGONAL} {Jahrgang} 38)},
    publisher = {Vandenhoeck \& Ruprecht},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schorch, Marén and Gerwinski, Jan and Soost, Christian and Hassan, Sohaib S. and Rusch, Gebhard and Moog, Petra and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Hoch, Gero and Schröteler von Brandt, Hildegard and Stein, Volker and Schwarz, Angela},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {207--224},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer Medien – ein explorativer Einblick am Beispiel von Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorbekampfung_2017,
    address = {St. Gallen, Switzerland},
    title = {Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer {Medien} – ein explorativer {Einblick} am {Beispiel} von {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_TerrorbekaempfungSozialeMedien_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Leimeister, J.M. and Brenner, W.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {649--663},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler (2017)
    4. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_4_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {4. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3170/2017_WS01_380.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380},
    abstract = {Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {5--8},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Informing the Population: Mobile Warning Apps
    In: Michael Klafft: Risk and Crisis Communication in Disaster Prevention and Management. Wilhelmshaven: epubli, , 31–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.

    @incollection{reuter_informing_2017,
    address = {Wilhelmshaven},
    title = {Informing the {Population}: {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-7450-5448-4},
    url = {http://publica.fraunhofer.de/eprints/urn_nbn_de_0011-n-4527283.pdf#page=35},
    abstract = {Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.},
    booktitle = {Risk and {Crisis} {Communication} in {Disaster} {Prevention} and {Management}},
    publisher = {epubli},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    editor = {Klafft, Michael},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Peace},
    pages = {31--41},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    The Impact of Social Media for Emergency Situations: A Case Study with the Fire Department of Frankfurt
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_impact_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {The {Impact} of {Social} {Media} for {Emergency} {Situations}: {A} {Case} {Study} with the {Fire} {Department} of {Frankfurt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_ImpactSocialMediaFrankfurt_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {603--612},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Katwarn, NINA or FEMA? Multi-Method Study on Distribution, Use and Public Views on Crisis Apps
    European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Guimarães, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens‘ perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.

    @inproceedings{reuter_katwarn_2017,
    address = {Guimarães, Portugal},
    title = {Katwarn, {NINA} or {FEMA}? {Multi}-{Method} {Study} on {Distribution}, {Use} and {Public} {Views} on {Crisis} {Apps}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdLeopoldKnipp_CrisisApps_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens' perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.},
    booktitle = {European {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {2187--2201},
    }

  • Gaia Mosconi, Matthias Korn, Christian Reuter, Peter Tolmie, Maurizio Teli, Volkmar Pipek (2017)
    From Facebook to the Neighbourhood: Infrastructuring of Hybrid Community Engagement
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;26(4-6):959–1003. doi:10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In recent years, social media have increased the resources that individuals and organizations are able to mobilize for the development of socially innovative practices. In this article, we engage with a naturally occurring development in a Trentinian neighbourhood to examine the cooperative interactions amongst members of a local community. The first author and local residents of the neighbourhood participated in online discussions, decision making, and physical activities that led to material changes in the area. The interventions are motivated by and based on the concept of Social Street that combines online interactions in a closed Facebook group with face-to-face meetings seeking to practically engage the collective in accomplishing certain immediate or ongoing needs. Over the course of two years, we studied this local instantiation of Social Street in Trento, Italy by way of an action-oriented (digital) ethnography. Through this work, we demonstrate how urban neighbourhoods might benefit from hybrid forms of community engagement that are enacted through a constant back and forth between online and face-to-face interactions. We further argue that the infrastructuring of local urban collectives should follow strategies that pay attention to the multiple issues in urban neighbourhoods and people’s attachments to them. Overall, the paper reflects upon the challenges and configurations of participation that this form of community-work entails.

    @article{mosconi_facebook_2017,
    title = {From {Facebook} to the {Neighbourhood}: {Infrastructuring} of {Hybrid} {Community} {Engagement}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z},
    abstract = {In recent years, social media have increased the resources that individuals and organizations are able to mobilize for the development of socially innovative practices. In this article, we engage with a naturally occurring development in a Trentinian neighbourhood to examine the cooperative interactions amongst members of a local community. The first author and local residents of the neighbourhood participated in online discussions, decision making, and physical activities that led to material changes in the area. The interventions are motivated by and based on the concept of Social Street that combines online interactions in a closed Facebook group with face-to-face meetings seeking to practically engage the collective in accomplishing certain immediate or ongoing needs. Over the course of two years, we studied this local instantiation of Social Street in Trento, Italy by way of an action-oriented (digital) ethnography. Through this work, we demonstrate how urban neighbourhoods might benefit from hybrid forms of community engagement that are enacted through a constant back and forth between online and face-to-face interactions. We further argue that the infrastructuring of local urban collectives should follow strategies that pay attention to the multiple issues in urban neighbourhoods and people's attachments to them. Overall, the paper reflects upon the challenges and configurations of participation that this form of community-work entails.},
    number = {4-6},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Mosconi, Gaia and Korn, Matthias and Reuter, Christian and Tolmie, Peter and Teli, Maurizio and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {959--1003},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Ludwig (2017)
    End-User Development and Social Big Data – Towards Tailorable Situation Assessment with Social Media
    In: Fabio Paternò, Volker Wulf: New Perspectives in End-User Development. Springer, , 307–332. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.

    @incollection{reuter_end-user_2017,
    title = {End-{User} {Development} and {Social} {Big} {Data} - {Towards} {Tailorable} {Situation} {Assessment} with {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-319-60290-5},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    abstract = {The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.},
    booktitle = {New {Perspectives} in {End}-{User} {Development}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Paternò, Fabio and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {307--332},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on IT-Support for Critical Infrastructure Protection
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;9(4):iv–vii.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{pottebaum_guest_2017,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Critical} {Infrastructure} {Protection}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_PottebaumReuter_EditorialCriticalInfrastructureProtection_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure},
    pages = {iv--vii},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Special Issue on IT-Support for Critical Infrastructure Protection – International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)
    IGI Global.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{pottebaum_special_2017,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Critical} {Infrastructure} {Protection} - {International} {Journal} of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({IJISCRAM})},
    volume = {9},
    number = {4},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Daniel Wiegärtner, Christian Reuter, Claudia Müller (2017)
    Erwartungen der älteren Bevölkerung an IKT für Krisenkommunikation
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws17-0416
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aufgrund des demographischen Wandels und der zunehmenden Bevölkerungsdichte im urbanen Raum wird es in Zukunft zu neuen Herausforderungen in der Planung und Vorbereitung von Katastrophen-lagen in Städten kommen. Dabei wird vor allem der Nutzen von IKT für ältere Menschen in Bezug auf (Groß-)Schadenslagen von hoher Relevanz sein, der in der bisherigen Forschung nicht angemessen be-trachtet wurde. Mittels eines nutzerzentrierten Ansatzes wird untersucht, wie eine geeignete Krisenkommunikation durch IKT für ältere Menschen funktionieren könnte. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Vorbereitung für die ältere Population in Großstädten im Falle einer (Groß-)Schadenslage zu untersuchen und zu un-terstützen. Gerade für das System Stadt sind die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit von Relevanz und können hel-fen, den urbanen Raum resilienter gegen mögliche Katastrophen zu gestalten.

    @inproceedings{wiegartner_erwartungen_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Erwartungen der älteren {Bevölkerung} an {IKT} für {Krisenkommunikation}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3243/2017_WS17_416.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws17-0416},
    abstract = {Aufgrund des demographischen Wandels und der zunehmenden Bevölkerungsdichte im urbanen Raum wird es in Zukunft zu neuen Herausforderungen in der Planung und Vorbereitung von Katastrophen-lagen in Städten kommen. Dabei wird vor allem der Nutzen von IKT für ältere Menschen in Bezug auf (Groß-)Schadenslagen von hoher Relevanz sein, der in der bisherigen Forschung nicht angemessen be-trachtet wurde. Mittels eines nutzerzentrierten Ansatzes wird untersucht, wie eine geeignete Krisenkommunikation durch IKT für ältere Menschen funktionieren könnte. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Vorbereitung für die ältere Population in Großstädten im Falle einer (Groß-)Schadenslage zu untersuchen und zu un-terstützen. Gerade für das System Stadt sind die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit von Relevanz und können hel-fen, den urbanen Raum resilienter gegen mögliche Katastrophen zu gestalten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Wiegärtner, Daniel and Reuter, Christian and Müller, Claudia},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student},
    pages = {609--614},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Julian Hupertz (2017)
    Social Media Resilience during Infrastructure Breakdowns using Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
    Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics – Proceedings of the 30th EnviroInfo Conference Berlin, Germany. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2017-1,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Resilience} during {Infrastructure} {Breakdowns} using {Mobile} {Ad}-{Hoc} {Networks}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_Reuteretal_SocialMediaResilienceMANET_EnviroInfo.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7},
    abstract = {Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.},
    booktitle = {Advances and {New} {Trends} in {Environmental} {Informatics} - {Proceedings} of the 30th {EnviroInfo} {Conference}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, V. and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    pages = {75--88},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2017)
    Social Media in Emergencies: A Representative Study on Citizens‘ Perception in Germany
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;1(2):1–19. doi:10.1145/3134725
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones‘ weather and first aid apps.

    @article{reuter_social_2017,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Representative} {Study} on {Citizens}' {Perception} in {Germany}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SocialMediaEmergenciesGermany_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3134725},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens' perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones' weather and first aid apps.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Place: New York, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Projekt-EmerGent, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Kotthaus, Christian Reuter, Sören Van Dongen, Volkmar Pipek (2017)
    Situated crowdsourcing during disasters: Managing the tasks of spontaneous volunteers through public displays
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;102(C):103–121. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.09.008
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Abstract Although emergency services have already recognized the importance of citizen-initiated activities during disasters, still questions with regard to the coordination of spontaneous volunteers and their activities arise. Within our article, we will present a technological approach based on public displays which aims to foster situated crowdsourcing between affected citizens, spontaneous volunteers as well as official emergency services. We will address the research question: How can the situated tasks performed by spontaneous volunteers be supported by the use of public displays during disasters? First we will present the current state of the art with regard to the coordination practices of spontaneous volunteers and emergency services within disaster situations as well as related problems, potentials and specifics of situated crowdsourcing and public displays. To gain insight into actual coordination practices, we conducted an empirical study with 18 different stakeholders involved in disaster management. Based on the literature review and our empirical study, we have derived a technical concept that supports the task and activity management of spontaneous volunteers as well as the coordination both of the demands of affected people and the offers from spontaneous volunteers. We have implemented our concept as the public display application ‘City-Share‘, which provides a robust communication infrastructure and encompasses situated crowdsourcing mechanisms for managing offers and demands of activities on-the-ground. Based on its evaluation with several users, we will discuss our findings with regard to the assignment of tasks on-the-ground and situated crowdsourcing during emergencies. We outline that City-Share can improve a community’s disaster resilience, especially when focusing on the kind of collaborative resilience emerging between official stakeholders and spontaneous volunteers or affected citizens at a local level.

