Universitätsprofessor (W3) / Lehrstuhlinhaber

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachbereich Informatik,
Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC)
Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt, Raum 108

E-Mail: reuter(at)peasec.tu-darmstadt.de | Web: www.chreu.de
Telefon:
+49 (0) 6151 / 1620941 | Sekretariat: +49 (0) 6151 / 1620940

Profilfoto: mittel | groß | PEASEC-Logo: klein | mittel | groß | Vektor

Online-Profile: Google Scholar | dblp | ORCID | Microsoft Academic

CV (de)

Prof. Dr. Christian Reuter ist Universitätsprofessor (W3) an der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Sein Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) im Fachbereich Informatik mit Zweitmitgliedschaft im Fachbereich Gesellschafts- und Geschichtswissenschaften verbindet Informatik mit Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung. In der Schnittmenge der Disziplinen (A) Cyber-Sicherheit und -Privatheit, (B) Friedens- und Konfliktforschung sowie (C) Mensch-Computer-Interaktion adressieren er und sein Team die Themenbereiche (1) Friedensinformatik und technische Friedensforschung, (2) Kriseninformatik und Information Warfare sowie (3) Benutzbare Sicherheit und Privatheit. Seine häufig interdisziplinäre Forschung wird regelmäßig ausgezeichnet und ist in etwa 250 wissenschaftlichen (meist peer-reviewed) Publikationen veröffentlicht. Sein Engagement in der Lehre wurde mit dem Athene Preis für Gute Lehre honoriert. Derzeit fungiert er als Prodekan des Fachbereichs Informatik.

Details: Christian Reuter studierte an der Universität Siegen und École Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon (Dipl.-Wirt.Inf.; M.Sc.), war als IT-Consultant tätig und promovierte zur Gestaltung (inter-)organisationaler Kollaborationstechnologien am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements (Dr. rer. pol., summa cum laude). Nach einer Tätigkeit als Bereichsleiter an der Universität Siegen und Rufen mehrerer Universitäten wurde er 2017 zum Universitätsprofessor ernannt. Seine Forschung wurde mehrfach ausgezeichnet, z.B. mit mit dem Brunswig-Promotionspreis für die beste Dissertation der Fakultät, dem Preis der IHK für herausragende anwendungsbezogene wissenschaftliche Arbeiten, als CSCW-Honorable-Mention der Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI), im Rahmen der BMBF-Nachwuchsförderung (2,7 Mio. €) sowie mit Best Paper Awards. Sein Engagement im Aufbau der interdisziplinären Lehre in der Schnittmenge von Informatik, Frieden und Sicherheit wurde mit dem Athene Preis für Gute Lehre – Sonderpreis Interdisziplinäre Lehre – honoriert.

Zusammen mit seinem Team hat er Forschungsprojekte (z.B. BMBF, DFG, EU) akquiriert, durchgeführt und koordiniert: Er ist Principal Investigator (PI) im TU-Profilthema Cybersicherheit (CYSEC), Forschungsbereichsleiter im Nationalen Forschungszentrum für angewandte Cybersicherheit ATHENE, PI und Koordinator der Graduiertenschule im LOEWE-Zentrum emergenCITY, Direktoriumsmitglied des DFG-Sonderforschungsbereichs CROSSING, PI im DFG-Graduiertenkolleg „Privatheit und Vertrauen“, Sprecher von IANUS (Science Technology Peace), Koordinator des BMBF-Verbundprojekts CYWARN und leitender Mentor der BMBF-Arbeitsgruppe KontiKat.

Christian Reuter ist Herausgeber der Lehr-/Fachbücher „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion“ sowie „Information Technology for Peace and Security“ (Springer Vieweg) und engagiert sich an der Universität (z.B. stv. Vorsitzender der Ethikkommission, Mitglied der Prüfungskommission Informatik sowie Vorsitzender und Mitglied zahlreicher Berufungs- und Promotionskommissionen), in Fachgesellschaften (z.B. Gründungsprecher und derzeit stv. Sprecher der GI-Fachgruppe „Usable Safety & Security”, Mitglied im wissenschaftlichen Beirat der Deutschen Stiftung Friedensforschung) sowie als Organisator, (Meta-)Gutachter und Mitherausgeber wissenschaftlicher Workshops, Konferenzen (z.B. General Chair: Science Peace Security) und Journals (z.B. Associate Editor: Behaviour & Information Technology). Als IT-Unternehmer setzt er seit 2002 Web-Projekte um.

CV (en)

Prof. Dr. Christian Reuter is Full Professor at Technical University of Darmstadt. His chair Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) in the Department of Computer Science with secondary appointment in the Department of History and Social Sciences combines computer science with peace and security research. On the intersection of the disciplines (A) Cyber Security and Privacy, (B) Peace and Conflict Studies as well as (C) Human-Computer Interaction, he and his team specifically address (1) Peace Informatics and technical Peace Research, (2) Crisis Informatics and Information Warfare as well as (3) Usable Safety, Security and Privacy. His often interdisciplinary research is regularly awarded and resulted in about 250 scientific (mostly peer-reviewed) publications. He was honored with the Athene Award for Teaching Excellence. He currently serves as associate dean of the Department of Computer Science.

Details: Christian Reuter studied Information Systems at the University of Siegen, Germany and the École Supérieure de Commerce de Dijon, France (Dipl.-Wirt.Inf.; M.Sc.), worked as a IT consultant and received a PhD for his work on (inter-)organizational collaboration technology design for crisis management (Dr. rer. pol., summa cum laude). He was division manager at University of Siegen until he was appointed as professor in 2017. His research was awarded, e.g. with the Brunswig-Award for the best dissertation of the faculty, the IHK-Award for outstanding application-related scientific work, as CSCW-Honorable-Mention of the German Informatics Society (GI), by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF, €2,7m) and with Best Paper Awards. His commitment to building interdisciplinary teaching at the intersection of computer science, peace, and security was honored with the Athene Award for Teaching Excellence – Special Award for Interdisciplinary Teaching.

He and his team have acquired, conducted and managed national and international research projects. He is a member of the TU profile topic Cybersecurity (CYSEC), mission coordinator in the National Research Center for Applied Cybersecurity ATHENE, head of the graduate school of the LOEWE Center emergenCITY, member of the board of the DFG Collaborative Research Center CROSSING, spokesman of IANUS (Science Technology Peace), PI in the DFG Research Training Group „Privacy and Trust“ and leading mentor of the BMBF research group KontiKat.

Christian Reuter is editor of the books „Security and safety-critical Human-Computer-Interaction“ and „Information Technology for Peace and Security“ (Springer Vieweg) and engages at the university (e.g. deputy chairman of the ethics committee, member of the computer science examination committee as well as chairman and member of numerous doctoral commissions), in scientific societies (e.g. founding speaker of the GI-section „Usable Safety & Security„, member of the scientific advisory board of the German Foundation for Peace Research) as well as organizer, in program committees, (meta-)reviewer and (associate-)editor of scientific workshops, conferences (e.g. general chair of Science Peace Security ’19) and journals (e.g. Associate Editor of Behaviour & Information Technology). As a web entrepreneur, he realizes web projects since 2002.

Positionen

Fach- und Profilbereiche:

Großprojekte:

Kommissionen:

Weitere TU-interne Mitgliedschaften:

Weitere externe Mitgliedschaften:

Publikationen

Auswahl

Bücher / Books

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement
    Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19522-9},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658195229},
    abstract = {Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2014)
    Emergent Collaboration Infrastructures: Technology Design for Inter-Organizational Crisis Management (Ph.D. Thesis)
    Siegen, Germany: Springer Gabler. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-08586-5
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Using the domain of crisis management, Christian Reuter explores challenges and opportunities for technology design in emergent environments. He therefore empirically analyzes collaborative work in inter-organizational crisis – such as the police, fire departments, energy network operators and citizens – in order to identify collaboration practices that reveal work infrastructure limitations. He also designs, implements and evaluates novel concepts and ICT artifacts towards the support of emergent collaboration. Besides the discovery of potential organizational effects on the ability to deal with emergence he presents methodological implications for technology design.

    @book{reuter_emergent_2014,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Emergent {Collaboration} {Infrastructures}: {Technology} {Design} for {Inter}-{Organizational} {Crisis} {Management} ({Ph}.{D}. {Thesis})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-08585-8},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/springer+gabler/bwl/wirtschaftsinformatik/book/978-3-658-08585-8},
    abstract = {Using the domain of crisis management, Christian Reuter explores challenges and opportunities for technology design in emergent environments. He therefore empirically analyzes collaborative work in inter-organizational crisis – such as the police, fire departments, energy network operators and citizens – in order to identify collaboration practices that reveal work infrastructure limitations. He also designs, implements and evaluates novel concepts and ICT artifacts towards the support of emergent collaboration. Besides the discovery of potential organizational effects on the ability to deal with emergence he presents methodological implications for technology design.},
    publisher = {Springer Gabler},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-08586-5},
    note = {Backup Publisher: University of Siegen},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

    Begutachtete Zeitschriften / Peer-reviewed Journals

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nudging Users Towards Better Security Decisions in Password Creation Using Whitebox-based Multidimensional Visualizations
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) . doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users‘ perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.

