Friedensinformatik beschäftigt sich mit der Rolle technischer Erkenntnisse und Entwicklungen aus der Informatik im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden, Auf- und Abrüstung.

Die Invasion Russlands hat uns leider schmerzhaft vor Augen geführt, welche Rolle Cyberattacken und hybride Angriffe im Rahmen militärischer Operationen zukünftig zukommt. Leider deuten die aktuellen Entwicklungen darauf hin, dass der Einsatz dieser Mittel, nicht nur direkt als Begleitung offensiver klassischer Waffeneinsätze sondern bereits im Vorfeld zunehmend normalisiert wird und dabei auch zivile und eigentlich völkerrechtlich geschützte IT-Systeme angegriffen werden. Malware als Cyberwaffen einzusetzen, wie aktuell geschehen, beinhaltet darüber hinausgehend auch die Gefahr unabsichtlicher Effekt.

Angesichts der Vernetzung von IT-Systemen weltweit könnten Cyberangriffe in der Ukraine auch schnell europäische oder deutsche IT-Systeme gefährden. Mit Blick auf die Entwicklung in den nächsten Wochen und den Einfluss auf die europäische Friedensordnung, die dieser Angriff unzweifelhaft haben wird, stellt sich für uns als Wissenschaftler*innen umso dringender die Frage, was wir für eine friedliche Entwicklung des Cyberspace beitragen können. Sei es in Form von Krisenfrühwarnsystemen, Möglichkeiten zur Notfallkommunikation oder auch der Entwicklung von Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen für den Cyberspace um weitere Eskalations- und Aufrüstungsspiralen zu verhindern.

Anbei haben wir einige unserer Publikationen zum Thema zusammengestellt:

In Collections

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Larissa Aldehoff, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold (2019)
    Cyberwar zwischen Fiktion und Realität – technologische Möglichkeiten
    In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner, Niklas Schörnig: Cyberwar – die Digitalisierung der Kriegsführung. Springer VS, , 15–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.

    @incollection{reuter_cyberwar_2019,
    title = {Cyberwar zwischen {Fiktion} und {Realität} – technologische {Möglichkeiten}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-27713-0},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterRiebeAldehoffKaufholdReinhold2019_CyberwarZwischenFiktionUndReal_Cyberwar.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.},
    booktitle = {Cyberwar – die {Digitalisierung} der {Kriegsführung}},
    publisher = {Springer VS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Aldehoff, Larissa and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Werkner, Ines-Jacqueline and Schörnig, Niklas},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {15--38},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2020)
    Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche Fragen im militärischen Cyber- und Informationsraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Parlamentsvorbehalts, der Zurechenbarkeit von Cyberangriffen sowie einer möglichen Anpassung nationaler und internationaler Normen
    In: : Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß. Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, , 1–9.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{reinhold_verfassungs-_2020,
    title = {Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche {Fragen} im militärischen {Cyber}- und {Informationsraum} unter besonderer {Berücksichtigung} des {Parlamentsvorbehalts}, der {Zurechenbarkeit} von {Cyberangriffen} sowie einer möglichen {Anpassung} nationaler und internationaler {Normen}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Reinhold_VerfassungsVoelkerrechtlicheFragenCyberInformationsraum.pdf},
    booktitle = {Deutscher {Bundestag}, {Verteidigungsausschuß}},
    publisher = {Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

    Books

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    }

  • Christian Bueger, Tobias Liebetrau, Jonas Franken (2022)
    Security threats to undersea communications cables and infrastructure – consequences for the EU
    Brussels: European Parliament.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The EU’s subsea data cable network is both vital for global connectivity and vulnerable. This study provides a systematic review of the current security threats, as well as the actors at the origin of these threats. Building on reports and expert input, the paper takes stock of current awareness, preparedness and response mechanisms, both at the EU and Member State level. A number of recommendations suggest how to improve the resilience of the cable network. Proposals build on the need to enhance EU-wide awareness, improve coordination and share information across EU institutions and Member States. In addition, surveillance capabilities must be advanced, response and repair mechanisms strengthened, and the topic mainstreamed across external action.