    @article{ludwig_situated_2017,
    title = {Situated crowdsourcing during disasters: {Managing} the tasks of spontaneous volunteers through public displays},
    volume = {102},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_Ludwigetal_SituatedCrowdsourcingPublicDisplay_IJHCS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.09.008},
    abstract = {Abstract Although emergency services have already recognized the importance of citizen-initiated activities during disasters, still questions with regard to the coordination of spontaneous volunteers and their activities arise. Within our article, we will present a technological approach based on public displays which aims to foster situated crowdsourcing between affected citizens, spontaneous volunteers as well as official emergency services. We will address the research question: How can the situated tasks performed by spontaneous volunteers be supported by the use of public displays during disasters? First we will present the current state of the art with regard to the coordination practices of spontaneous volunteers and emergency services within disaster situations as well as related problems, potentials and specifics of situated crowdsourcing and public displays. To gain insight into actual coordination practices, we conducted an empirical study with 18 different stakeholders involved in disaster management. Based on the literature review and our empirical study, we have derived a technical concept that supports the task and activity management of spontaneous volunteers as well as the coordination both of the demands of affected people and the offers from spontaneous volunteers. We have implemented our concept as the public display application ‘City-Share', which provides a robust communication infrastructure and encompasses situated crowdsourcing mechanisms for managing offers and demands of activities on-the-ground. Based on its evaluation with several users, we will discuss our findings with regard to the assignment of tasks on-the-ground and situated crowdsourcing during emergencies. We outline that City-Share can improve a community's disaster resilience, especially when focusing on the kind of collaborative resilience emerging between official stakeholders and spontaneous volunteers or affected citizens at a local level.},
    number = {C},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Kotthaus, Christoph and Reuter, Christian and Dongen, Sören Van and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {103--121},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Simon Scholl (2017)
    Social Media Analytics: Eine Marktstudie im Krisenmanagement
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Gesellschaft für Informatik Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Social {Media} {Analytics}: {Eine} {Marktstudie} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuterLudwigScholl_SocialMediaAnalytcisMarktstudie_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik}},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1325--1338},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Daniel Wiegärtner, Claudia Müller (2017)
    DIVOA – Unterstützung der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-mci-0352
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der demographische Wandel und die Urbanisierung können als die Megatrends der kommenden Jahre betrachten werden, wodurch sich neue Herausforderungen und Chancen für Städte ergeben. Gerade im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren benötigt das System Stadt resiliente Ansätze, die mittels neuer Technologien gewährleistet werden können. Da IKT zeitnahe, kontextspezifische und persönliche Informationen ortsunabhängig liefern können, ist diese Entwicklung von hoher Relevanz für die Sicherstellung des Systems Stadt und dessen Bewohner. Im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren weisen ältere Menschen aufgrund ihrer eingeschränkten physischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Fähigkeiten jedoch eine erhöhte Vulnerabilität auf. Diese Arbeit möchte, dies adressierend, einen Beitrag zur Integration der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen darstellen und ein Konzept vorstellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_divoa_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {{DIVOA} – {Unterstützung} der älteren {Bevölkerung} bei {Schadenslagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3279/2017_MCI_352.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-mci-0352},
    abstract = {Der demographische Wandel und die Urbanisierung können als die Megatrends der kommenden Jahre betrachten werden, wodurch sich neue Herausforderungen und Chancen für Städte ergeben. Gerade im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren benötigt das System Stadt resiliente Ansätze, die mittels neuer Technologien gewährleistet werden können. Da IKT zeitnahe, kontextspezifische und persönliche Informationen ortsunabhängig liefern können, ist diese Entwicklung von hoher Relevanz für die Sicherstellung des Systems Stadt und dessen Bewohner. Im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren weisen ältere Menschen aufgrund ihrer eingeschränkten physischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Fähigkeiten jedoch eine erhöhte Vulnerabilität auf. Diese Arbeit möchte, dies adressierend, einen Beitrag zur Integration der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen darstellen und ein Konzept vorstellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Wiegärtner, Daniel and Müller, Claudia},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student},
    pages = {295--298},
    }

    2016

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2016)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“
    Aachen, Germany: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V..
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_proceedings_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}"},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_proc-sicherheitskritischemmi_muc.pdf},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    note = {Publication Title: Mensch \& Computer: Workshopband},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2016)
    The Self-Organization of Digital Volunteers across Social Media: The Case of the 2013 European Floods in Germany
    Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM) ;13(1):137–166. doi:10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.

    @article{kaufhold_self-organization_2016,
    title = {The {Self}-{Organization} of {Digital} {Volunteers} across {Social} {Media}: {The} {Case} of the 2013 {European} {Floods} in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_KaufholdReuter_SelfOrganizationDigitalVolunteersEuropeanFloods_JHSEM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063},
    abstract = {For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {137--166},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Stefan Geisler (2016)
    Introduction to this Special Issue on “Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems”
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;15(3):219–226. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2016-0037
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mission- and safety-critical domains are more and more characterized by interactive and multimedia systems varying from large-scale technologies (e. g. airplanes) to wearable devices (e. g. smartglasses) operated by professional staff or volunteering laypeople. While technical availability, reliability and security of computer-based systems are of utmost importance, outcomes and performances increasingly depend on sufficient human-machine interaction or even cooperation to a large extent. While this i-com Special Issue on “Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems” presents recent research results from specific application domains like aviation, automotive, crisis management and healthcare, this introductory paper outlines the diversity of users, technologies and interaction or cooperation models involved.

    @article{mentler_introduction_2016,
    title = {Introduction to this {Special} {Issue} on “{Human}-{Machine} {Interaction} and {Cooperation} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems}”},
    volume = {15},
    url = {https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2016.15.issue-3/icom-2016-0037/icom-2016-0037.xml?format=INT},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2016-0037},
    abstract = {Mission- and safety-critical domains are more and more characterized by interactive and multimedia systems varying from large-scale technologies (e. g. airplanes) to wearable devices (e. g. smartglasses) operated by professional staff or volunteering laypeople. While technical availability, reliability and security of computer-based systems are of utmost importance, outcomes and performances increasingly depend on sufficient human-machine interaction or even cooperation to a large extent. While this i-com Special Issue on “Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems” presents recent research results from specific application domains like aviation, automotive, crisis management and healthcare, this introductory paper outlines the diversity of users, technologies and interaction or cooperation models involved.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {219--226},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2016)
    Emergency Services Attitudes towards Social Media: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey across Europe
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;95:96–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2016,
    title = {Emergency {Services} {Attitudes} towards {Social} {Media}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} across {Europe}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_EmergencyServicesAttiudesSurveySocialMedia_IJHCS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005},
    abstract = {Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent' with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {96--111},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Julian Hupertz (2016)
    Sozial auch ohne Netz – Soziale Medien bei Infrastrukturproblemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Aachen, Germany. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Menschen tauschen sich aus und gerade in schwierigen Situationen ist Kommunikation sehr wichtig. In Katastrophenlagen, wie schweren Unwettern, sind jedoch teilweise zentrale Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen betroffen durch der durch Kommunikationsmedien unterstützte Informationsaustausch naturgemäß schwerer möglich als in Zeiten ohne solche Ausfälle. In jenen Fällen ist Kreativität erforderlich. Den Ansatz des Infrastructuring, d.h. der Re-Konzeptualisierung der eigenen Arbeit im Kontext bestehender und potentieller Werkzeuge, aufgreifend werden in diesem Artikel Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten in solchen Fällen untersucht. Basierend auf der Analyse der Verfügbarkeit von Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen wird betrachtet, welche Ansätze zur Kommunikation basierend auf alternativen und dezentralen Infrastrukturen wie MANETs, Wi-Fi und Bluetooth existieren und mithilfe von Smartphones nutzbar gemacht werden können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_sozial_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Sozial auch ohne {Netz} – {Soziale} {Medien} bei {Infrastrukturproblemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/287},
    doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0004},
    abstract = {Menschen tauschen sich aus und gerade in schwierigen Situationen ist Kommunikation sehr wichtig. In Katastrophenlagen, wie schweren Unwettern, sind jedoch teilweise zentrale Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen betroffen durch der durch Kommunikationsmedien unterstützte Informationsaustausch naturgemäß schwerer möglich als in Zeiten ohne solche Ausfälle. In jenen Fällen ist Kreativität erforderlich. Den Ansatz des Infrastructuring, d.h. der Re-Konzeptualisierung der eigenen Arbeit im Kontext bestehender und potentieller Werkzeuge, aufgreifend werden in diesem Artikel Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten in solchen Fällen untersucht. Basierend auf der Analyse der Verfügbarkeit von Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen wird betrachtet, welche Ansätze zur Kommunikation basierend auf alternativen und dezentralen Infrastrukturen wie MANETs, Wi-Fi und Bluetooth existieren und mithilfe von Smartphones nutzbar gemacht werden können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    Kooperative Resilienz – ein soziotechnischer Ansatz durch Kooperationstechnologien im Krisenmanagement
    Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO) ;47(2):159–169. doi:10.1007/s11612-016-0317-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich auf die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert ist, betrachtet unser Beitrag Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt und zeigt Möglichkeiten zur Förderung kooperativer Resilienz, insbesondere durch Kooperationstechnologie, auf. Nach einer Definition von Resilienz im Allgemeinen und im Katastrophenschutz – unserem Anwendungsfeld – sowie im Kontext kooperativer Strukturen, stellen wir unsere Methodik und die entwickelten Kooperationstechnologien vor. Diese adressieren die Zusammenarbeit verschiedener Akteure (z. B. Feuerwehr, Polizei, Bevölkerung) in Schadenslagen. Abschließend diskutieren wir den Beitrag dieser Technologien zur kooperativen Resilienz als Fähigkeit, Krisen der Kooperation durch Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten mithilfe von Kooperationstechnologie zu überstehen.

    @article{reuter_kooperative_2016,
    title = {Kooperative {Resilienz} – ein soziotechnischer {Ansatz} durch {Kooperationstechnologien} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuterludwigpipek_kooperativeresilienz_gio.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11612-016-0317-7},
    abstract = {Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich auf die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert ist, betrachtet unser Beitrag Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt und zeigt Möglichkeiten zur Förderung kooperativer Resilienz, insbesondere durch Kooperationstechnologie, auf. Nach einer Definition von Resilienz im Allgemeinen und im Katastrophenschutz – unserem Anwendungsfeld – sowie im Kontext kooperativer Strukturen, stellen wir unsere Methodik und die entwickelten Kooperationstechnologien vor. Diese adressieren die Zusammenarbeit verschiedener Akteure (z. B. Feuerwehr, Polizei, Bevölkerung) in Schadenslagen. Abschließend diskutieren wir den Beitrag dieser Technologien zur kooperativen Resilienz als Fähigkeit, Krisen der Kooperation durch Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten mithilfe von Kooperationstechnologie zu überstehen.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    pages = {159--169},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Stefan Geisler (2016)
    Special Issue on Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems – i-com – Journal of Interactive Media
    De Gruyter.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{mentler_special_2016,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Machine} {Interaction} and {Cooperation} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} - i-com - {Journal} of {Interactive} {Media}},
    volume = {15},
    url = {https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2016.15.issue-3/issue-files/icom.2016.15.issue-3.xml},
    number = {3},
    publisher = {De Gruyter},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2016},
    note = {Publication Title: i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2016)
    Chapter 44: Communication between Power Blackout and Mobile Network Overload
    In: Mehdi Khosrow-Pour: E-Health and Telemedicine: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. IGI Global, , 876–891.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In cases of power outages the communication of organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public poses several challenges, pri-marily the breakdowns of many communication infrastructures and therefore the limitations of the use of classical communication media. This paper surveys technical concepts to support crisis communica-tion during blackouts. Therefore it first investigates the perception and information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Furthermore, it analyzes communication infrastructures and their availability in different scenarios. Finally it proposes ‘BlaCom‘, an ICT-based concept for blackout communication, which addresses the time span between the occurrence of the energy blackout and the possible overload of the mobile phone network. It combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information, was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users.