    @article{hartwig_nudging_2021,
    title = {Nudging {Users} {Towards} {Better} {Security} {Decisions} in {Password} {Creation} {Using} {Whitebox}-based {Multidimensional} {Visualizations}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_WhiteboxMultidimensionalNudges_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167},
    abstract = {Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users' perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users‘ preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook’s current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).

    @article{kirchner_countering_2020,
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News}: {A} {Comparison} of {Possible} {Solutions} {Regarding} {User} {Acceptance} and {Effectiveness}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415211},
    doi = {10.1145/3415211},
    abstract = {Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users' needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users' preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook's current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Kirchner, Jan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Place: Austin, USA
    Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {140:1--140:28},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2017)
    Social Media in Emergencies: A Representative Study on Citizens‘ Perception in Germany
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;1(2):1–19. doi:10.1145/3134725
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones‘ weather and first aid apps.

    @article{reuter_social_2017,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Representative} {Study} on {Citizens}' {Perception} in {Germany}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SocialMediaEmergenciesGermany_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3134725},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens' perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones' weather and first aid apps.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Place: New York, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Projekt-EmerGent, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2016)
    Emergency Services Attitudes towards Social Media: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey across Europe
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;95:96–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2016,
    title = {Emergency {Services} {Attitudes} towards {Social} {Media}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} across {Europe}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuteretal_emergencyservicesattiudessurveysocialmedia_ijhcs.pdf http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1071581916000379},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005},
    abstract = {Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent' with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {96--111},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2014)
    Ad Hoc Participation in Situation Assessment: Supporting Mobile Collaboration in Emergencies
    ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) ;21(5):1–26. doi:10.1145/2651365
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This paper presents a study on how emergent ‘collaboration needs‘ in current work of response teams, who are located on-site and in the control center, could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.

    @article{reuter_ad_2014,
    title = {Ad {Hoc} {Participation} in {Situation} {Assessment}: {Supporting} {Mobile} {Collaboration} in {Emergencies}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterludwigpipek_adhocparticipation_tochi.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2651365},
    abstract = {Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This paper presents a study on how emergent ‘collaboration needs' in current work of response teams, who are located on-site and in the control center, could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    month = nov,
    year = {2014},
    note = {Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Crisis Management 2.0: Towards a Systematization of Social Software Use in Crisis Situations
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;4(1):1–16. doi:10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software‘ we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.

    @article{reuter_crisis_2012,
    title = {Crisis {Management} 2.0: {Towards} a {Systematization} of {Social} {Software} {Use} in {Crisis} {Situations}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterMarxPipek_CrisisManagement20-SystematizationSocialSoftware_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101},
    abstract = {The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software' we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

    Publikationen in Konferenzbänden / Peer-reviewed Conference Papers

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    XHELP: Design of a Cross-Platform Social-Media Application to Support Volunteer Moderators in Disasters
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702171
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with „digital volunteers“ such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application „XHELP“, which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.

    @inproceedings{reuter_xhelp_2015,
    address = {Seoul, Korea},
    title = {{XHELP}: {Design} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Social}-{Media} {Application} to {Support} {Volunteer} {Moderators} in {Disasters}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterLudwigKaufholdPipek_XHELP_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2702123.2702171},
    abstract = {Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with "digital volunteers" such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application "XHELP", which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4093--4102},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Combining Real and Virtual Volunteers through Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.

    @inproceedings{reuter_combining_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Combining {Real} and {Virtual} {Volunteers} through {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterHegerPipek_RealVirtualVolunteersSocialMedia_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {780--790},
    }

    nach Jahr

    2021

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2021_rp/64/},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Björn Buchhold, Marcel Keller, Jörg Dallmeyer, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Data Augmentation in Natural Language Processing: A Novel Text Generation Approach for Long and Short Text Classifiers
    2021.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{bayer_data_2021,
    title = {Data {Augmentation} in {Natural} {Language} {Processing}: {A} {Novel} {Text} {Generation} {Approach} for {Long} and {Short} {Text} {Classifiers}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.14453},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Buchhold, Björn and Keller, Marcel and Dallmeyer, Jörg and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Ansgar Bernardi, Sandra Becker, Carsten Struve, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter, Georg Müller (2021)
    Erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistung: Neue Perspektiven für die landwirtschaftliche Arbeitsteilung durch hybride Dienstleistungen
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Projekt HyServ werden landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen als Hybrid aus klassischem Arbeitsauftrag und Auftrag zur Datenverarbeitung verstanden, der sowohl den Auftrag als auch das Ergebnis umfasst. Die hybriden Dienstleistungen mit fälschungssicheren Vereinbarungen und technischen Kontrollmöglichkeiten sichern besseres Vertrauen in intensiven Datenaustausch und innovative Produktionsformen in komplexen Kooperationen. Die integrierte Betrachtung von konventionell-physischer Arbeitsleistung und Datenverarbeitung erlaubt neuartige landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen: Anstelle der reinen Aktivität kann das Erreichen definierter Ziele vereinbart und nachprüfbar dokumentiert werden. So können auch Ergebnisse, die erst nach längerer Zeit erkennbar werden, in die vereinbarte Leistung einbezogen und erfolgsabhängig entlohnt werden. Derartige erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistungen verbinden Ausführung und Garantieleistungen und eröffnen so gerade in kritischen Zeiten neue Formen der Risikoverteilung und innovativer Geschäftsmodelle.

    @inproceedings{bernardi_erfolgsorientierte_2021,
    title = {Erfolgsorientierte {Dienstleistung}: {Neue} {Perspektiven} für die landwirtschaftliche {Arbeitsteilung} durch hybride {Dienstleistungen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Bernardietal_ErfolgsorientierteDienstleistung_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Projekt HyServ werden landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen als Hybrid aus klassischem Arbeitsauftrag und Auftrag zur Datenverarbeitung verstanden, der sowohl den Auftrag als auch das Ergebnis umfasst. Die hybriden Dienstleistungen mit fälschungssicheren Vereinbarungen und technischen Kontrollmöglichkeiten sichern besseres Vertrauen in intensiven Datenaustausch und innovative Produktionsformen in komplexen Kooperationen. Die integrierte Betrachtung von konventionell-physischer Arbeitsleistung und Datenverarbeitung erlaubt neuartige landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen: Anstelle der reinen Aktivität kann das Erreichen definierter Ziele vereinbart und nachprüfbar dokumentiert werden. So können auch Ergebnisse, die erst nach längerer Zeit erkennbar werden, in die vereinbarte Leistung einbezogen und erfolgsabhängig entlohnt werden. Derartige erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistungen verbinden Ausführung und Garantieleistungen und eröffnen so gerade in kritischen Zeiten neue Formen der Risikoverteilung und innovativer Geschäftsmodelle.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Bernardi, Ansgar and Becker, Sandra and Struve, Carsten and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian and Müller, Georg},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {37},
    }

  • Tom Biselli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    On the Relationship between IT Privacy and Security Behavior: A Survey among German Private Users
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.

    @inproceedings{biselli_relationship_2021,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {On the {Relationship} between {IT} {Privacy} and {Security} {Behavior}: {A} {Survey} among {German} {Private} {Users}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BiselliReuter_RelationshipITPrivacyandSecurityBehavior_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Daniel Eberz-Eder, Franz Kuntke, Wolfgang Schneider, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Technologische Umsetzung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) durch den Einsatz von Edge-Computing
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_technologische_2021,
    title = {Technologische {Umsetzung} des {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) durch den {Einsatz} von {Edge}-{Computing}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_EberzEderKuntkeSchneiderReuter_TechnischeUmsetzungResilientSmartFarming_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Schneider, Wolfgang and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {79--84},
    }

  • Anjuli Franz, Gregor Albrecht, Verena Zimmermann, Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter, Alexander Benlian, Joachim Vogt (2021)
    Still Plenty of Phish in the Sea — A Review of User-Oriented Phishing Interventions and Avenues for Future Research
    Proceedings of the Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) .
    [BibTeX]

    @inproceedings{franz_still_2021,
    title = {Still {Plenty} of {Phish} in the {Sea} — {A} {Review} of {User}-{Oriented} {Phishing} {Interventions} and {Avenues} for {Future} {Research}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Symposium} on {Usable} {Privacy} and {Security} ({SOUPS})},
    author = {Franz, Anjuli and Albrecht, Gregor and Zimmermann, Verena and Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian and Benlian, Alexander and Vogt, Joachim},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Transparenz im technischen Umgang mit Fake News
    Zeitschrift Technik & Mensch .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].