    @book{bueger_security_2022,
    address = {Brussels},
    title = {Security threats to undersea communications cables and infrastructure – consequences for the {EU}},
    url = {https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/EXPO_IDA(2022)702557},
    abstract = {The EU’s subsea data cable network is both vital for global connectivity and vulnerable. This study provides a systematic review of the current security threats, as well as the actors at the origin of these threats. Building on reports and expert input, the paper takes stock of current awareness, preparedness and response mechanisms, both at the EU and Member State level. A number of recommendations suggest how to improve the resilience of the cable network. Proposals build on the need to enhance EU-wide awareness, improve coordination and share information across EU institutions and Member States. In addition, surveillance capabilities must be advanced, response and repair mechanisms strengthened, and the topic mainstreamed across external action.},
    publisher = {European Parliament},
    author = {Bueger, Christian and Liebetrau, Tobias and Franken, Jonas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY, Cyberwar},
    }

    Articles

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_MHC_IEEETechScieMag.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics ;32(7):773–785. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2021,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    volume = {32},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {773--785},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Towards a Cyber Weapons Assessment Model – Assessment of the Technical Features of Malicious Software
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society . doi:10.1109/TTS.2021.3131817
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The revelation of the Stuxnet malware in 2010 shed light on the presence of state actors that are willing and capable of developing and using highly sophisticated, specialized malicious software for their political interests. These tools -often dubbed cyber weapons -are expected to become the next major advancement in weaponry technology. Besides the threats of offensive cyber operations for civil IT systems due to the interconnected nature of the cyberspace, international regulation of cyber weapons is -among other aspects -hindered by the fact that the military development and the strategic and tactical deployment of cyber weapons differ significantly from other weapons technologies. In order to establish measures of cyber arms related control treaties, it is crucial to identify these particular characteristics. Based on this premise, the article analyzes the current perspectives on cyber weapons, identifying their weaknesses of being either based on assumptions about adversarial actors or being applicable only after the usage of a malicious tool. In contrast to these approaches, the article focuses on the specific functional aspects of malware and presents an indicator-based assessment model based on parameters that can be measured prior to the application of malicious software. This enables the categorization of malicious tools as cyber weapons. Besides this, the article aims to introduce thought-provoking impulses with regard to social responsibility in computer science.

    @article{reinhold_towards_2021,
    title = {Towards a {Cyber} {Weapons} {Assessment} {Model} – {Assessment} of the {Technical} {Features} of {Malicious} {Software}},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReinholdReuter_CyberWeapons_IEEETransactionsTechnologySociety.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2021.3131817},
    abstract = {The revelation of the Stuxnet malware in 2010 shed light on the presence of state actors that are willing and capable of developing and using highly sophisticated, specialized malicious software for their political interests. These tools -often dubbed cyber weapons -are expected to become the next major advancement in weaponry technology. Besides the threats of offensive cyber operations for civil IT systems due to the interconnected nature of the cyberspace, international regulation of cyber weapons is -among other aspects -hindered by the fact that the military development and the strategic and tactical deployment of cyber weapons differ significantly from other weapons technologies. In order to establish measures of cyber arms related control treaties, it is crucial to identify these particular characteristics. Based on this premise, the article analyzes the current perspectives on cyber weapons, identifying their weaknesses of being either based on assumptions about adversarial actors or being applicable only after the usage of a malicious tool. In contrast to these approaches, the article focuses on the specific functional aspects of malware and presents an indicator-based assessment model based on parameters that can be measured prior to the application of malicious software. This enables the categorization of malicious tools as cyber weapons. Besides this, the article aims to introduce thought-provoking impulses with regard to social responsibility in computer science.},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2021)
    Zur Rolle und Verantwortung der Informatik für die Friedensforschung und Rüstungskontrolle
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;38:47–49.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reinhold_zur_2021,
    title = {Zur {Rolle} und {Verantwortung} der {Informatik} für die {Friedensforschung} und {Rüstungskontrolle}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Reinhold_RolleVerantwortungInformatikFriedensforschung_FIFF.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {47--49},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

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