    @incollection{reuter_chapter_2016,
    title = {Chapter 44: {Communication} between {Power} {Blackout} and {Mobile} {Network} {Overload}},
    volume = {II},
    isbn = {978-1-4666-8756-1},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuter_communicationpowerblackoutnetworkoverload_ehealth.pdf},
    abstract = {In cases of power outages the communication of organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public poses several challenges, pri-marily the breakdowns of many communication infrastructures and therefore the limitations of the use of classical communication media. This paper surveys technical concepts to support crisis communica-tion during blackouts. Therefore it first investigates the perception and information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Furthermore, it analyzes communication infrastructures and their availability in different scenarios. Finally it proposes ‘BlaCom', an ICT-based concept for blackout communication, which addresses the time span between the occurrence of the energy blackout and the possible overload of the mobile phone network. It combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information, was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users.},
    booktitle = {E-{Health} and {Telemedicine}: {Concepts}, {Methodologies}, {Tools}, and {Applications}},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {{Mehdi Khosrow-Pour}},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF},
    pages = {876--891},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2016)
    Warum Katastrophenschutzbehörden soziale Medien nicht nutzen wollen
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold & Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_warum_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Warum {Katastrophenschutzbehörden} soziale {Medien} nicht nutzen wollen},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/174/bitstream_8783.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205},
    abstract = {In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold \& Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

    2015

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Therese Friberg, Sylvia Pratzler-Wanczura, Alexis Gizikis (2015)
    Social Media and Emergency Services? Interview Study on Current and Potential Use in 7 European Countries
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(2):36–58. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015040103
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies. Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service’s participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.

    @article{reuter_social_2015,
    title = {Social {Media} and {Emergency} {Services}? {Interview} {Study} on {Current} and {Potential} {Use} in 7 {European} {Countries}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuteretal_socialmediaemergencyservices-interview-study_ijiscram.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015040103},
    abstract = {Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies. Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service's participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Friberg, Therese and Pratzler-Wanczura, Sylvia and Gizikis, Alexis},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {36--58},
    }

  • Matthias Moi, Therese Friberg, Robin Marterer, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Deborah Markham, Mike Hewlett, Andrew Muddiman (2015)
    Strategy for Processing and Analyzing Social Media Data Streams in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management (ICT-DM) Brest, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    People are using social media to a greater extent, particularly in emergency situations. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced currently lag far behind. In this paper we discuss important steps, and the associated challenges, for processing and analyzing social media in emergencies. In our research project EmerGent, a huge volume of low-quality messages will be continuously gathered from a variety of social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. Our aim is to design a software system that will process and analyze social media data, transforming the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. Therefore, suitable techniques are needed to extract and condense key information from raw social media data, allowing detection of relevant events and generation of alerts pertinent to emergency personnel.

    @inproceedings{moi_strategy_2015,
    address = {Brest, France},
    title = {Strategy for {Processing} and {Analyzing} {Social} {Media} {Data} {Streams} in {Emergencies}},
    abstract = {People are using social media to a greater extent, particularly in emergency situations. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced currently lag far behind. In this paper we discuss important steps, and the associated challenges, for processing and analyzing social media in emergencies. In our research project EmerGent, a huge volume of low-quality messages will be continuously gathered from a variety of social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. Our aim is to design a software system that will process and analyze social media data, transforming the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. Therefore, suitable techniques are needed to extract and condense key information from raw social media data, allowing detection of relevant events and generation of alerts pertinent to emergency personnel.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Information} and {Communication} {Technologies} for {Disaster} {Management} ({ICT}-{DM})},
    author = {Moi, Matthias and Friberg, Therese and Marterer, Robin and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Markham, Deborah and Hewlett, Mike and Muddiman, Andrew},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Der Einsatz sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    Crisis Prevention – Fachmagazin für Innere Sicherheit, Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe ;5(4):43–44.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_einsatz_2015,
    title = {Der {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_dereinsatzsozialermedieninkatastrophenlagen_crisisprevention.pdf},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Crisis Prevention – Fachmagazin für Innere Sicherheit, Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {43--44},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Julian Schröter (2015)
    Microblogging during the European Floods 2013: What Twitter May Contribute in German Emergencies
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(1):22–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is becoming more and more important in crisis management. However its analysis by emergency services still bears unaddressed challenges and the majority of studies focus on the use of social media in the USA. In this paper German tweets of the European Flood 2013 are therefore captured and analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data coding, and computational algorithms. Our work illustrates that this event provided sufficient German traffic and geo-locations as well as enough original data (not derivative). However, up-to-date Named Entity Recognizer (NER) with German classifier could not recognize German rivers and highways satisfactorily. Furthermore our analysis revealed pragmatic (linguistic) barriers resulting from irony, wordplay, and ambiguity, as well as in retweet-behavior. To ease the analysis of data we suggest a retweet ratio, which is illustrated to be higher with important tweets and may help selecting tweets for mining. We argue that existing software has to be adapted and improved for German language characteristics, also to detect markedness, seriousness and truth

    @article{reuter_microblogging_2015,
    title = {Microblogging during the {European} {Floods} 2013: {What} {Twitter} {May} {Contribute} in {German} {Emergencies}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterSchroeter_MicrobloggingEuropeanFloods_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is becoming more and more important in crisis management. However its analysis by emergency services still bears unaddressed challenges and the majority of studies focus on the use of social media in the USA. In this paper German tweets of the European Flood 2013 are therefore captured and analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data coding, and computational algorithms. Our work illustrates that this event provided sufficient German traffic and geo-locations as well as enough original data (not derivative). However, up-to-date Named Entity Recognizer (NER) with German classifier could not recognize German rivers and highways satisfactorily. Furthermore our analysis revealed pragmatic (linguistic) barriers resulting from irony, wordplay, and ambiguity, as well as in retweet-behavior. To ease the analysis of data we suggest a retweet ratio, which is illustrated to be higher with important tweets and may help selecting tweets for mining. We argue that existing software has to be adapted and improved for German language characteristics, also to detect markedness, seriousness and truth},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schröter, Julian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Emergente Kollaborationsinfrastrukturen – Technologiegestaltung am Beispiel des inter-organisationalen Krisenmanagements
    In: Steffen Hölldobler: Ausgezeichnete Informatikdissertationen 2014. GI- Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), D-14. Bonner Köllen Verlag, , 209–218.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements untersucht die hier vorgestellte Dissertation die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten der Technologiegestaltung für emergente, d.h. dynamische und nicht vorhersehbare, Kontexte. Hierfür wird empirisch die kollaborative Arbeit von Polizei, Feuerwehr, Energienetzbetreibern und Bürgern im inter-organisationalen Katastrophenschutz erforscht, um exemplarische Kollaborationspraktiken zu ermitteln, die Limitationen der Arbeitsinfrastruktur aufdecken. Hierauf aufbauend werden neuartige Konzepte und IT-Artefakte gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, die emergente Kollaboration ermöglichen sollen. Neben der Erforschung potentieller organisationaler Effekte auf die Fähigkeit mit Emergenz umzugehen, werden methodische Implikationen für die Technologiegestaltung abgeleitet.

    @incollection{reuter_emergente_2015,
    title = {Emergente {Kollaborationsinfrastrukturen} – {Technologiegestaltung} am {Beispiel} des inter-organisationalen {Krisenmanagements}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_emergentekollaborationstechnologien_gi-dissertationspreis.pdf},
    abstract = {Am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements untersucht die hier vorgestellte Dissertation die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten der Technologiegestaltung für emergente, d.h. dynamische und nicht vorhersehbare, Kontexte. Hierfür wird empirisch die kollaborative Arbeit von Polizei, Feuerwehr, Energienetzbetreibern und Bürgern im inter-organisationalen Katastrophenschutz erforscht, um exemplarische Kollaborationspraktiken zu ermitteln, die Limitationen der Arbeitsinfrastruktur aufdecken. Hierauf aufbauend werden neuartige Konzepte und IT-Artefakte gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, die emergente Kollaboration ermöglichen sollen. Neben der Erforschung potentieller organisationaler Effekte auf die Fähigkeit mit Emergenz umzugehen, werden methodische Implikationen für die Technologiegestaltung abgeleitet.},
    booktitle = {Ausgezeichnete {Informatikdissertationen} 2014. {GI}- {Edition}-{Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {D}-14},
    publisher = {Bonner Köllen Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Hölldobler, Steffen},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, RSF},
    pages = {209--218},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2015)
    Editorial: Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fach-bereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_editorial_2015,
    title = {Editorial: {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuteretal_editorial-kritischehci_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fach-bereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Schmidt, Albrecht and Weisbecke, Anette and Burmester, Michael},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Ralf Heukäufer (2015)
    CoTable: Collaborative Social Media Analysis with Multi-Touch Tables
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Kristiansand, Norway.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    To be able to take efficient measures in crisis management, it is essential for emergency services to get as much details about an actual situation on-site as possible. Currently content from social media plays an important role since those platforms are used to spread crisis-relevant data within the population. Our contribution presents a concept which supports the situation assessment practices of emergency services by collaboratively evaluating and by analyzing citizen-generated content from social media using a multi-touch table. The concept was implemented based on a Microsoft PixelSense and evaluated with 14 participants. The results reveal the impact of subjectivity of the participants, their positioning around the table as well as the uniqueness of social media posts on the collaborative situation assessment with multi-touch tables

    @inproceedings{ludwig_cotable_2015,
    address = {Kristiansand, Norway},
    title = {{CoTable}: {Collaborative} {Social} {Media} {Analysis} with {Multi}-{Touch} {Tables}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreuterheukaeuferpipek_cotable_iscram.pdf},
    abstract = {To be able to take efficient measures in crisis management, it is essential for emergency services to get as much details about an actual situation on-site as possible. Currently content from social media plays an important role since those platforms are used to spread crisis-relevant data within the population. Our contribution presents a concept which supports the situation assessment practices of emergency services by collaboratively evaluating and by analyzing citizen-generated content from social media using a multi-touch table. The concept was implemented based on a Microsoft PixelSense and evaluated with 14 participants. The results reveal the impact of subjectivity of the participants, their positioning around the table as well as the uniqueness of social media posts on the collaborative situation assessment with multi-touch tables},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Heukäufer, Ralf},
    editor = {Palen, Leysia and Büscher, Monika and Comes, Tina and Hughes, Amanda Lee},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    Social Haystack: Dynamic Quality Assessment of Citizen-Generated Content during Emergencies
    ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) ;21(4):Article 17. doi:10.1145/2749461
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People all over the world are regularly affected by disasters and emergencies. Besides official emergency services, ordinary citizens are getting increasingly involved in crisis response work. They are usually present on-site at the place of incident and use social media to share information about the event. For emergency services, the large amount of citizen-generated content in social media, however, means that finding high-quality information is similar to “finding a needle in a haystack”. This article presents an approach to how a dynamic and subjective quality assessment of citizen-generated content could support the work of emergency services. First, we present results of our empirical study concerning the usage of citizen-generated content by emergency services. Based on our literature review and empirical study, we derive design guidelines and describe a concept for dynamic quality measurement that is implemented as a service-oriented web-application “Social Haystack.” Finally, we outline findings of its evaluation and implications thereof.

    @article{ludwig_social_2015,
    title = {Social {Haystack}: {Dynamic} {Quality} {Assessment} of {Citizen}-{Generated} {Content} during {Emergencies}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreuterpipek_socialhaystack_tochi.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2749461},
    abstract = {People all over the world are regularly affected by disasters and emergencies. Besides official emergency services, ordinary citizens are getting increasingly involved in crisis response work. They are usually present on-site at the place of incident and use social media to share information about the event. For emergency services, the large amount of citizen-generated content in social media, however, means that finding high-quality information is similar to “finding a needle in a haystack”. This article presents an approach to how a dynamic and subjective quality assessment of citizen-generated content could support the work of emergency services. First, we present results of our empirical study concerning the usage of citizen-generated content by emergency services. Based on our literature review and empirical study, we derive design guidelines and describe a concept for dynamic quality measurement that is implemented as a service-oriented web-application “Social Haystack.” Finally, we outline findings of its evaluation and implications thereof.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {Article 17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    XHELP: Design of a Cross-Platform Social-Media Application to Support Volunteer Moderators in Disasters
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702171
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with „digital volunteers“ such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application „XHELP“, which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.