    @article{hartwig_transparenz_2021,
    title = {Transparenz im technischen {Umgang} mit {Fake} {News}},
    abstract = {In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].},
    journal = {Zeitschrift Technik \& Mensch},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Fake News technisch begegnen – Detektions- und Behandlungsansätze zur Unterstützung von NutzerInnen
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Wahrheit und Fake News im postfaktischen Zeitalter. Springer, , 133–150.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{hartwig_fake_2021,
    series = {ars digitalis},
    title = {Fake {News} technisch begegnen – {Detektions}- und {Behandlungsansätze} zur {Unterstützung} von {NutzerInnen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32956-3},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_FakeNewstechnischbegegnen_WahrheitundFake},
    booktitle = {Wahrheit und {Fake} {News} im postfaktischen {Zeitalter}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {133--150},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nudging Users Towards Better Security Decisions in Password Creation Using Whitebox-based Multidimensional Visualizations
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) . doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users‘ perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.

    @article{hartwig_nudging_2021,
    title = {Nudging {Users} {Towards} {Better} {Security} {Decisions} in {Password} {Creation} {Using} {Whitebox}-based {Multidimensional} {Visualizations}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_WhiteboxMultidimensionalNudges_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167},
    abstract = {Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users' perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Meets Security Policy: Socio-Technological Dynamics, Political Responses. .
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2021,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Meets} {Security} {Policy}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Dynamics}, {Political} {Responses}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, Peace},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Who Should Get My Private Data in Which Case? Evidence in the Wild
    Ingolstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @inproceedings{herbert_who_2021,
    address = {Ingolstadt},
    title = {Who {Should} {Get} {My} {Private} {Data} in {Which} {Case}? {Evidence} in the {Wild}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {11},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) für krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_low_2021,
    address = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga},
    title = {Low {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) für krisentaugliche {Datenübertragung} in landwirtschaftlichen {Betrieben}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnLinsnerReuter_LowPowerWideAreaNetworks_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {193--198},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Reliable Data Transmission using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for Agricultural Applications
    Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Frontiers in Availability, Reliability and Security (FARES 2021) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_reliable_2021,
    title = {Reliable {Data} {Transmission} using {Low} {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) for {Agricultural} {Applications}},
    abstract = {Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Workshop} on {Frontiers} in {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security} ({FARES} 2021)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2021)
    8. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen Mensch & Computer 2021 – Workshopband Ingolstadt, Germany
    Ingolstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @inproceedings{mentler_8_2021,
    address = {Ingolstadt},
    title = {8. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen} {Mensch} \& {Computer} 2021 – {Workshopband} {Ingolstadt}, {Germany}},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Cyber Weapons and Artificial Intelligence – Impact, Influence and the Challenges for Arms Control
    In: Niklas Schörnig, Thomas Reinhold: Arma­­ment, Arms Control and Arti­ficial Intelli­gence. The impact of soft­ware, machine learning and artificial intelligence on armament and arms control. Springer.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2021,
    title = {Cyber {Weapons} and {Artificial} {Intelligence} – {Impact}, {Influence} and the {Challenges} for {Arms} {Control}},
    booktitle = {Arma­­ment, {Arms} {Control} and {Arti}­ficial {Intelli}­gence. {The} impact of soft­ware, machine learning and artificial intelligence on armament and arms control},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Schörnig, Niklas and Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2021,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Ulrike Lechner (2021)
    Introduction to the WI2021 Track: Digitization and Society – Even in Times of Corona
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies affect all areas of civil society. Digitalization opens up new opportunities to address important social issues. The motor of digitalization can be social necessity, technical feasibility, and also a crisis, as the reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates: Out of necessity, ideas are created, systems designed and implemented and the value of digital solutions to society becomes apparent. With the digitalization of everyday working and learning, apps for tracing information chains and containing new infections have potential, but also pose social risks. The current COVID-19 crisis seems to put the role of digitalization in a completely new light. Both, to evaluate the value of digital solutions to society and to identify space for innovation is important in times of intense digitalization efforts. To meet the societal challenges posed by digitalization, it is particularly important to understand how they arise. The use of digital solutions in safety-critical contexts entails dependencies and the threat of various dangers: Infrastructure disruptions and failures can be caused by criminal acts, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, operational disruptions, and system failures. In addition, there is a concern about data arising from the use of digital solutions. Data protection, data sovereignty, data security, and their social perception must always be closely observed. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that digitalization does not lead to a digital divide. New digital solutions require constant evaluation and assessment of the consequences.

    @inproceedings{reuter_introduction_2021,
    title = {Introduction to the {WI2021} {Track}: {Digitization} and {Society} – {Even} in {Times} of {Corona}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies affect all areas of civil society. Digitalization opens up new opportunities to address important social issues. The motor of digitalization can be social necessity, technical feasibility, and also a crisis, as the reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates: Out of necessity, ideas are created, systems designed and implemented and the value of digital solutions to society becomes apparent. With the digitalization of everyday working and learning, apps for tracing information chains and containing new infections have potential, but also pose social risks. The current COVID-19 crisis seems to put the role of digitalization in a completely new light. Both, to evaluate the value of digital solutions to society and to identify space for innovation is important in times of intense digitalization efforts.
    To meet the societal challenges posed by digitalization, it is particularly important to understand how they arise. The use of digital solutions in safety-critical contexts entails dependencies and the threat of various dangers: Infrastructure disruptions and failures can be caused by criminal acts, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, operational disruptions, and system failures. In addition, there is a concern about data arising from the use of digital solutions. Data protection, data sovereignty, data security, and their social perception must always be closely observed. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that digitalization does not lead to a digital divide. New digital solutions require constant evaluation and assessment of the consequences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lechner, Ulrike},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–17.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_einleitung_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {3--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Ein Ansatz zur Messung von Spillover-Effekten zwischen ziviler und militärischer Forschung und Entwicklung in LinkedIn
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX]

    @techreport{riebe_ansatz_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {Ein {Ansatz} zur {Messung} von {Spillover}-{Effekten} zwischen ziviler und militärischer {Forschung} und {Entwicklung} in {LinkedIn}},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

    2020

  • Sabrina Gabel, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Discussing Conflict in Social Media – The Use of Twitter in the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict
    Media, War & Conflict :1–26.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.

    @article{gabel_discussing_2020,
    title = {Discussing {Conflict} in {Social} {Media} – {The} {Use} of {Twitter} in the {Jammu} and {Kashmir} {Conflict}},
    url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635220970997},
    abstract = {Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani's impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.},
    journal = {Media, War \& Conflict},
    author = {Gabel, Sabrina and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Crisis informatics insights for peace operations
    2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis Informatics – a field combining computing and social science to make visible and support the creative ways in which humans use information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to crises – has made many contributions in the areas of rapid crisis management. Interactive technologies such as social media platforms or emergency apps connect and empower individuals, first responders and volunteers. In a previously published review, we show that for almost 20 years, studies have analyzed ICT in natural and man-made disasters, revealing that ICT enable new modes of communication among authorities and citizens. In this contribution, we relate crisis informatics insights concerning the involvement of citizens to peace operations and community engagement.

    @techreport{haunschild_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis informatics insights for peace operations},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschuldReuterKaufhold_CrisisInformaticsPeaceOperations_TECHPOPS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis Informatics – a field combining computing and social science to make visible and support the creative ways in which humans use information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to crises – has made many contributions in the areas of rapid crisis management. Interactive technologies such as social media platforms or emergency apps connect and empower individuals, first responders and volunteers. In a previously published review, we show that for almost 20 years, studies have analyzed ICT in natural and man-made disasters, revealing that ICT enable new modes of communication among authorities and citizens. In this contribution, we relate crisis informatics insights concerning the involvement of citizens to peace operations and community engagement.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://library.gito.de/open-access-pdf/O2_Haunschild-Sticking_with_Landlines_Citizens'_Use_and_Perception-109_c.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Differences in IT Security Behavior and Knowledge of Private Users in Germany
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users‘ IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.

    @inproceedings{herbert_differences_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Differences in {IT} {Security} {Behavior} and {Knowledge} of {Private} {Users} in {Germany}},
    url = {https://library.gito.de/open-access-pdf/V3_Herbert-Differences_in_IT_Security_Behavior_and_Knowledge-541_c.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert},
    abstract = {The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users' IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://www.fiff.de/publikationen/fiff-kommunikation/fk-2020/fk-2020-1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users‘ preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook’s current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).

    @article{kirchner_countering_2020,
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News}: {A} {Comparison} of {Possible} {Solutions} {Regarding} {User} {Acceptance} and {Effectiveness}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415211},
    doi = {10.1145/3415211},
    abstract = {Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users' needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users' preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook's current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Kirchner, Jan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Place: Austin, USA
    Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {140:1--140:28},
    }

  • Michael Koch, Jürgen Ziegler, Christian Reuter, Thomas Schlegel, Michael Prilla (2020)
    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion als zentrales Gebiet der Informatik – Bestandsaufnahme, Trends und Herausforderungen
    Informatik-Spektrum . doi:10.1007/s00287-020-01299-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) beschäftigt sich mit Fragen rund um die benutzer- und kontextegerechte Gestaltung von IT-Systemen. Ohne MCI ist die vielbeschworene digitale Transformation nicht möglich, da Systeme, die nicht benutzbar (gebrauchstauglich) sind, für ihre Nutzer wertlos oder sogar gefährlich sind – erst Nutzbarkeit schafft Nutzen! In diesem Beitrag sammeln wir einige Beispiele dafür, wo und wie MCI in der Entwicklung zukünftiger IT-Systeme relevant ist – von nutzerzentrierter künstlicher Intelligenz über benutzbare Sicherheit, cyberphysische Systeme und digital Arbeit hin zu Augmented Reality und Virtual Reality.