    @inproceedings{reuter_xhelp_2015,
    address = {Seoul, Korea},
    title = {{XHELP}: {Design} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Social}-{Media} {Application} to {Support} {Volunteer} {Moderators} in {Disasters}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterLudwigKaufholdPipek_XHELP_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2702123.2702171},
    abstract = {Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with "digital volunteers" such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application "XHELP", which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4093--4102},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2015)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fachbereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_proceedings_2015,
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}"},
    abstract = {Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fachbereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weisbecker, Anette and Burmester, Michael and Schmidt, Albrecht},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Tim Siebigteroth, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    CrowdMonitor: Mobile Crowd Sensing for Assessing Physical and Digital Activities of Citizens during Emergencies
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies such as the 2013 Central European flood or the 2013 typhoon Haiyan in Philippines have shown how citizens can organize themselves and coordinate private relief activities. These activities can be found in (physical) groups of affected people, but also within (digital) social media communities. There is an evident need, however, for a clearer picture of what exactly is going on to be available for use by the official emergency services: to enlist them, to keep them safe, to support their efforts and to avoid need-less duplications or conflicts. Aligning emergency services and volunteer activities is, then, crucial. In this paper we present a mobile crowd sensing based concept, which was designed as well as implemented as the application CrowdMonitor and facilitates the detection of physical and digital activities and the assignment of specific tasks to citizens. Finally, we outline the findings of its evaluation.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_crowdmonitor_2015,
    address = {New York, USA},
    title = {{CrowdMonitor}: {Mobile} {Crowd} {Sensing} for {Assessing} {Physical} and {Digital} {Activities} of {Citizens} during {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreutersiebigterothpipek_crowdmonitor_chi.pdf},
    abstract = {Emergencies such as the 2013 Central European flood or the 2013 typhoon Haiyan in Philippines have shown how citizens can organize themselves and coordinate private relief activities. These activities can be found in (physical) groups of affected people, but also within (digital) social media communities. There is an evident need, however, for a clearer picture of what exactly is going on to be available for use by the official emergency services: to enlist them, to keep them safe, to support their efforts and to avoid need-less duplications or conflicts. Aligning emergency services and volunteer activities is, then, crucial. In this paper we present a mobile crowd sensing based concept, which was designed as well as implemented as the application CrowdMonitor and facilitates the detection of physical and digital activities and the assignment of specific tasks to citizens. Finally, we outline the findings of its evaluation.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Siebigteroth, Tim and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Begole, Bo and Jinwoo, Kim and Kor, Inkpeni and Woontack, Woo},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4083--4092},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler (2015)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems I: Citizen and Volunteers
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(2):i–ix.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.

    @article{reuter_guest_2015,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {I}: {Citizen} and {Volunteers}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_editorial-specialissue-hci-criticalsystems-i.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {i--ix},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler (2015)
    Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems I: Citizen and Volunteers – International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)
    IGI Global.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.

    @book{reuter_special_2015-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {I}: {Citizen} and {Volunteers} - {International} {Journal} of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({IJISCRAM})},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ijiscram-specialissue_hci-criticalsystems-i.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.},
    number = {2},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2015},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2015)
    Konzept und Evaluation einer Facebook-Applikation zur crossmedialen Selbstorganisation freiwilliger Helfer
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Osnabrück, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_konzept_2015,
    address = {Osnabrück, Germany},
    title = {Konzept und {Evaluation} einer {Facebook}-{Applikation} zur crossmedialen {Selbstorganisation} freiwilliger {Helfer}},
    url = {http://www.wi2015.uni-osnabrueck.de/Files/WI2015-D-14-911.pdf},
    abstract = {Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1844--1858},
    }

    2014

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2014)
    Ad Hoc Participation in Situation Assessment: Supporting Mobile Collaboration in Emergencies
    ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) ;21(5):1–26. doi:10.1145/2651365
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This paper presents a study on how emergent ‘collaboration needs‘ in current work of response teams, who are located on-site and in the control center, could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.

    @article{reuter_ad_2014,
    title = {Ad {Hoc} {Participation} in {Situation} {Assessment}: {Supporting} {Mobile} {Collaboration} in {Emergencies}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterludwigpipek_adhocparticipation_tochi.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2651365},
    abstract = {Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This paper presents a study on how emergent ‘collaboration needs' in current work of response teams, who are located on-site and in the control center, could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    month = nov,
    year = {2014},
    note = {Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Michael Herczeg, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2014)
    Editorial: Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen wird auch in Zukunft eine große Rolle spielen. Mit diesem Workshop möchten wir einen kleinen Beitrag leisten, diese Entwicklung in sinnvoller Weise mitzugestalten.

    @inproceedings{reuter_editorial_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Editorial: {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in {Krisensituationen}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2014/2014_Reuteretal_MCI-Krisen-Editorial_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen wird auch in Zukunft eine große Rolle spielen. Mit diesem Workshop möchten wir einen kleinen Beitrag leisten, diese Entwicklung in sinnvoller Weise mitzugestalten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Herczeg, Michael and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {101--104},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Michael Herczeg, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2014)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen“
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing spielen auch in Krisensituationen eine große Rolle. Durch die größere Verbreitung mobiler und ubiquitärer Technologien sowie die zunehmende Durchdringung sozialer und kooperativer Medien im Alltag haben sich auch im Bereich des Krisenmanagements und der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung neue Möglichkeiten und Potenziale, aber auch Problembereiche entwickelt, die besonderer Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Neue Ansätze und Prototypen adressieren Interaktionen und Kooperationen innerhalb und zwischen klassischen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), aber zunehmend auch die Einbeziehung der von der Krise betroffenen Akteure aus den Bereichen der Industrie und der Bürger, die eine Rolle als aktive Krisenmanager wahrnehmen und BOS unterstützen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_proceedings_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in {Krisensituationen}"},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2014/2014_Reuteretal_Eds_KrisenMCI_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing spielen auch in Krisensituationen eine große Rolle. Durch die größere Verbreitung mobiler und ubiquitärer Technologien sowie die zunehmende Durchdringung sozialer und kooperativer Medien im Alltag haben sich auch im Bereich des Krisenmanagements und der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung neue Möglichkeiten und Potenziale, aber auch Problembereiche entwickelt, die besonderer Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Neue Ansätze und Prototypen adressieren Interaktionen und Kooperationen innerhalb und zwischen klassischen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), aber zunehmend auch die Einbeziehung der von der Krise betroffenen Akteure aus den Bereichen der Industrie und der Bürger, die eine Rolle als aktive Krisenmanager wahrnehmen und BOS unterstützen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Herczeg, Michael and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {99--140},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis (2014)
    Adaptierbare Bewertung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Interaktiv unterwegs – Freiräume gestalten München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zwei Drittel aller Internetnutzer in Deutschland nutzen soziale Medien. Neben der Kommunikation mit eigenen Kontakten werden dort auch vermehrt Fotos, Filme und Inhalte ganz bewusst öffentlich geteilt. Vergangene Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa im Juni 2013, haben gezeigt, dass diese alltäglichen Verhaltensweisen ebenso in Ausnahmesituationen fortgeführt werden und bürgergenierte Inhalte auch dann beispielsweise über Facebook und Twitter verbreitet werden. Diese werden in Teilen von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie der Polizei und Feuerwehr, ausgewertet und für die Lagebeurteilung genutzt. Dieser Beitrag stellt, basierend auf einer Analyse verwandter Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte und die Bedingungen für deren Integration in die Lagebeurteilung durch BOS dar. Die hieraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in Anforderungen an einen adaptierbaren Bewertungsmechanismus für bürgergenerierte Inhalte aus sozialen Medien.

    @inproceedings{reuter_adaptierbare_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Adaptierbare {Bewertung} bürgergenerierter {Inhalte} aus sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/7536/Reuter_Ritzkatis_2014.pdf},
    abstract = {Zwei Drittel aller Internetnutzer in Deutschland nutzen soziale Medien. Neben der Kommunikation mit eigenen Kontakten werden dort auch vermehrt Fotos, Filme und Inhalte ganz bewusst öffentlich geteilt. Vergangene Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa im Juni 2013, haben gezeigt, dass diese alltäglichen Verhaltensweisen ebenso in Ausnahmesituationen fortgeführt werden und bürgergenierte Inhalte auch dann beispielsweise über Facebook und Twitter verbreitet werden. Diese werden in Teilen von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie der Polizei und Feuerwehr, ausgewertet und für die Lagebeurteilung genutzt. Dieser Beitrag stellt, basierend auf einer Analyse verwandter Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte und die Bedingungen für deren Integration in die Lagebeurteilung durch BOS dar. Die hieraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in Anforderungen an einen adaptierbaren Bewertungsmechanismus für bürgergenerierte Inhalte aus sozialen Medien.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Interaktiv} unterwegs – {Freiräume} gestalten},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {115--124},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis, Thomas Ludwig (2014)
    Entwicklung eines SOA-basierten und anpassbaren Bewertungsdienstes für Inhalte aus sozialen Medien
    Informatik 2014 – Big Data – Komplexität meistern Stuttgart, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Beitrag soll aufzeigen, wie ein anpassbarer Bewertungsdienst die Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien unterstützen kann. Dabei soll insbesondere geklärt werden, wie dieser gestaltet werden kann und wie Nutzer die Qualitätskriterien angemessen artikulieren können. Nach einer Darstellung von Grundlagen und verwandten Arbeiten wird anhand einer empirischen Vorstudie der Umgang von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit bürgergenerierten Informationen betrachtet. Basierend auf den dort gewonnen Erkenntnissen wurde ein service-orientierter Bewertungsdienst entwickelt und in eine Anwendung integriert, welche so den Zugang zu bürgergenerierten Informationen aus verschiedenen sozialen Medien inklusive einer anpassbaren Qualitätsbewertung ermöglicht. Eine abschließende Evaluation illustriert deren mögliche Anwendung in der Praxis.

    @inproceedings{reuter_entwicklung_2014,
    address = {Stuttgart, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung eines {SOA}-basierten und anpassbaren {Bewertungsdienstes} für {Inhalte} aus sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterritzkatisludwig-soabewertungsozialemedien_inf.pdf},
    abstract = {Dieser Beitrag soll aufzeigen, wie ein anpassbarer Bewertungsdienst die Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien unterstützen kann. Dabei soll insbesondere geklärt werden, wie dieser gestaltet werden kann und wie Nutzer die Qualitätskriterien angemessen artikulieren können. Nach einer Darstellung von Grundlagen und verwandten Arbeiten wird anhand einer empirischen Vorstudie der Umgang von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit bürgergenerierten Informationen betrachtet. Basierend auf den dort gewonnen Erkenntnissen wurde ein service-orientierter Bewertungsdienst entwickelt und in eine Anwendung integriert, welche so den Zugang zu bürgergenerierten Informationen aus verschiedenen sozialen Medien inklusive einer anpassbaren Qualitätsbewertung ermöglicht. Eine abschließende Evaluation illustriert deren mögliche Anwendung in der Praxis.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2014 - {Big} {Data} - {Komplexität} meistern},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Plöderereder, E. and Grunske, L. and Schneider, E. and Ull, D.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {977--988},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Vernetzte Selbsthilfe in Sozialen Medien am Beispiel des Hochwassers 2013 / Linked Self-Help in Social Media using the example of the Floods 2013 in Germany
    i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien ;13(1):20–28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @article{kaufhold_vernetzte_2014,
    title = {Vernetzte {Selbsthilfe} in {Sozialen} {Medien} am {Beispiel} des {Hochwassers} 2013 / {Linked} {Self}-{Help} in {Social} {Media} using the example of the {Floods} 2013 in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_kaufholdreuter_vernetzteselbsthilfehochwasser_icom.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004},
    abstract = {Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {20--28},
    }

  • Benedikt Ley, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Dave Randall, Christian Reuter, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2014)
    Information and Expertise Sharing in Inter-Organizational Crisis Management
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;23(4-6):347–387. doi:10.1007/s10606-014-9205-2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergency or crisis management, as is well-attested, is a complex management problem. A variety of agencies need to collaborate and coordinate in real-time and with an urgency that is not always present in other domains. It follows that accurate information of varying kinds (e.g. geographical and weather conditions; available skills and expertises; state-of-play; current dispositions and deployments) needs to be made available in a timely fashion to the organizations and individuals who need it. By definition, this information will come from a number of sources both within and across organizations. Large-scale events in particular necessitate collaboration with other organizations. Of course, plans and processes exist to deal with such events but the number of dynamically changing factors as well as the high number of heterogeneous organizations and the high degree of interdependency involved make it impossible to plan for all contingencies. A degree of ongoing improvisation, which typically occurs by means of a variety of information and expertise sharing practices, therefore becomes necessary. This, however, faces many challenges, such as different organizational cultures, distinct individual and coordinative work practices and discrete information systems. Our work entails an examination of the practices of information and expertise sharing, and the obstacles to it, in inter-organizational crisis management. We conceive of this as a design case study, such that we examine a problem area and its scope; conduct detailed enquiries into practice in that area, and provide design recommendations for implementation and evaluation. First, we will present the results of an empirical study of collaboration practices between organizations and public authorities with security responsibilities such as the police, fire departments, public administration and electricity network operators, mainly in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Based on these results, we will describe a concept, which was designed, implemented and evaluated as a system prototype, in two iterations. While the first iteration focuses on situation assessment, the second iteration also includes inter-organizational collaboration functionalities. Based on the findings of our evaluations with practitioners, we will discuss how to support collaboration with a particular focus on information and expertise sharing.

    @article{ley_information_2014,
    title = {Information and {Expertise} {Sharing} in {Inter}-{Organizational} {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {23},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_informationsharingcrisis_jcscw.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-014-9205-2},
    abstract = {Emergency or crisis management, as is well-attested, is a complex management problem. A variety of agencies need to collaborate and coordinate in real-time and with an urgency that is not always present in other domains. It follows that accurate information of varying kinds (e.g. geographical and weather conditions; available skills and expertises; state-of-play; current dispositions and deployments) needs to be made available in a timely fashion to the organizations and individuals who need it. By definition, this information will come from a number of sources both within and across organizations. Large-scale events in particular necessitate collaboration with other organizations. Of course, plans and processes exist to deal with such events but the number of dynamically changing factors as well as the high number of heterogeneous organizations and the high degree of interdependency involved make it impossible to plan for all contingencies. A degree of ongoing improvisation, which typically occurs by means of a variety of information and expertise sharing practices, therefore becomes necessary. This, however, faces many challenges, such as different organizational cultures, distinct individual and coordinative work practices and discrete information systems. Our work entails an examination of the practices of information and expertise sharing, and the obstacles to it, in inter-organizational crisis management. We conceive of this as a design case study, such that we examine a problem area and its scope; conduct detailed enquiries into practice in that area, and provide design recommendations for implementation and evaluation. First, we will present the results of an empirical study of collaboration practices between organizations and public authorities with security responsibilities such as the police, fire departments, public administration and electricity network operators, mainly in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Based on these results, we will describe a concept, which was designed, implemented and evaluated as a system prototype, in two iterations. While the first iteration focuses on situation assessment, the second iteration also includes inter-organizational collaboration functionalities. Based on the findings of our evaluations with practitioners, we will discuss how to support collaboration with a particular focus on information and expertise sharing.},
    number = {4-6},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Ley, Benedikt and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Randall, Dave and Reuter, Christian and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {347--387},
    }

  • Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Special Issue zu „Interaktion und Kooperation im Krisenmanagement“ – i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{pipek_special_2014,
    title = {Special {Issue} zu "{Interaktion} und {Kooperation} im {Krisenmanagement}" - i-com - {Zeitschrift} für interaktive und kooperative {Medien}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2014.13.issue-1/issue-files/icom.2014.13.issue-1.xml},
    number = {1},
    author = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    note = {Publication Title: i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Entwicklung einer mobilen Reporting-Applikation zur Artikulation entscheidungsrelevanter Informationsbedarfe im Katastrophenschutz
    Informatik 2014 – Big Data – Komplexität meistern Stuttgart, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen stets möglichst aktuelle und genaue Informationen. Diese werden dabei je nach Lage von den Einsatzkräften, welche sich am Schadensort befinden, via Funk an die teilweise entfernt sitzenden Entscheidungsträger berichtet. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Berichts- bzw. Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie deckten wir die Kommunikationspraktiken von BOS auf und entwickelten darauf aufbauend ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag präsentiert, wie zielgerichtete Anfragen von Informationen unter Berücksichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Berichts- und Meldewesen örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_entwicklung_2014,
    address = {Stuttgart, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung einer mobilen {Reporting}-{Applikation} zur {Artikulation} entscheidungsrelevanter {Informationsbedarfe} im {Katastrophenschutz}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_ludwigreuter_morepartikulation_inf.pdf},
    abstract = {Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen stets möglichst aktuelle und genaue Informationen. Diese werden dabei je nach Lage von den Einsatzkräften, welche sich am Schadensort befinden, via Funk an die teilweise entfernt sitzenden Entscheidungsträger berichtet. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Berichts- bzw. Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie deckten wir die Kommunikationspraktiken von BOS auf und entwickelten darauf aufbauend ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag präsentiert, wie zielgerichtete Anfragen von Informationen unter Berücksichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Berichts- und Meldewesen örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2014 - {Big} {Data} - {Komplexität} meistern},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Plöderereder, E. and Grunske, L. and Schneider, E. and Ull, D.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Cooperation},
    pages = {941--952},
    }

  • Reynold Greenlaw, Andrew Muddiman, Therese Friberg, Matthias Moi, Massimo Cristaldi, Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter (2014)
    The EmerGent project: Emergency Management in Social Media Generation – Dealing with Big Data from Social Media Data Stream
    Workshop on Big Data, Intelligence Management and Analytics Workshop. 7th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC) London, United Kingdom. doi:10.1109/UCC.2014.111
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper describes EmerGent which is a new EU FP7 project currently engaging with users, gathering requirements and writing initial technical specifications and deals with the impact of social media in emergency management. This paper describes the overall objectives of the project and the plans to create an online big data semantic store of social media will be outlined.

    @inproceedings{greenlaw_emergent_2014,
    address = {London, United Kingdom},
    title = {The {EmerGent} project: {Emergency} {Management} in {Social} {Media} {Generation} – {Dealing} with {Big} {Data} from {Social} {Media} {Data} {Stream}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_emergentbigdata_ucc.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/UCC.2014.111},
    abstract = {This paper describes EmerGent which is a new EU FP7 project currently engaging with users, gathering requirements and writing initial technical specifications and deals with the impact of social media in emergency management. This paper describes the overall objectives of the project and the plans to create an online big data semantic store of social media will be outlined.},
    booktitle = {Workshop on {Big} {Data}, {Intelligence} {Management} and {Analytics} {Workshop}. 7th {IEEE}/{ACM} {International} {Conference} on {Utility} and {Cloud} {Computing} ({UCC})},
    author = {Greenlaw, Reynold and Muddiman, Andrew and Friberg, Therese and Moi, Matthias and Cristaldi, Massimo and Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {687--689},
    }

    2013

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    What You See Is What I Need: Mobile Reporting Practices in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW) Paphos, Cyrus. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Decisions of emergency response organisations (police, fire fighters, infrastructure providers, etc.) rely on accurate and timely information. Some necessary information is integrated into control centre’s IT (weather, availability of electricity, gauge information, etc.), but almost every decision needs to be based on very specific information of the current crisis situation. Due to the unpredictable nature of a crisis, gathering this kind of information requires much improvisation and articulation work which we aim to support. We present a study on how different emergency response organisations communicate with teams on-site to generate necessary information for the coordinating instances, and we described, implemented and evaluated an interaction concept as well as a prototype to support this communication by a semi-structured request-and-report system based on Android devices. We learned that (1) the accuracy of request and reports can be improved by using an appropriate metadata structure in addition to creating multimedia-based information content, (2) requirements of trusted and fast information need to be respected in support concepts although they may even be contradictory, and (3) the coordination strategy of the emergency response organisation also shapes the way this interaction needs to be designed.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_what_2013,
    address = {Paphos, Cyrus},
    title = {What {You} {See} {Is} {What} {I} {Need}: {Mobile} {Reporting} {Practices} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10},
    doi = {10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10},
    abstract = {Decisions of emergency response organisations (police, fire fighters, infrastructure providers, etc.) rely on accurate and timely information. Some necessary information is integrated into control centre's IT (weather, availability of electricity, gauge information, etc.), but almost every decision needs to be based on very specific information of the current crisis situation. Due to the unpredictable nature of a crisis, gathering this kind of information requires much improvisation and articulation work which we aim to support. We present a study on how different emergency response organisations communicate with teams on-site to generate necessary information for the coordinating instances, and we described, implemented and evaluated an interaction concept as well as a prototype to support this communication by a semi-structured request-and-report system based on Android devices. We learned that (1) the accuracy of request and reports can be improved by using an appropriate metadata structure in addition to creating multimedia-based information content, (2) requirements of trusted and fast information need to be respected in support concepts although they may even be contradictory, and (3) the coordination strategy of the emergency response organisation also shapes the way this interaction needs to be designed.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} ({ECSCW})},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Bertelsen, Olav W. and Ciolfi, Luigina and Grasso, Antonietta and Papadopoulos, George Angelos},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-C, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {181--206},
    }

  • Oliver Heger, Christian Reuter (2013)
    IT-basierte Unterstützung virtueller und realer Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Leipzig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social Media wird zunehmend von Betroffenen und Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen genutzt. In diesem Beitrag werden Studien zu ‚virtuellen‘ und ‚realen‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten dargestellt. Untersucht wurden zum einen ‚virtuelle‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten in Twitter während der Tornadokatastrophe in den USA am 27./28.4.2011 mit besonderem Fokus auf die zeitlichen Verläufe und Nutzergruppen; zum anderen ‚reale‘ Selbsthilfe anhand Interviews mit Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS). Hierauf aufbauend werden Gestaltungsaspekte und Anforderungen für Social Media zur Unterstützung von Krisenhelfern bzw. Selbst- und Nachbarschafts- hilfe und zur Kombination von virtuellen und realen Aktivitäten im Katastrophenmanagement diskutiert.