    @article{koch_mensch-computer-interaktion_2020,
    title = {Mensch-{Computer}-{Interaktion} als zentrales {Gebiet} der {Informatik} - {Bestandsaufnahme}, {Trends} und {Herausforderungen}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00287-020-01299-8.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s00287-020-01299-8},
    abstract = {Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) beschäftigt sich mit Fragen rund um die benutzer- und kontextegerechte Gestaltung von IT-Systemen. Ohne MCI ist die vielbeschworene digitale Transformation nicht möglich, da Systeme, die nicht benutzbar (gebrauchstauglich) sind, für ihre Nutzer wertlos oder sogar gefährlich sind – erst Nutzbarkeit schafft Nutzen! In diesem Beitrag sammeln wir einige Beispiele dafür, wo und wie MCI in der Entwicklung zukünftiger IT-Systeme relevant ist – von nutzerzentrierter künstlicher Intelligenz über benutzbare Sicherheit, cyberphysische Systeme und digital Arbeit hin zu Augmented Reality und Virtual Reality.},
    journal = {Informatik-Spektrum},
    author = {Koch, Michael and Ziegler, Jürgen and Reuter, Christian and Schlegel, Thomas and Prilla, Michael},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Ansgar Bernardi (2020)
    Die GeoBox-Vision: Resiliente Interaktion und Kooperation in der Landwirtschaft durch dezentrale Systeme
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_geobox-vision_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Die {GeoBox}-{Vision}: {Resiliente} {Interaktion} und {Kooperation} in der {Landwirtschaft} durch dezentrale {Systeme}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33548},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407},
    abstract = {Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bernardi, Ansgar},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2020)
    7. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.

    @inproceedings{mentler_7_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg, Germany},
    title = {7. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33546},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117},
    abstract = {Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {1--2},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Conflicts and Crises
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @book{reuter_special_2020-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Conflicts} and {Crises}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/39/3},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Editorial: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural-Science/Technical Peace Research
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):III–IV. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2020,
    title = {Editorial: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural}-{Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterAltmannGoettscheHimmel_Editorial_NaturalScienceTechnicalPeaceResarch_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I},
    abstract = {This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY '19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace},
    pages = {III--IV},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Natural Science and Technical Peace Research: Definition, History and Current Work
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):1–4. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of uninhabited weapon systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons remain urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes natural science/technical as well as interdisciplinary contribu-tions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management. This special issue presents selected contributions based on discussions at the conference.

    @article{reuter_natural_2020,
    title = {Natural {Science} and {Technical} {Peace} {Research}: {Definition}, {History} and {Current} {Work}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1/natural-science-and-technical-peace-research-definition-history-and-},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of uninhabited weapon systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons remain urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes natural science/technical as well as interdisciplinary contribu-tions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management. This special issue presents selected contributions based on discussions at the conference.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Quo Vadis? Digitalisierung und Social Media im Bevölkerungsschutz
    In: Sandra Ückert, Hasan Sürgit, Gerd Diesel: Digitalisierung als Erfolgsfaktor für das Sozial- und Wohlfahrtswesen. Nomos, , 311–318.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.

    @incollection{reuter_quo_2020,
    title = {Quo {Vadis}? {Digitalisierung} und {Social} {Media} im {Bevölkerungsschutz}},
    isbn = {978-3-8487-6250-7},
    url = {https://www.nomos-shop.de/{\"{U}}ckert-S{\"{u}}rgit-Diesel-Digitalisierung-Erfolgsfaktor-Sozial-Wohlfahrtswesen/productview.aspx},
    abstract = {Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisierung als {Erfolgsfaktor} für das {Sozial}- und {Wohlfahrtswesen}},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ückert, Sandra and Sürgit, Hasan and Diesel, Gerd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {311--318},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Special Issue: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural Science/Technical Peace Research
    Nomos. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2020,
    title = {Special {Issue}: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural} {Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1/s-f-sicherheit-und-frieden-volume-38-2020-issue-1},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I},
    note = {Publication Title: S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jasmin Haunschild, Matthias Hollick, Max Mühlhäuser, Joachim Vogt, Michael Kreutzer (2020)
    Towards Secure Urban Infrastructures: Cyber Security Challenges to Information and Communication Technology in Smart Cities
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.

    @inproceedings{reuter_towards_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Towards {Secure} {Urban} {Infrastructures}: {Cyber} {Security} {Challenges} to {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/33550/muc2020-ws-408.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408},
    abstract = {The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Haunschild, Jasmin and Hollick, Matthias and Mühlhäuser, Max and Vogt, Joachim and Kreutzer, Michael},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9288988},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3?author_access_token=pMAExnDerdrnX3oYrHZ97fe4RwlQNchNByi7wbcMAY4G_Pd3uCAjhJEjOxtpkZT0GsAZRKOUUX0q0uvqiYYwtSEhabAiGMurI7WtRH0rU7grEwE},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {316--321},
    }

  • Sohaib S. Hassan, Christian Reuter, Levan Bzhalava (2020)
    Perception or capability? – An empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in German SMEs
    International Journal of Innovation Management ;2150002:1–26. doi:10.1142/S136391962150002X
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and public cloud computing (SM&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker’s perception-related and SME’s capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.

    @article{s_hassan_perception_2020,
    title = {Perception or capability? – {An} empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in {German} {SMEs}},
    volume = {2150002},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HassanReuterBzhalava_AdoptionSocialMediaSME_IJIM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S136391962150002X},
    abstract = {Social media and public cloud computing (SM\&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM\&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM\&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker's perception-related and SME's capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM\&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM\&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.},
    journal = {International Journal of Innovation Management},
    author = {S. Hassan, Sohaib and Reuter, Christian and Bzhalava, Levan},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Christian Reuter (2020)
    90.000 Tonnen Diplomatie 2.0: Die Integration von unbemannten Systemen in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X-47B
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) ;13(1). doi:10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.

    @article{schwartz_90000_2020,
    title = {90.000 {Tonnen} {Diplomatie} 2.0: {Die} {Integration} von unbemannten {Systemen} in den operativen {Flugzeugträgerbetrieb} am {Beispiel} der {X}-{47B}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y},
    abstract = {Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

    2019

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Ansgar Bernardi, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Sebastian Linsner, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    Hybride Dienstleistungen in digitalisierten Kooperationen in der Landwirtschaft
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Arbeitsteilung und Kooperation sind essentielle Bestandteil von Landwirtschaft, die sich im Laufe der Geschichte stetig weiterentwickelt haben. Nun ermöglicht die voranschreitende Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft erneut Innovationen und neue Arten der Kooperation. Moderne Dienstleistungen – wie optimierte Logistik oder umweltschonende Bewirtschaftung – verbinden zunehmend Maschinenleistungen und Datendienste zu untrennbaren Hybriden Services. Im Zuge dessen werden detaillierte Vereinbarungen bezüglich der bereitzustellenden betrieblichen Daten sowie der Verwendung der während der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte getroffen. Im Rahmen des Projektes HyServ werden Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen entwickelt, welche es den Akteuren erlauben, die Hoheit über die eigenen Daten zu behalten und dennoch kooperative Dienstleistungsverträge zu erstellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden dezentrale Strukturen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch etabliert, welche als Infrastruktur für orchestrierte Micro-Services und Smart Contracts dienen.

    @inproceedings{bernardi_hybride_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Hybride {Dienstleistungen} in digitalisierten {Kooperationen} in der {Landwirtschaft}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_25-30.pdf},
    abstract = {Arbeitsteilung und Kooperation sind essentielle Bestandteil von Landwirtschaft, die sich im Laufe der Geschichte stetig weiterentwickelt haben. Nun ermöglicht die voranschreitende Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft erneut Innovationen und neue Arten der Kooperation. Moderne Dienstleistungen – wie optimierte Logistik oder umweltschonende Bewirtschaftung – verbinden zunehmend Maschinenleistungen und Datendienste zu untrennbaren Hybriden Services. Im Zuge dessen werden detaillierte Vereinbarungen bezüglich der bereitzustellenden betrieblichen Daten sowie der Verwendung der während der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte getroffen. Im Rahmen des Projektes HyServ werden Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen entwickelt, welche es den Akteuren erlauben, die Hoheit über die eigenen Daten zu behalten und dennoch kooperative Dienstleistungsverträge zu erstellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden dezentrale Strukturen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch etabliert, welche als Infrastruktur für orchestrierte Micro-Services und Smart Contracts dienen.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Bernardi, Ansgar and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Linsner, Sebastian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {25--30},
    }

  • Margarita Grinko, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Crisis Apps in Germany: A Representative Survey
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340782
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.