    @inproceedings{heger_it-basierte_2013,
    address = {Leipzig, Germany},
    title = {{IT}-basierte {Unterstützung} virtueller und realer {Selbsthilfegemeinschaften} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_HegerReuter_IT-Selbsthilfegemeinschaften_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Social Media wird zunehmend von Betroffenen und Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen genutzt. In diesem Beitrag werden Studien zu ‚virtuellen‘ und ‚realen‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten dargestellt. Untersucht wurden zum einen ‚virtuelle‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten in Twitter während der Tornadokatastrophe in den USA am 27./28.4.2011 mit besonderem Fokus auf die zeitlichen Verläufe und Nutzergruppen; zum anderen ‚reale‘ Selbsthilfe anhand Interviews mit Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS). Hierauf aufbauend werden Gestaltungsaspekte und Anforderungen für Social Media zur Unterstützung von Krisenhelfern bzw. Selbst- und Nachbarschafts- hilfe und zur Kombination von virtuellen und realen Aktivitäten im Katastrophenmanagement diskutiert.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Heger, Oliver and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Rainer and Franczyk, Bogdan},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1861--1875},
    }

  • Torben Wiedenhoefer, Christian Reuter, Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Entwicklung IT-basierter interorganisationaler Krisenmanagement-Infrastrukturen für Stromausfälle
    Informatik 2013 – Informatik angepasst an Mensch, Organisation und Umwelt Koblenz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Große Stromausfälle, wie beispielsweise der Ausfall der Stromversorgung im Nordosten der USA (2003) oder der Ausfall in weiten Teilen von West-Europa (2005), machen die fundamentale Bedeutung von Strom in unserem täglichen Leben deutlich. Sie zeigen auch, welche wichtige Rolle die Kooperation und Zusammenarbeit zwischen allen Beteiligten der Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit spielt. Die Erfahrungen aus diesen Ausfällen legen nahe, dass Stromnetzbetreiber, Feuerwehr, Polizei, Behörden und Bürger einer Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Herausforderungen in der interorganisationalen Kommunikation und innerhalb von Informations- und Koordinierungsprozessen gegenüberstehen. Ziel des Forschungsprojekts „InfoStrom“, welches vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung seit 2010 und bis Ende 2013 gefördert wird, ist die Entwicklung von Konzepten, um diese Zusammenarbeit zu unterstützten und letztlich zu verbessern. In diesem Beitrag werden potentielle Fragen und zukünftige Themen und erzielte Ergebnisse dargestellt, die sich auf die benutzerzentrierte Technologieentwicklung im Krisenmanagement und auf domain-spezifische Probleme, wie die Verbesserung der Integration von Bürgern in das Krisenmanagement, den Umgang mit Informationsunsicherheiten oder die Unterstützung des interorganisationalen Lernens, beziehen.

    @inproceedings{wiedenhoefer_entwicklung_2013,
    address = {Koblenz, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung {IT}-basierter interorganisationaler {Krisenmanagement}-{Infrastrukturen} für {Stromausfälle}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_WiedenhoeferReuterLeyPipek_KrisenmanagementInfrastrukturen_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Große Stromausfälle, wie beispielsweise der Ausfall der Stromversorgung im Nordosten der USA (2003) oder der Ausfall in weiten Teilen von West-Europa (2005), machen die fundamentale Bedeutung von Strom in unserem täglichen Leben deutlich. Sie zeigen auch, welche wichtige Rolle die Kooperation und Zusammenarbeit zwischen allen Beteiligten der Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit spielt. Die Erfahrungen aus diesen Ausfällen legen nahe, dass Stromnetzbetreiber, Feuerwehr, Polizei, Behörden und Bürger einer Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Herausforderungen in der interorganisationalen Kommunikation und innerhalb von Informations- und Koordinierungsprozessen gegenüberstehen. Ziel des Forschungsprojekts „InfoStrom“, welches vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung seit 2010 und bis Ende 2013 gefördert wird, ist die Entwicklung von Konzepten, um diese Zusammenarbeit zu unterstützten und letztlich zu verbessern. In diesem Beitrag werden potentielle Fragen und zukünftige Themen und erzielte Ergebnisse dargestellt, die sich auf die benutzerzentrierte Technologieentwicklung im Krisenmanagement und auf domain-spezifische Probleme, wie die Verbesserung der Integration von Bürgern in das Krisenmanagement, den Umgang mit Informationsunsicherheiten oder die Unterstützung des interorganisationalen Lernens, beziehen.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2013 - {Informatik} angepasst an {Mensch}, {Organisation} und {Umwelt}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Reuter, Christian and Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Hornbach, Matthias},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {1649--1658},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis (2013)
    Unterstützung mobiler Geo-Kollaboration zur Lageeinschätzung von Feuerwehr und Polizei
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Leipzig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aufgrund komplexer und dringlicher Aufgaben steht die Zusammenarbeit über örtliche und organisationale Grenzen hinweg bei Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie Feuerwehr und Polizei, an der Tagesordnung. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu untersuchen, wie die Kollaboration von Einsatzkräften vor Ort und jenen in der Leitstelle durch mobile Geokollaborationssysteme unterstützt werden kann. Nach einer Darstellung verwandter Arbeiten werden anhand einer qualitativen empirischen Studie die Informations- und Kommunikationspraktiken mobiler Einsatzkräfte vorgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend folgt die Konzeptionierung und Umsetzung eines mobilen Geokolla- borationssystems, welches an ein bestehendes Krisenmanagementsystem und Geoinformationssystem (GIS) angebunden ist und als Android-App realisiert wurde. Abschließend werden die Evaluationsergebnisse dieses Systems im Anwendungsfeld vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_unterstutzung_2013,
    address = {Leipzig, Germany},
    title = {Unterstützung mobiler {Geo}-{Kollaboration} zur {Lageeinschätzung} von {Feuerwehr} und {Polizei}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterRitzkatis_MobileGeoKollaboration_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Aufgrund komplexer und dringlicher Aufgaben steht die Zusammenarbeit über örtliche und organisationale Grenzen hinweg bei Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie Feuerwehr und Polizei, an der Tagesordnung. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu untersuchen, wie die Kollaboration von Einsatzkräften vor Ort und jenen in der Leitstelle durch mobile Geokollaborationssysteme unterstützt werden kann. Nach einer Darstellung verwandter Arbeiten werden anhand einer qualitativen empirischen Studie die Informations- und Kommunikationspraktiken mobiler Einsatzkräfte vorgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend folgt die Konzeptionierung und Umsetzung eines mobilen Geokolla- borationssystems, welches an ein bestehendes Krisenmanagementsystem und Geoinformationssystem (GIS) angebunden ist und als Android-App realisiert wurde. Abschließend werden die Evaluationsergebnisse dieses Systems im Anwendungsfeld vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael},
    editor = {Alt, Rainer and Franczyk, Bogdan},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1877--1891},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Combining Real and Virtual Volunteers through Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.

    @inproceedings{reuter_combining_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Combining {Real} and {Virtual} {Volunteers} through {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterHegerPipek_RealVirtualVolunteersSocialMedia_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {780--790},
    }

  • Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter, Benedikt Ley, Thomas Ludwig, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2013)
    Sicherheitsarena – Ein Ansatz zur Verbesserung des Krisenmanagements durch Kooperation und Vernetzung
    Bonn, Germany: 2013.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{pipek_sicherheitsarena_2013,
    address = {Bonn, Germany},
    title = {Sicherheitsarena – {Ein} {Ansatz} zur {Verbesserung} des {Krisenmanagements} durch {Kooperation} und {Vernetzung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_PipekReuterLeyLudwigWiedenhoefer_Sicherheitsarena_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    number = {3},
    author = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian and Ley, Benedikt and Ludwig, Thomas and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation},
    pages = {58--59},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2013)
    Power Outage Communications: Survey of Needs, Infrastructures and Concepts
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis communication during power outages poses several challenges. Frist, the causes of power outages are often events such as severe weather, which also lead to complications. Second, power outages themselves lead to limitations in everyday life. Third, communication infrastructures, that are necessary for crisis communication, are often affected. This work focuses on the communication of the organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public affected by the power outage. Therefore this paper investigates the perception and the information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Taking the users‘ needs into consideration, an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based concept for crisis communication, which combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users. ICT-based concepts can gain acceptance, however they should be understood as supplemental for some target groups and in some scenarios.

    @inproceedings{reuter_power_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Power {Outage} {Communications}: {Survey} of {Needs}, {Infrastructures} and {Concepts}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_Reuter_PowerOutageCommunication_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis communication during power outages poses several challenges. Frist, the causes of power outages are often events such as severe weather, which also lead to complications. Second, power outages themselves lead to limitations in everyday life. Third, communication infrastructures, that are necessary for crisis communication, are often affected. This work focuses on the communication of the organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public affected by the power outage. Therefore this paper investigates the perception and the information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Taking the users' needs into consideration, an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based concept for crisis communication, which combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users. ICT-based concepts can gain acceptance, however they should be understood as supplemental for some target groups and in some scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, RSF},
    pages = {884--889},
    }

    2012

  • Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2012)
    Supporting improvisation work in inter-organizational crisis management
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) New York, USA. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208617
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Improvisation is necessary when planned decision-making as the main managerial activity does not fit the conditions the practice provides. In these cases, information technology should not just automate planned and structured decisions, but support improvisational practice. In this contribution we present an empirical study about the improvisation work in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Our focus is on inter-organizational cooperation practices, thus we examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material allows to describe reasons and conditions for improvisation. Our resulting recommendations address the support of aggregation and visualization of information, a necessary individualization of information compositions, options for collaborative situation assessment, requirements for informal and formal communication, and accessibility of information resources.

    @inproceedings{ley_supporting_2012,
    address = {New York, USA},
    title = {Supporting improvisation work in inter-organizational crisis management},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-1015-4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_LeyPipekReuterWiedenhoefer_ImprovisationWork_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2207676.2208617},
    abstract = {Improvisation is necessary when planned decision-making as the main managerial activity does not fit the conditions the practice provides. In these cases, information technology should not just automate planned and structured decisions, but support improvisational practice. In this contribution we present an empirical study about the improvisation work in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Our focus is on inter-organizational cooperation practices, thus we examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material allows to describe reasons and conditions for improvisation. Our resulting recommendations address the support of aggregation and visualization of information, a necessary individualization of information compositions, options for collaborative situation assessment, requirements for informal and formal communication, and accessibility of information resources.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-RSBE, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {1529},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Social Media for Supporting Emergent Groups in Crisis Management
    Proceedings of the CSCW Workshop on Collaboration and Crisis Informatics, International Reports on Socio Informatics Bonn, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The great importance of Social Media for our today’s life causes an increasing use of internet-based platforms in crisis situations. Our work intends to show how so-called Emergent Groups, which arise as a result of crises, consist of private citizens and are not yet institutionalized organizations, can be supported by Social Media. At first, our literature review’s objective is to define the term ‘Emergent Group‘ and to outline their usage of Social Media as well as software-based requirements and suitable concepts to support such groups. A following quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis of a tornado crisis in the USA enables a closer look at especially virtual working Emergent Groups. Building on our literature review and empirical analysis, we discuss implications, derive further requirements and present a concept for the design of appropriate Social Software. We finally conclude by giving some potential research issues.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2012,
    address = {Bonn, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} for {Supporting} {Emergent} {Groups} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterHegerPipek_SocialMediaEmergentGroups_CSCW-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {The great importance of Social Media for our today's life causes an increasing use of internet-based platforms in crisis situations. Our work intends to show how so-called Emergent Groups, which arise as a result of crises, consist of private citizens and are not yet institutionalized organizations, can be supported by Social Media. At first, our literature review's objective is to define the term ‘Emergent Group' and to outline their usage of Social Media as well as software-based requirements and suitable concepts to support such groups. A following quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis of a tornado crisis in the USA enables a closer look at especially virtual working Emergent Groups. Building on our literature review and empirical analysis, we discuss implications, derive further requirements and present a concept for the design of appropriate Social Software. We finally conclude by giving some potential research issues.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {CSCW} {Workshop} on {Collaboration} and {Crisis} {Informatics}, {International} {Reports} on {Socio} {Informatics}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Palen, Leysia and Landgren, Jonas},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation},
    pages = {84--92},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Torben Wiedenhoefer, Benedikt Ley (2012)
    Dealing with terminologies in collaborative systems for crisis management
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Vancouver, Canada.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper presents approaches on how to deal with terminological ambiguities (different understandings of terms in heterogeneous groups of actors) in collaborative systems. First we will give some insight on the conceptual and theoretical foundation surrounding the ‘triangle of reference‘, a model of how linguistic symbols are related to the objects they represent. Then we will describe the results of our exploratory empirical study, which was conducted in Germany, and dealt with inter-organisational crisis communication. Based on this, we will then deduce requirements necessary for supporting and dealing with terminologies, and propose technical approaches for collaborative systems.

    @inproceedings{reuter_dealing_2012,
    address = {Vancouver, Canada},
    title = {Dealing with terminologies in collaborative systems for crisis management},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterPipekWiedenhoeferLey_TerminologiesCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {This paper presents approaches on how to deal with terminological ambiguities (different understandings of terms in heterogeneous groups of actors) in collaborative systems. First we will give some insight on the conceptual and theoretical foundation surrounding the ‘triangle of reference', a model of how linguistic symbols are related to the objects they represent. Then we will describe the results of our exploratory empirical study, which was conducted in Germany, and dealt with inter-organisational crisis communication. Based on this, we will then deduce requirements necessary for supporting and dealing with terminologies, and propose technical approaches for collaborative systems.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Ley, Benedikt},
    editor = {Rothkrantz, L. and Ristvey, J. and Franco, Z.},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation},
    pages = {1--5},
    }

  • Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2012)
    Supporting Inter-organizational Situation Assessment in Crisis Management
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Vancouver, Canada.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    To assess current situation properly is crucial for effective decision-making in crisis management. However, gathering accurate information from incidence sites and providing appropriate support for assessment practices faces several challenges. The unique information demands of each crisis situation, the information availability or inter-organizational problems and obstacles to information exchange are important factors that need to be considered in designing ICT. In this contribution we present results from an empirical study about decision-making practices in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. We focused on the needs and practices on information exchange at the level of inter-organizational cooperation. We examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material reflects particularly conditions and challenges in current situation assessment practices, and we were able to derive some design requirements for an inter-organizational situation assessment client (ISAC) as a complementary tool for the crisis management infrastructures the individual organizations have already build for their own areas of responsibility: Support for the aggregation and visualization of information, for the individualization of information compositions, for a collaborative situation assessment and for appropriate structures for sharing and accessing information resources.

    @inproceedings{ley_supporting_2012-1,
    address = {Vancouver, Canada},
    title = {Supporting {Inter}-organizational {Situation} {Assessment} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_LeyPipekReuterWiedenhoefer_SituationAssessment_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {To assess current situation properly is crucial for effective decision-making in crisis management. However, gathering accurate information from incidence sites and providing appropriate support for assessment practices faces several challenges. The unique information demands of each crisis situation, the information availability or inter-organizational problems and obstacles to information exchange are important factors that need to be considered in designing ICT. In this contribution we present results from an empirical study about decision-making practices in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. We focused on the needs and practices on information exchange at the level of inter-organizational cooperation. We examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material reflects particularly conditions and challenges in current situation assessment practices, and we were able to derive some design requirements for an inter-organizational situation assessment client (ISAC) as a complementary tool for the crisis management infrastructures the individual organizations have already build for their own areas of responsibility: Support for the aggregation and visualization of information, for the individualization of information compositions, for a collaborative situation assessment and for appropriate structures for sharing and accessing information resources.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    editor = {Rothkrantz, L. and Ristvey, J. and Franco, Z.},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Crisis Management 2.0: Towards a Systematization of Social Software Use in Crisis Situations
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;4(1):1–16. doi:10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software‘ we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.

    @article{reuter_crisis_2012,
    title = {Crisis {Management} 2.0: {Towards} a {Systematization} of {Social} {Software} {Use} in {Crisis} {Situations}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterMarxPipek_CrisisManagement20-SystematizationSocialSoftware_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101},
    abstract = {The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software' we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

    2011

  • Christian Reuter (2011)
    IT-basierte Kooperationsunterstützung im interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement
    In: Michael Koch: Doktoranden-Kolloquium der Tagung Mensch & Computer 2011. .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Die Dezentralität einer Organisation hat maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die Ausgestaltung von Kooperationsprozessen und deren Unterstützung durch IT-basierte Kooperationssysteme. Mein Dissertationsvorhaben untersucht momentane und potentielle Kooperationsprozesse im Spannungsfeld von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen, Organisationen und Bürgern im interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement bei Großschadenslagen. Ziel ist die Beantwortung der Frage, wie IT-basierte Kooperationsunterstützung dezentraler Organisationen am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements erfolgen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_it-basierte_2011,
    title = {{IT}-basierte {Kooperationsunterstützung} im interorganisationalen {Krisenmanagement}},
    abstract = {Die Dezentralität einer Organisation hat maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die Ausgestaltung von Kooperationsprozessen und deren Unterstützung durch IT-basierte Kooperationssysteme. Mein Dissertationsvorhaben untersucht momentane und potentielle Kooperationsprozesse im Spannungsfeld von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen, Organisationen und Bürgern im interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement bei Großschadenslagen. Ziel ist die Beantwortung der Frage, wie IT-basierte Kooperationsunterstützung dezentraler Organisationen am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements erfolgen kann.},
    booktitle = {Doktoranden-{Kolloquium} der {Tagung} {Mensch} \& {Computer} 2011},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Koch, Michael},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2011)
    Motive und Barrieren für Social Software in Organisationen und im Krisenmanagement
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Chemnitz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Es existieren zahlreiche Motive und Barrieren zur Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen und Organisationen. Ein mögliches Anwendungsszenario ist das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen und Bürgern bei Großschadenslagen. In diesem Beitrag werden Motive und Barrieren der Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen herausgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend werden diese auf das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement übertragen und Besonderheiten herausgearbeitet. Ziel ist die Darstellung möglicher Motive zur Nutzung von Social Software in der interorganisationalen Krisenkooperation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_motive_2011,
    address = {Chemnitz, Germany},
    title = {Motive und {Barrieren} für {Social} {Software} in {Organisationen} und im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_Reuter_MotiveBarrierenSocialSoftware_MuC-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {Es existieren zahlreiche Motive und Barrieren zur Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen und Organisationen. Ein mögliches Anwendungsszenario ist das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen und Bürgern bei Großschadenslagen. In diesem Beitrag werden Motive und Barrieren der Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen herausgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend werden diese auf das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement übertragen und Besonderheiten herausgearbeitet. Ziel ist die Darstellung möglicher Motive zur Nutzung von Social Software in der interorganisationalen Krisenkooperation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Universitätsverlag Chemnitz},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Ritter, Marc},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {87--90},
    }

  • Torben Wiedenhoefer, Christian Reuter, Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Inter-organizational crisis management infrastructures for electrical power breakdowns
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Lisbon, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Major electricity breakdowns like the Northeast Blackout (USA) in 2003 or the blackout in most parts of Western Europe in 2005, have shown the fundamental role of electricity in our everyday life. The experiences of these accidents show that power suppliers, firefighters, police, county administration and citizens face multifarious challenges in inter-organizational communication, information and coordination processes during coping and recovery work. In this work-in-progress paper we describe early research dealing with inter-organizational issues in emergency management (EM). We are mainly focusing on supporting social practices in inter-organizational EM, for example collaborative interpretation of emergency situations, ad-hoc coordination or supporting citizen communication and helping routines. Identified from our experiences from related projects, discussions and literature studies, we suggest potential questions and future topics in user-driven software engineering processes for EM and domain specific problems, such as supporting citizen participation, coping with information uncertainties and quality variations or enhancing inter-organizational learning.

    @inproceedings{wiedenhoefer_inter-organizational_2011,
    address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
    title = {Inter-organizational crisis management infrastructures for electrical power breakdowns},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_WiedenhoeferReuterLeyPipek_CrisisManagementInfrastructures_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Major electricity breakdowns like the Northeast Blackout (USA) in 2003 or the blackout in most parts of Western Europe in 2005, have shown the fundamental role of electricity in our everyday life. The experiences of these accidents show that power suppliers, firefighters, police, county administration and citizens face multifarious challenges in inter-organizational communication, information and coordination processes during coping and recovery work. In this work-in-progress paper we describe early research dealing with inter-organizational issues in emergency management (EM). We are mainly focusing on supporting social practices in inter-organizational EM, for example collaborative interpretation of emergency situations, ad-hoc coordination or supporting citizen communication and helping routines. Identified from our experiences from related projects, discussions and literature studies, we suggest potential questions and future topics in user-driven software engineering processes for EM and domain specific problems, such as supporting citizen participation, coping with information uncertainties and quality variations or enhancing inter-organizational learning.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Reuter, Christian and Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Patrik Pohl, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Umgang mit Terminologien in inter- organisationaler Krisenkooperation – eine explorative Empirie
    Mensch & Computer 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Auswirkungen terminologischer Mehrdeutigkeiten, d.h. unterschiedlicher Begriffs-Verständnisse heterogener Akteursgruppen, auf die Gestaltung organisationsübergreifender Kooperationssysteme herauszustellen. Nach einer Darstellung theoretischer Ansätze des Umgangs mit Terminologien stellen wir unsere explorative empirische Studie, die wir am Beispiel des organisationsübergreifenden Krisenmanagements durchgeführt haben, vor. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere Befunde, leiten Anforderungen ab und schlagen technische Lösungen vor. Auch diskutieren wir Ansätze des Terminologiemanagements bezüglich ihrer Anwendbarkeit und stellen kooperative Ansätze zum Umgang mit Terminologien in interorganisationalen Kooperationssystemen vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_umgang_2011,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Umgang mit {Terminologien} in inter- organisationaler {Krisenkooperation} - eine explorative {Empirie}},
    isbn = {978-3-486-71235-3},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterPohlPipek_UmgangTerminologienKrisenkooperation_MenschComputer.pdf},
    abstract = {Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Auswirkungen terminologischer Mehrdeutigkeiten, d.h. unterschiedlicher Begriffs-Verständnisse heterogener Akteursgruppen, auf die Gestaltung organisationsübergreifender Kooperationssysteme herauszustellen. Nach einer Darstellung theoretischer Ansätze des Umgangs mit Terminologien stellen wir unsere explorative empirische Studie, die wir am Beispiel des organisationsübergreifenden Krisenmanagements durchgeführt haben, vor. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere Befunde, leiten Anforderungen ab und schlagen technische Lösungen vor. Auch diskutieren wir Ansätze des Terminologiemanagements bezüglich ihrer Anwendbarkeit und stellen kooperative Ansätze zum Umgang mit Terminologien in interorganisationalen Kooperationssystemen vor.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pohl, Patrik and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {171--180},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Social Software as an Infrastructure for Crisis Management – a Case Study about Current Practice and Potential Usage
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Lisbon, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper we will be discussing how the (semi-)professional actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, etc.) and the affected citizens can communicate and collaborate by the use of social software. After the definition of the term ‘social software‘ we will provide the state-of-the-art on current social software use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we examined the social software use in 2010: First during the disruption of air travel due to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, second during the crisis at a stampede at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. We identified weak points and further potentials and tested the validity of the American case study findings from literature for Europe. We will conclude with a concept for using citizens in inter-organizational crisis management with a social software infrastructure and a communication matrix for crisis management.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2011,
    address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
    title = {Social {Software} as an {Infrastructure} for {Crisis} {Management} – a {Case} {Study} about {Current} {Practice} and {Potential} {Usage}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterMarxPipek_SocialSoftwareInfrastructure_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In this paper we will be discussing how the (semi-)professional actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, etc.) and the affected citizens can communicate and collaborate by the use of social software. After the definition of the term ‘social software' we will provide the state-of-the-art on current social software use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we examined the social software use in 2010: First during the disruption of air travel due to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, second during the crisis at a stampede at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. We identified weak points and further potentials and tested the validity of the American case study findings from literature for Europe. We will conclude with a concept for using citizens in inter-organizational crisis management with a social software infrastructure and a communication matrix for crisis management.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

    2010

  • Norbert Balduin, Georg Becker, Jürgen Brand, Michael Görgen, Mario Hannappel, Patrick Hasenfuß, Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek, Florian Probst, Christian Reuter, Thomas Rose, Gebhard Rusch, Torben Wiedenhoefer, Andreas Zinnen (2010)
    InfoStrom: Learning information infrastructures for crisis management in case of medium to large electrical power breakdowns.
    Future Security – Proceedings of the Security Research Conference Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    One of the most important infrastructures in modern industrialized societies is the electricity network. Due to its fundamental role for many aspects of our everyday life, power infrastructures manifest a strong dependence between power suppliers and customers. Customers take the infrastructure for granted; it appears mostly invisible to them as long as it works, but in the case of breakdowns in power supply customers become aware of the dependence on electricity. They join professional actors in the recovery and coping work with regard to the electricity breakdown: Maintenance workers of the power provider, police, firefighters, red cross, etc. These institutions are professionalized for dealing with such situations, but the people affected by a power outage also need to be considered as actors.