    @inproceedings{grinko_adoption_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Adoption, {Use} and {Diffusion} of {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340782},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340782},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Grinko, Margarita and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {263--274},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fighting Misinformation on Twitter: The Plugin based approach TrustyTweet
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_fighting_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Fighting {Misinformation} on {Twitter}: {The} {Plugin} based approach {TrustyTweet}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {67--69},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    TrustyTweet: An Indicator-based Browser-Plugin to Assist Users in Dealing with Fake News on Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users’assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_trustytweet_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {{TrustyTweet}: {An} {Indicator}-based {Browser}-{Plugin} to {Assist} {Users} in {Dealing} with {Fake} {News} on {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_HartwigReuter_TrustyTweet_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users'assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1858--1869},
    }

  • Timo Kalle, Marc-André Kaufhold, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Amr Rizk, Ralf Steinmetz (2019)
    Resilience in Security and Crises through Adaptions and Transitions
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws60
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, – monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.

    @inproceedings{kalle_resilience_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {Resilience in {Security} and {Crises} through {Adaptions} and {Transitions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25097/paper12_02.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws60},
    abstract = {Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, - monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kalle, Timo and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Rizk, Amr and Steinmetz, Ralf},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {571--584},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Cross-Media Usage of Social Big Data for Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities: Approaches, Development and Challenges of Multi-Platform Social Media Services
    2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.

    @techreport{kaufhold_cross-media_2019,
    title = {Cross-{Media} {Usage} of {Social} {Big} {Data} for {Emergency} {Services} and {Volunteer} {Communities}: {Approaches}, {Development} and {Challenges} of {Multi}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Services}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07725.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Cultural Violence and Peace in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 361–381. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} in {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {361--381},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Social Media Misuse: Cultural Violence, Peace and Security in Digital Networks
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Misuse}: {Cultural} {Violence}, {Peace} and {Security} in {Digital} {Networks}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {61--66},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Flow Experience in Software Engineering: Development and Evaluation of Design Options for Eclipse
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In positive psychology, flow is described as a holistic mental condition in which an individual delves into an activity with full concentration. Even in software engineering, the promotion of flow experience fosters effects such as positive affect, improved learning, and higher product loyalty in computer-aided environments. However, from a practice-based perspective it is not obvious how to design ICT to support flow experience. With this paper, we, therefore, contribute concrete design implications, paving the way for a good flow experience in ICT. This paper be-gins by examining the current state of flow research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We then go on to present a study comprising the development and evaluation of design options that aim to support flow in integrated development environments such as Eclipse, one of the most prominent open-source IDEs. The findings reveal practical implications on the use of four flow design options for software engineering and are integrated into a preliminary research framework.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_flow_2019,
    address = {Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden},
    title = {Flow {Experience} in {Software} {Engineering}: {Development} and {Evaluation} of {Design} {Options} for {Eclipse}},
    isbn = {978-1-73363-250-8},
    url = {https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2019_rip/17/},
    abstract = {In positive psychology, flow is described as a holistic mental condition in which an individual delves into an activity with full concentration. Even in software engineering, the promotion of flow experience fosters effects such as positive affect, improved learning, and higher product loyalty in computer-aided environments. However, from a practice-based perspective it is not obvious how to design ICT to support flow experience. With this paper, we, therefore, contribute concrete design implications, paving the way for a good flow experience in ICT. This paper be-gins by examining the current state of flow research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We then go on to present a study comprising the development and evaluation of design options that aim to support flow in integrated development environments such as Eclipse, one of the most prominent open-source IDEs. The findings reveal practical implications on the use of four flow design options for software engineering and are integrated into a preliminary research framework.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Arne Schmidt, Fabienne Seifert, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    SentiNet: Twitter-basierter Ansatz zur kombinierten Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalyse in Katastrophenlagen
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_sentinet_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{SentiNet}: {Twitter}-basierter {Ansatz} zur kombinierten {Netzwerk}- und {Stimmungsanalyse} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25149/133-04.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04},
    abstract = {Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmidt, Arne and Seifert, Fabienne and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {297--308},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Alexis Gizikis, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank, Margarita Grinko (2019)
    Avoiding Chaotic Use of Social Media before, during, and after Emergencies: Design and Evaluation of Citizens‘ Guidelines
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;27(3):198–213. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12249
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens‘ guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.

    @article{kaufhold_avoiding_2019,
    title = {Avoiding {Chaotic} {Use} of {Social} {Media} before, during, and after {Emergencies}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of {Citizens}' {Guidelines}},
    volume = {27},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGizikisReuterHabdankGrinko_DesignEvaluationCitizenGuidelines_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12249},
    abstract = {Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens' guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Gizikis, Alexis and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias and Grinko, Margarita},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {198--213},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

  • Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elena Runft, Christian Reuter, Margarita Grinko, Volkmar Pipek (2019)
    Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.

    @inproceedings{langer_counter_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Counter {Narratives} in {Social} {Media}: {An} {Empirical} {Study} on {Combat} and {Prevention} of {Terrorism}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Langeretal_Counternarratives_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Runft, Elena and Reuter, Christian and Grinko, Margarita and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {746--755},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Rashmi Varma, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Vulnerability Assessment in the Smart Farming Infrastructure through Cyberattacks
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Wien, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.

    @inproceedings{linsner_vulnerability_2019,
    address = {Wien, Austria},
    title = {Vulnerability {Assessment} in the {Smart} {Farming} {Infrastructure} through {Cyberattacks}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_119.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Varma, Rashmi and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {119--124},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Cooperation, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Erfurth, Christian Reuter (2019)
    IT-Rettung 2019: IT-Unterstützung in Emergency Management & Response
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws58
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Digitalisierung verspricht auch in der zivilen Gefahrenabwehr Vorteile z.B. in Form von schneller Lagebilderstellung, höherer Informationsqualität von Entscheidungsgrundlagen, effizienter Einsatz-vorbereitung und Interaktion mit der Öffentlichkeit. Der Workshop IT-Rettung bietet Raum, Forschungserkenntnisse zu präsentieren und zu würdigen sowie fallstudien- und szenarien-orientierte Ergebnisse in einen allgemeinen Kontext einzuordnen

    @inproceedings{pottebaum_it-rettung_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {{IT}-{Rettung} 2019: {IT}-{Unterstützung} in {Emergency} {Management} \& {Response}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25094/paper12_00.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws58},
    abstract = {Die Digitalisierung verspricht auch in der zivilen Gefahrenabwehr Vorteile z.B. in Form von schneller Lagebilderstellung, höherer Informationsqualität von Entscheidungsgrundlagen, effizienter Einsatz-vorbereitung und Interaktion mit der Öffentlichkeit. Der Workshop IT-Rettung bietet Raum, Forschungserkenntnisse zu präsentieren und zu würdigen sowie fallstudien- und szenarien-orientierte Ergebnisse in einen allgemeinen Kontext einzuordnen},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Erfurth, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C},
    pages = {557--557},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Arms Control and its Applicability in Cyberspace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 207–231. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Arms control aims at preventing conflicts and fostering stability in inter-state relations by either reducing the probability of usage of a specific weapon or regulating its use and thus, reducing the costs of armament. Several approaches to arms control exist: limiting or reducing numbers of weapons and armed forces, disarmament (“down to zero”) or prohibiting certain weapons. To illustrate these further, this chapter elaborates on the necessity of arms control and presents some historical examples, including an overview of existing measures of arms control. Extrapolating from these, the general architecture of arms control regimes and the complex issue of establishing and verifying compliance with agreements will be discussed, not least with respect to cyberspace. Building on these theoretical considerations, the chapter presents important treaties and first ap-proaches, including the Wassenaar Arrangement, the recommendations of the OSCE, and the UN GGE 2015.

    @incollection{reinhold_arms_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Arms {Control} and its {Applicability} in {Cyberspace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Arms control aims at preventing conflicts and fostering stability in inter-state relations by either reducing the probability of usage of a specific weapon or regulating its use and thus, reducing the costs of armament. Several approaches to arms control exist: limiting or reducing numbers of weapons and armed forces, disarmament (“down to zero”) or prohibiting certain weapons. To illustrate these further, this chapter elaborates on the necessity of arms control and presents some historical examples, including an overview of existing measures of arms control. Extrapolating from these, the general architecture of arms control regimes and the complex issue of establishing and verifying compliance with agreements will be discussed, not least with respect to cyberspace. Building on these theoretical considerations, the chapter presents important treaties and first ap-proaches, including the Wassenaar Arrangement, the recommendations of the OSCE, and the UN GGE 2015.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_10},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {207--231},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Arms Control and its Applicability to Cyberspace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, , 207–231. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_10
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{reuter_arms_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Arms {Control} and its {Applicability} to {Cyberspace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25651-7 978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_10},
    language = {en},
    urldate = {2021-05-11},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security}},
    publisher = {Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_10},
    pages = {207--231},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Verification in Cyberspace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 257–276. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Verification is one of the pillars of arms control and non-proliferation treaties as well as an important part of confidence building measures. It defines practical measures that enable treaty members to check the treaty compliance by observing, counting or moni-toring specific actions and their accordance with the respective rules. In contrast to his-torical examples of former military technologies, cyberspace features some unique char-acteristics making it hard to apply established measures. The chapter describes these peculiarities and assesses distinguishing problems compared to selected verification measures for nuclear, biological and chemicals weapons technology. Yet, cyberspace is a human-made domain and adjusting its technical setting, rules and principles may help to reduce the threat of ongoing militarisation. Offering some alternatives, the chapter elaborates on suitable and measurable parameters for this domain and presents potential-ly useful verification approaches.

    @incollection{reinhold_verification_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Verification in {Cyberspace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Verification is one of the pillars of arms control and non-proliferation treaties as well as an important part of confidence building measures. It defines practical measures that enable treaty members to check the treaty compliance by observing, counting or moni-toring specific actions and their accordance with the respective rules. In contrast to his-torical examples of former military technologies, cyberspace features some unique char-acteristics making it hard to apply established measures. The chapter describes these peculiarities and assesses distinguishing problems compared to selected verification measures for nuclear, biological and chemicals weapons technology. Yet, cyberspace is a human-made domain and adjusting its technical setting, rules and principles may help to reduce the threat of ongoing militarisation. Offering some alternatives, the chapter elaborates on suitable and measurable parameters for this domain and presents potential-ly useful verification approaches.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_12},
    keywords = {Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {257--276},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer (2019)
    Digitalisation and Communication: Societal Trends and the Change in Organisations
    Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The digitalisation of communication started as early as the 1980s. With the rise of the internet in the mid-90s the digitalisation process intensified; then it took on another dimension with the spread of social media and smartphones in the mid noughties. These new technologies are providing new possibilities that are unveiling, or rather, strengthening societal trends. What’s more, traditional forms of organisation are also being transformed at breakneck speed. This publication provides an overview of both developments: On the one hand we have societal developments such as the blurring of boundaries between real and digital worlds, constant connectivity, fake news, and social media outrage. On the other, we have the effects on traditional media, the workplace, schools, non-governmental organisations and sports.

    @book{reuter_digitalisation_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Digitalisation and {Communication}: {Societal} {Trends} and the {Change} in {Organisations}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47853/SPPaper6_Digitalisation_Communication_English.pdf},
    abstract = {The digitalisation of communication started as early as the 1980s. With the rise of the internet in the mid-90s the digitalisation process intensified; then it took on another dimension with the spread of social media and smartphones in the mid noughties. These new technologies are providing new possibilities that are unveiling, or rather, strengthening societal trends. What's more, traditional forms of organisation are also being transformed at breakneck speed. This publication provides an overview of both developments: On the one hand we have societal developments such as the blurring of boundaries between real and digital worlds, constant connectivity, fake news, and social media outrage. On the other, we have the effects on traditional media, the workplace, schools, non-governmental organisations and sports.},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News und manipulierte Meinungsbildung
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation: Gesellschaftliche Trends und der Wandel von Organisationen. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 15–19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019-1,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} und manipulierte {Meinungsbildung}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47852/PolicyPaper5_Digitalisierung_Kommunikation_deutsch.pdf},
    abstract = {Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.},
    booktitle = {Die {Digitalisierung} der {Kommunikation}: {Gesellschaftliche} {Trends} und der {Wandel} von {Organisationen}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {15--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Patrick Mischur (2019)
    RescueGlass: Collaborative Applications involving Head-Mounted Displays for Red Cross Rescue Dog Units
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;28(1-2):209–246. doi:10.1007/s10606-018-9339-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    On-site work of emergency service teams consists of highly cooperative tasks. Especially during distributed search and rescue tasks there is a constant mix of routinized and non-routinized activities. Within this paper we focus on the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dog Units who deal with several uncertainties regarding the involved dogs, the fragility of the respective situations as well as issues of using technologies under enormous time pressure. Smart glasses provide possibilities for enhanced and hands-free interaction in various contexts and a number of approaches have already been applied, aiming at efficient use of the respective technological innovation in private and professional contexts. However, the collaborative potential of smart glasses in time-critical and uncertain situations is still unexplored. Our design case study examines how the on-site work of emergency service teams can be supported by smart glasses: Based on examining the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dogs, we introduce ‘RescueGlass‘ as a coordinative concept, encompassing hands-free head-mounted display (HMD) application as well as a corresponding smartphone application. Finally, we describe the evaluation of its use in the field of emergency response and management. We show how current features such as ‘fog of war‘ or various sensors support the cooperative practices of dog handlers, and outline current technical limitations offering future research questions. Our paper provides an initial design probe using smart glasses to engage in the field of collaborative professional mobile tasks.

    @article{reuter_rescueglass_2019,
    title = {{RescueGlass}: {Collaborative} {Applications} involving {Head}-{Mounted} {Displays} for {Red} {Cross} {Rescue} {Dog} {Units}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterLudwigMischur_RescueGlass_JCSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-018-9339-8},
    abstract = {On-site work of emergency service teams consists of highly cooperative tasks. Especially during distributed search and rescue tasks there is a constant mix of routinized and non-routinized activities. Within this paper we focus on the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dog Units who deal with several uncertainties regarding the involved dogs, the fragility of the respective situations as well as issues of using technologies under enormous time pressure. Smart glasses provide possibilities for enhanced and hands-free interaction in various contexts and a number of approaches have already been applied, aiming at efficient use of the respective technological innovation in private and professional contexts. However, the collaborative potential of smart glasses in time-critical and uncertain situations is still unexplored. Our design case study examines how the on-site work of emergency service teams can be supported by smart glasses: Based on examining the work practices of the German Red Cross Rescue Dogs, we introduce ‘RescueGlass' as a coordinative concept, encompassing hands-free head-mounted display (HMD) application as well as a corresponding smartphone application. Finally, we describe the evaluation of its use in the field of emergency response and management. We show how current features such as ‘fog of war' or various sensors support the cooperative practices of dog handlers, and outline current technical limitations offering future research questions. Our paper provides an initial design probe using smart glasses to engage in the field of collaborative professional mobile tasks.},
    number = {1-2},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Mischur, Patrick},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {209--246},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katrin Hartwig, Jan Kirchner, Noah Schlegel (2019)
    Fake News Perception in Germany: A Representative Study of People’s Attitudes and Approaches to Counteract Disinformation
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people’s attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news

    @inproceedings{reuter_fake_2019-2,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Fake {News} {Perception} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Study} of {People}'s {Attitudes} and {Approaches} to {Counteract} {Disinformation}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHartwigKirchnerSchlegel_FakeNewsPerceptionGermany_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people's attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hartwig, Katrin and Kirchner, Jan and Schlegel, Noah},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace},
    pages = {1069--1083},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Larissa Aldehoff, Jürgen Altmann, Johannes Buchmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Alfred Nordmann, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Annette Ripper, Ingo Ruhmann, Klaus-Peter Saalbach, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2019)
    The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 405–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_future_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {The {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Aldehoff, Larissa and Altmann, Jürgen and Buchmann, Johannes and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Nordmann, Alfred and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ripper, Annette and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Peace},
    pages = {405--413},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Jens Pottebaum, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    6. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen – Neue digitale Realitäten
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nur wenn die technischen (z.B. Zuverlässigkeit) und nutzungs- orientierten Aspekte (z.B. Gebrauchstauglichkeit) angemessen und integriert berücksichtigt werden, können computerbasierte Systeme und vor allem deren Anwendung in komplexen Situati- onen sicher sein. Eine gute Benutzbarkeit ist dabei kein Zusatz, sondern zentraler Bestandteil bei der Verbesserung der System- sicherheit. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen An- wendungsgebieten. Dazu werden Konzepte der Krisenkommuni- kation, der Nutzung sozialer Medien, neuartige Interaktionskon- zepte und Reflektionen zu Forschungsprojekten vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_6_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {6. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen} - {Neue} digitale {Realitäten}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25199/133.pdf},
    abstract = {Nur wenn die technischen (z.B. Zuverlässigkeit) und nutzungs- orientierten Aspekte (z.B. Gebrauchstauglichkeit) angemessen und integriert berücksichtigt werden, können computerbasierte Systeme und vor allem deren Anwendung in komplexen Situati- onen sicher sein. Eine gute Benutzbarkeit ist dabei kein Zusatz, sondern zentraler Bestandteil bei der Verbesserung der System- sicherheit. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen An- wendungsgebieten. Dazu werden Konzepte der Krisenkommuni- kation, der Nutzung sozialer Medien, neuartige Interaktionskon- zepte und Reflektionen zu Forschungsprojekten vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pottebaum, Jens and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {278--280},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – Introduction and Overview
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_information_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {Introduction} and {Overview}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Infrastructure, Peace, RSF, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-MAKI, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer (2019)
    Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation: Gesellschaftliche Trends und der Wandel von Organisationen
    Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits seit den 80er-Jahren erleben wir die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation. Mit dem Siegeszug des Internets in den 90er-Jahren intensivierte sich dieser Prozess und erreichte ab Mitte der 2000er mit der Verbreitung sozialer Medien und Smartphones eine neue Dimension. Neue technische Möglichkeiten haben neue gesellschaftliche Trends hervorgebracht bzw. verstärkt. Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation verändert aber auch traditionelle Organisationsformen in atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit. Diese Publikation bietet einen Überblick zu diesen beiden Entwicklungen: gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen wie die Auflösung von realer und digitaler Welt, ständige Vernetztheit, Fake News und Shitstorm auf der einen Seite und die Auswirkungen dieser Prozesse auf traditionelle Medien, Arbeitswelt, Schulen, Nichtregierungsorganisationen und den Sportsektor auf der anderen Seite.