    @inproceedings{balduin_infostrom_2010,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {{InfoStrom}: {Learning} information infrastructures for crisis management in case of medium to large electrical power breakdowns.},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2010/2010_Balduinetal_LearningInfrastructuresCrisisManagement_FutureSecurity.pdf},
    abstract = {One of the most important infrastructures in modern industrialized societies is the electricity network. Due to its fundamental role for many aspects of our everyday life, power infrastructures manifest a strong dependence between power suppliers and customers. Customers take the infrastructure for granted; it appears mostly invisible to them as long as it works, but in the case of breakdowns in power supply customers become aware of the dependence on electricity. They join professional actors in the recovery and coping work with regard to the electricity breakdown: Maintenance workers of the power provider, police, firefighters, red cross, etc. These institutions are professionalized for dealing with such situations, but the people affected by a power outage also need to be considered as actors.},
    booktitle = {Future {Security} - {Proceedings} of the {Security} {Research} {Conference}},
    publisher = {Fraunhofer VVS},
    author = {Balduin, Norbert and Becker, Georg and Brand, Jürgen and Görgen, Michael and Hannappel, Mario and Hasenfuß, Patrick and Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar and Probst, Florian and Reuter, Christian and Rose, Thomas and Rusch, Gebhard and Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Zinnen, Andreas},
    year = {2010},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Claudia Mueller, Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter (2010)
    Globale Infrastruktur – lokales Arbeiten: Praxis IT-gestützter Wartung bei einem Energieversorger
    Mensch & Computer 2010: Interaktive Kulturen Duisburg, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Lokale Praxis und globale Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik (IT) gehen immer dann eine sichtbare Verbindung ein, wenn IT eingesetzt wird, um Echtzeit-Informationen an einen anderen Ort zu übertragen, so wie dies z.B. durch Mobiltelefone/ MMS, ferngesteuerte Sensoren oder Live-Webcams geschieht. Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine Feldstudie zu IT-unterstützter Wartungsarbeit innerhalb der Infrastruktur eines Energieversorgers. Die Studie möchte insbesondere die Relationen zwischen lokalen Praxen und der Gestaltung einer IT-Infrastruktur als „Location Based System“ hervorheben, die nicht auf den ersten Blick sichtbar sind. Besonders richten wir den Blick sowohl auf „das Globale“ als auch auf „das Lokale“ von Strom- und IT-Infrastruktur. Wir orientieren uns am Infrastruktur-Konzept von Star & Ruhleder (1996) für eine Beschreibung und Analyse zweier unterschiedlicher Wartungsteams vor dem Hintergrund sozio-räumlicher sowie sozio-technischer Aspekte der Energieversorgungsinfrastruktur, der Informations- und Kommunikations-Infrastruktur und der jeweilig resultierenden Arbeitspraxis und diskutieren Konsequenzen für eine infrastrukturorientierte Technikgestaltung.

    @inproceedings{mueller_globale_2010,
    address = {Duisburg, Germany},
    title = {Globale {Infrastruktur} - lokales {Arbeiten}: {Praxis} {IT}-gestützter {Wartung} bei einem {Energieversorger}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2010/2010_MuellerPipekReuter_GlobaleInfrastruktur-ITWartungEnergieversorger_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Lokale Praxis und globale Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik (IT) gehen immer dann eine sichtbare Verbindung ein, wenn IT eingesetzt wird, um Echtzeit-Informationen an einen anderen Ort zu übertragen, so wie dies z.B. durch Mobiltelefone/ MMS, ferngesteuerte Sensoren oder Live-Webcams geschieht. Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine Feldstudie zu IT-unterstützter Wartungsarbeit innerhalb der Infrastruktur eines Energieversorgers. Die Studie möchte insbesondere die Relationen zwischen lokalen Praxen und der Gestaltung einer IT-Infrastruktur als „Location Based System“ hervorheben, die nicht auf den ersten Blick sichtbar sind. Besonders richten wir den Blick sowohl auf „das Globale“ als auch auf „das Lokale“ von Strom- und IT-Infrastruktur. Wir orientieren uns am Infrastruktur-Konzept von Star \& Ruhleder (1996) für eine Beschreibung und Analyse zweier unterschiedlicher Wartungsteams vor dem Hintergrund sozio-räumlicher sowie sozio-technischer Aspekte der Energieversorgungsinfrastruktur, der Informations- und Kommunikations-Infrastruktur und der jeweilig resultierenden Arbeitspraxis und diskutieren Konsequenzen für eine infrastrukturorientierte Technikgestaltung.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2010: {Interaktive} {Kulturen}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Mueller, Claudia and Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ziegler, Jürgen and Schmidt, Albrecht},
    year = {2010},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {37--46},
    }

    2009

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2009)
    Krisenkommunikation trainieren: Ein webgestützter Ansatz
    Mensch & Computer 2009: Grenzenlos frei? Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Krisenmanagement fordert neben strategischer und organisationaler Vorbereitung auf die Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit, auch Fähigkeiten, mit unvorhersehbaren Ereignissen und anderen Stakeholdern, die in die gleiche Krise involviert sind, umzugehen. Hier kann man sich nicht ausschließlich auf etablierte Informationsflüsse und Verhaltensmuster verlassen, sondern muss sich auch spontan-situativen Einflüssen stellen. Die für die Kommunikationsarbeit in und zwischen den involvierten Organisationen notwendigen Fähigkeiten müssen trainiert werden. Wir beschreiben die aktuelle Praxis des Krisenkommunikations-Trainings eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (EVU) sowie den Prototypen zu dessen Unterstützung, den wir entwickelt, implementiert und evaluiert haben. Unser Trainingswerkzeug zielt nicht nur auf die lokale Praxis, sondern auch interorganisationale Trainings, was die Verbesserung eines gemeinsamen Verständnisses sowie der Informationsbedarfe anderer beinhaltet.

    @inproceedings{reuter_krisenkommunikation_2009,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Krisenkommunikation trainieren: {Ein} webgestützter {Ansatz}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_ReuterPipek_KrisenkommunikationTrainieren_MenschComputer.pdf},
    abstract = {Krisenmanagement fordert neben strategischer und organisationaler Vorbereitung auf die Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit, auch Fähigkeiten, mit unvorhersehbaren Ereignissen und anderen Stakeholdern, die in die gleiche Krise involviert sind, umzugehen. Hier kann man sich nicht ausschließlich auf etablierte Informationsflüsse und Verhaltensmuster verlassen, sondern muss sich auch spontan-situativen Einflüssen stellen. Die für die Kommunikationsarbeit in und zwischen den involvierten Organisationen notwendigen Fähigkeiten müssen trainiert werden. Wir beschreiben die aktuelle Praxis des Krisenkommunikations-Trainings eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (EVU) sowie den Prototypen zu dessen Unterstützung, den wir entwickelt, implementiert und evaluiert haben. Unser Trainingswerkzeug zielt nicht nur auf die lokale Praxis, sondern auch interorganisationale Trainings, was die Verbesserung eines gemeinsamen Verständnisses sowie der Informationsbedarfe anderer beinhaltet.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2009: {Grenzenlos} frei?},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Wandke, Hartmut and Kain, Saskia and Struve, Doreen},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {93--102},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2009)
    Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Web 2.0 Anwendungen haben in einigen Anwendungsfeldern zur Unterstützung von Kommunikation und Zusammenarbeit in Unternehmen Einzug gehalten. Dieser Beitrag stellt auch mithilfe von Beispielen dar, warum Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur (KII) betrachtet werden kann. Es wird gezeigt, dass das „kritisch“ im Bezug auf die „Infrastruktur“ Fallbezogen verschieden gedeutet werden kann: zum einen kann deren Ausfall betriebliche Prozesse lähmen, zum anderen kann durch dessen Verfügbarkeit eine explizite und ungewünschte Darstellung kritischer Sachverhalte erfolgen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2009,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Software} als kritische {Informations}-{Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_Reuter_SocialSoftwarealsKritischeInfrastruktur_MenschComputer-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {Web 2.0 Anwendungen haben in einigen Anwendungsfeldern zur Unterstützung von Kommunikation und Zusammenarbeit in Unternehmen Einzug gehalten. Dieser Beitrag stellt auch mithilfe von Beispielen dar, warum Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur (KII) betrachtet werden kann. Es wird gezeigt, dass das „kritisch“ im Bezug auf die „Infrastruktur“ Fallbezogen verschieden gedeutet werden kann: zum einen kann deren Ausfall betriebliche Prozesse lähmen, zum anderen kann durch dessen Verfügbarkeit eine explizite und ungewünschte Darstellung kritischer Sachverhalte erfolgen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Logos-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Kain, Saskia and Struve, Doreen and Wandke, Hartmut},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {140--144},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Claudia Mueller (2009)
    Avoiding crisis in communication: a computer-supported training approach for emergency management
    International Journal of Emergency Management (IJEM) ;6(3-4):356–368.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis management requires stakeholders not only to show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g., by systematising and professionalising coping with work), but also to develop skills in dealing with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but also be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German Electricity Provider (GEP) and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but also interorganisational training that will allow improving the mutual understanding of communication practices and meeting the information needs of other stakeholders.

    @article{reuter_avoiding_2009,
    title = {Avoiding crisis in communication: a computer-supported training approach for emergency management},
    volume = {6},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_ReuterPipekMueller_AvoidingCrisisinCommunication_IJEM.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis management requires stakeholders not only to show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g., by systematising and professionalising coping with work), but also to develop skills in dealing with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but also be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German Electricity Provider (GEP) and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but also interorganisational training that will allow improving the mutual understanding of communication practices and meeting the information needs of other stakeholders.},
    number = {3-4},
    journal = {International Journal of Emergency Management (IJEM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Mueller, Claudia},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {356--368},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Claudia Mueller (2009)
    Computer Supported Collaborative Training in Crisis Communication Management
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Gothenburg, Sweden.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis management requires stakeholders to not only show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g. by systematising and professionalizing coping work), but also to develop skills to deal with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but should be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German electricity provider and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but aims at inter-organisational trainings that would also allow improving the mutual understanding for communication practices and information needs of other stakeholders.

    @inproceedings{reuter_computer_2009,
    address = {Gothenburg, Sweden},
    title = {Computer {Supported} {Collaborative} {Training} in {Crisis} {Communication} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_ReuterPipekMueller_ComputerSupportedCollaborativeTraining_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis management requires stakeholders to not only show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g. by systematising and professionalizing coping work), but also to develop skills to deal with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but should be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German electricity provider and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but aims at inter-organisational trainings that would also allow improving the mutual understanding for communication practices and information needs of other stakeholders.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Mueller, Claudia},
    editor = {Landgren, Jonas and Jul, S},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-RWE},
    }

    2008

  • Christian Reuter (2008)
    Computerunterstütztes kollaboratives Training im Krisenkommunikations-Management am Beispiel eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (Diplomarbeit)
    Siegen: .
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_computerunterstutztes_2008,
    address = {Siegen},
    title = {Computerunterstütztes kollaboratives {Training} im {Krisenkommunikations}-{Management} am {Beispiel} eines {Energieversorgungsunternehmens} ({Diplomarbeit})},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2008},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Cooperation, Projekt-RWE},
    }