    @book{reuter_digitalisierung_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Die {Digitalisierung} der {Kommunikation}: {Gesellschaftliche} {Trends} und der {Wandel} von {Organisationen}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47852/PolicyPaper5_Digitalisierung_Kommunikation_deutsch.pdf},
    abstract = {Bereits seit den 80er-Jahren erleben wir die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation. Mit dem Siegeszug des Internets in den 90er-Jahren intensivierte sich dieser Prozess und erreichte ab Mitte der 2000er mit der Verbreitung sozialer Medien und Smartphones eine neue Dimension. Neue technische Möglichkeiten haben neue gesellschaftliche Trends hervorgebracht bzw. verstärkt. Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation verändert aber auch traditionelle Organisationsformen in atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit. Diese Publikation bietet einen Überblick zu diesen beiden Entwicklungen: gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen wie die Auflösung von realer und digitaler Welt, ständige Vernetztheit, Fake News und Shitstorm auf der einen Seite und die Auswirkungen dieser Prozesse auf traditionelle Medien, Arbeitswelt, Schulen, Nichtregierungsorganisationen und den Sportsektor auf der anderen Seite.},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Häusser, Mona Bien, Franziska Herbert (2019)
    Between Effort and Security: User Assessment of the Adequacy of Security Mechanisms for App Categories
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users‘ choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users‘ choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user’s preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users‘ choice of security mechanism.

    @inproceedings{reuter_between_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Between {Effort} and {Security}: {User} {Assessment} of the {Adequacy} of {Security} {Mechanisms} for {App} {Categories}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHaeusserBienHerbert_EffortSecurity_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340770},
    abstract = {With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users' choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users' choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user's preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users' choice of security mechanism.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Häusser, Katja and Bien, Mona and Herbert, Franziska},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {287--297},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.

    @book{reuter_science_2019-1,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of unmanned weapons systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons are again becoming more urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes scientific-technical as well as inter- disciplinary contributions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – An Editorial
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 7–10.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In its recommendations for the further development of peace and conflict research published in July 2019, the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat), as the most important science policy advisory body in Germany, stated that urgent action was needed to strengthen scientific and technical peace and conflict research. As a positive example of the permanent establishment of this field of research at a university, the TU Darmstadt was named. This is where the first edition of the conference series „SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY“ took place.

    @incollection{reuter_science_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 – {An} {Editorial}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In its recommendations for the further development of peace and conflict research published in July 2019, the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat), as the most important science policy advisory body in Germany, stated that urgent action was needed to strengthen scientific and technical peace and conflict research. As a positive example of the permanent establishment of this field of research at a university, the TU Darmstadt was named. This is where the first edition of the conference series "SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY" took place.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    pages = {7--10},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News and the Manipulation of Public Opinion
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Digitalisation and Communication: Societal Trends and the Change in Organisations. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 13–16.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Per a recent study, a majority of Germans wants to see strict action taken against the targeted spread of disinformation in the news. Researchers in the Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) research group at Technische Universität Darmstadt investigated how German citizens perceive and react to fake news and asked them what countermeasures they would consider to be most appropriate.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} and the {Manipulation} of {Public} {Opinion}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47853/SPPaper6_Digitalisation_Communication_English.pdf},
    abstract = {Per a recent study, a majority of Germans wants to see strict action taken against the targeted spread of disinformation in the news. Researchers in the Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) research group at Technische Universität Darmstadt investigated how German citizens perceive and react to fake news and asked them what countermeasures they would consider to be most appropriate.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisation and {Communication}: {Societal} {Trends} and the {Change} in {Organisations}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Peace},
    pages = {13--16},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Larissa Aldehoff, Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    IT in Peace, Conflict, and Security Research
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 11–37. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.

    @incollection{reuter_it_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {{IT} in {Peace}, {Conflict}, and {Security} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aldehoff, Larissa and Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Infrastructure, Peace},
    pages = {11--37},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz (2019)
    Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) – Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resilient_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Resilient {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) – {Nutzung} digitaler {Technologien} in krisensicherer {Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_177.pdf},
    abstract = {Resilienz ist in aller Munde. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Ausfall- und Angriffssicherheit der Landwirtschaft als zentraler Bestandteil der Ernährungswirtschaft im digitalen Zeitalter kritisch auseinander. Dabei geht es nicht um die Frage, ob Smart Farming in der landwirtschaftlichen Praxis sinnvoll ist, sondern ob deren Infrastruktur den Anforderungen einer ausfallsicheren (resilienten) Infrastruktur gerecht wird. Da die Ernährungswirtschaft ein Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur ist, ist deren Analyse in Hinsicht auf mögliche Angriffspotenziale und auf Ausfallsicherheit von gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Wir schlagen Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zur Nutzung digitaler Technologien in krisensicherer Infrastruktur vor.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {177--182},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Larissa Aldehoff, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold (2019)
    Cyberwar zwischen Fiktion und Realität – technologische Möglichkeiten
    In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner, Niklas Schörnig: Cyberwar – die Digitalisierung der Kriegsführung. Springer VS, , 15–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.

    @incollection{reuter_cyberwar_2019,
    title = {Cyberwar zwischen {Fiktion} und {Realität} – technologische {Möglichkeiten}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-27713-0},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0_2},
    abstract = {Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.},
    booktitle = {Cyberwar – die {Digitalisierung} der {Kriegsführung}},
    publisher = {Springer VS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Aldehoff, Larissa and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Werkner, Ines-Jacqueline and Schörnig, Niklas},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {15--38},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual-Use in der IT: Bewertung in der Softwareentwicklung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden 2019-1: 2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.

    @techreport{riebe_dual-use_2019,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2019-1},
    title = {Dual-{Use} in der {IT}: {Bewertung} in der {Softwareentwicklung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_RiebeReuter_DualUse_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Der Einsatz von Informationstechnologie (IT) im Frieden ebenso wie in Konflikten und für Sicherheitszwecke wirft einige Fragen auf (Reuter 2019), u.a. ob die Nutzung von IT auf so genannte förderliche Zwecke und Anwendungen begrenzt und eine schädliche Nutzung verhindert werden kann (Riebe und Reuter 2019). Diese Ambivalenz wird als Dual-use-Dilemma bezeichnet und bedeutet, dass Gegenstände, Wissen und Technologie sowohl nützliche als auch schädliche Anwendung fi nden können. Dual-use-Fragen stellen sich in ganz unterschiedlichen technischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, insbesondere in der Nukleartechnologie sowie in der Chemie und Biologie. Dabei unterscheidet sich die Bedeutung von Dual-use je nach Technologie, ihren spezifi schen Risiken und Szenarien sowie ihrer Distribution und Anwendung. Konkret bedeutet dies: Sicherheitspolitische Risikoszenarien und Anwender der Nukleartechnologie unterscheiden sich erheblich von denen der IT.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--48},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Dual Use and Dilemmas for Cybersecurity, Peace and Technology Assessment
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 165–184. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.

    @incollection{riebe_dual_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Dual {Use} and {Dilemmas} for {Cybersecurity}, {Peace} and {Technology} {Assessment}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Dual-use in information technology is a pressing issue: how can we prevent, control or manage the risk of a harmful application of IT? How can dual-use awareness and regu-lation help to mitigate the risks to peace and security on the national and international level? As the cyberspace has been declared a military domain, IT is of increasing im-portance for civil and military infrastructures. How can researchers, developers and decision makers make sure that IT is not misused to cause harm? For nuclear, biological and chemical technologies this has been discussed as the dual-use problem. This chapter illustrates the approaches towards different dual-use concepts, how to conduct a tech-nology assessment and provides insight into the implementation of dual-use assessment guidelines at TU Darmstadt, the so-called Civil Clause.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_8},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {165--184},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2019)
    Accessing Dual Use in IT Development
    Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of information technology (IT) in peace, conflict and security raises some questions, i.e. whether the use of IT can be limited exclusively to so-called advantageous purposes and applications and whether improper use can be prevented. This ambivalence is called a dual- use dilemma, meaning that objects, knowledge and technology can find both useful and harm- ful applications. Dual-use questions have been addressed in various disciplines, in particular in nuclear technology and the production of nuclear weapons, but also in chemistry and biology. In all these disciplines, dual-use topics in technical development and education have been discussed and addressed. Nevertheless, the importance of dual-use differs slightly, depending on the technology and its risks, as well as its distribution and application. Nuclear technology is less accessible than biotechnology, which in turn is less accessible than IT.

    @inproceedings{riebe_accessing_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Accessing {Dual} {Use} in {IT} {Development}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {The use of information technology (IT) in peace, conflict and security raises some questions, i.e. whether the use of IT can be limited exclusively to so-called advantageous purposes and applications and whether improper use can be prevented. This ambivalence is called a dual- use dilemma, meaning that objects, knowledge and technology can find both useful and harm- ful applications. Dual-use questions have been addressed in various disciplines, in particular in nuclear technology and the production of nuclear weapons, but also in chemistry and biology. In all these disciplines, dual-use topics in technical development and education have been discussed and addressed. Nevertheless, the importance of dual-use differs slightly, depending on the technology and its risks, as well as its distribution and application. Nuclear technology is less accessible than biotechnology, which in turn is less accessible than IT.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {46--49},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tarun Kumar, Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Threat Intelligence Application for Cyber Attribution
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.

    @inproceedings{riebe_threat_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Threat {Intelligence} {Application} for {Cyber} {Attribution}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kumar, Tarun and Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {56--60},
    }

  • Saqib Saeed, Volkmar Pipek, Markus Rohde, Christian Reuter, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti De Carvalho, Volker Wulf (2019)
    Nomadic Knowledge Sharing Practices and Challenges: Findings from a Long-term Case Study
    IEEE Access ;7(1):63564–63577. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2916903
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper, we explore a specialized type of knowledge, „nomadic knowledge“ to understand its implications in knowledge sharing process. Nomadic knowledge is enacted in a discontinuous pattern with a changing set of actors and further flows on a definedtrajectory. This knowledge is quite important but is required sporadically, so it has a varying level of importance for stakeholders at different instances of time. The limited interest of knowledge holders after the creation of knowledge makes the knowledge sharing processcomplex. Furthermore, new sets of actors overloaded with tasks often ignore the knowledge sharing aspect due to the urgency of tasks at hand. Using a long-term field study we describe a particular practice that is not well supported technologically. The objective of this paper is to outline the concept of nomadic knowledge and associated implications, so that respective practices can be supported by the knowledge management community with appropriate technology.

    @article{saeed_nomadic_2019,
    title = {Nomadic {Knowledge} {Sharing} {Practices} and {Challenges}: {Findings} from a {Long}-term {Case} {Study}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=8715497},
    doi = {10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2916903},
    abstract = {In this paper, we explore a specialized type of knowledge, "nomadic knowledge" to understand its implications in knowledge sharing process. Nomadic knowledge is enacted in a discontinuous pattern with a changing set of actors and further flows on a definedtrajectory. This knowledge is quite important but is required sporadically, so it has a varying level of importance for stakeholders at different instances of time. The limited interest of knowledge holders after the creation of knowledge makes the knowledge sharing processcomplex. Furthermore, new sets of actors overloaded with tasks often ignore the knowledge sharing aspect due to the urgency of tasks at hand. Using a long-term field study we describe a particular practice that is not well supported technologically. The objective of this paper is to outline the concept of nomadic knowledge and associated implications, so that respective practices can be supported by the knowledge management community with appropriate technology.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {IEEE Access},
    author = {Saeed, Saqib and Pipek, Volkmar and Rohde, Markus and Reuter, Christian and Pinatti De Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {63564--63577},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 196–200.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.

    @incollection{schmid_meaningful_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {Systems}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {196--200},
    }

  • Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Ein Kampf gegen Windmühlen: qualitative Studie über Informatikabsolvent_innen und ihre Datenprivatheit
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-302-06
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie werden eigene private Daten geschützt? Um dieser Frage nachzugehen, wurde in einer qualitativen Studie mit sechs Informatikabsolvent_innen erfragt, wie diese die Privatheit ihrer Daten schützen. Das Ziel der teilstrukturierten Inter- views war es einen möglichst breiten Überblick über tatsäch- lich verwendete Techniken und Technologien zum Schutz der privaten Daten zu gewinnen. Während sich die Vermu- tung bestätigte, dass alle Teilnehmer_innen ein Bewusstsein für die Brisanz ihrer privaten Daten hatten, unterschieden sich die Definitionen ebendieser privaten Daten sowie das Verhalten, um diese zu schützen. Es konnte beobachtet wer- den, dass viel Wissen in diesem Bereich nicht zwangsläufig zu einem vorsichtigeren Handeln führt. Mögliche genannte Strategien zum Schutz der eigenen Daten sind: Informiert bleiben, Datensparsamkeit, Vermeidung der Produkte be- stimmter Konzerne sowie Resignation. Als Motivation für das jeweilige Verhalten wurden sowohl politische, philoso- phische, utilitaristische, als auch angstgetriebene Gründe genannt. Letztere können in Angst vor Diebstahl und Angst vor Andersbehandlung unterschieden werden.

    @inproceedings{schmidbauer-wolf_kampf_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Ein {Kampf} gegen {Windmühlen}: qualitative {Studie} über {Informatikabsolvent}\_innen und ihre {Datenprivatheit}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25168/302-06.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-302-06},
    abstract = {Wie werden eigene private Daten geschützt? Um dieser Frage nachzugehen, wurde in einer qualitativen Studie mit sechs Informatikabsolvent\_innen erfragt, wie diese die Privatheit ihrer Daten schützen. Das Ziel der teilstrukturierten Inter- views war es einen möglichst breiten Überblick über tatsäch- lich verwendete Techniken und Technologien zum Schutz der privaten Daten zu gewinnen. Während sich die Vermu- tung bestätigte, dass alle Teilnehmer\_innen ein Bewusstsein für die Brisanz ihrer privaten Daten hatten, unterschieden sich die Definitionen ebendieser privaten Daten sowie das Verhalten, um diese zu schützen. Es konnte beobachtet wer- den, dass viel Wissen in diesem Bereich nicht zwangsläufig zu einem vorsichtigeren Handeln führt. Mögliche genannte Strategien zum Schutz der eigenen Daten sind: Informiert bleiben, Datensparsamkeit, Vermeidung der Produkte be- stimmter Konzerne sowie Resignation. Als Motivation für das jeweilige Verhalten wurden sowohl politische, philoso- phische, utilitaristische, als auch angstgetriebene Gründe genannt. Letztere können in Angst vor Diebstahl und Angst vor Andersbehandlung unterschieden werden.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {256--264},
    }

  • Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Responsible Data Usage in Smart Cities: Privacy in Everyday Life vs. Reacting to Emergency Situations
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Smart cities want to provide a better life to their citizens, e.g. regarding health care, infrastruc- ture, better safety and security. This can be achieved by using more and new technology and by interconnecting and analysing new and existent devices. Thus, public spaces and buildings will be equipped with more interconnected input and output modalities. This ongoing technolo- gization of public spaces creates opportunities for making everyone’s life more secure, while at the same time everyone’s personal privacy is endangered. So how is this balancing act tackled and dealt with right now? What fears do citizens have regarding their security as well as their privacy? This paper provides first insights into the topic privacy in smart cities regarding that smart cities need data which can be provided by and of people. The paper raises the question if collecting people’s data, and thus enabling smart cities, is ethical and if not, how it can be assured to be ethical.

    @inproceedings{schmidbauer-wolf_responsible_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Responsible {Data} {Usage} in {Smart} {Cities}: {Privacy} in {Everyday} {Life} vs. {Reacting} to {Emergency} {Situations}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Smart cities want to provide a better life to their citizens, e.g. regarding health care, infrastruc- ture, better safety and security. This can be achieved by using more and new technology and by interconnecting and analysing new and existent devices. Thus, public spaces and buildings will be equipped with more interconnected input and output modalities. This ongoing technolo- gization of public spaces creates opportunities for making everyone's life more secure, while at the same time everyone's personal privacy is endangered. So how is this balancing act tackled and dealt with right now? What fears do citizens have regarding their security as well as their privacy? This paper provides first insights into the topic privacy in smart cities regarding that smart cities need data which can be provided by and of people. The paper raises the question if collecting people's data, and thus enabling smart cities, is ethical and if not, how it can be assured to be ethical.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {70--74},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Spielhoferetal_SocialMediaCrisesUKSurvey_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

    2018

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Julian Hester, Danny Jeske, Lisa Knüver, Viktoria Richert (2018)
    Business Continuity Management in Micro Enterprises: Perception, Strategies and Use of ICT
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):1–19. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.

    @article{kaufhold_business_2018,
    title = {Business {Continuity} {Management} in {Micro} {Enterprises}: {Perception}, {Strategies} and {Use} of {ICT}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRiebeReuteretal_BusinessContinuityManagementinMicroEnterprises_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101},
    abstract = {Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Hester, Julian and Jeske, Danny and Knüver, Lisa and Richert, Viktoria},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Cooperation, RSF, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tobias Ermert (2018)
    Interaktionsdesign eines Risiko-Bewertungskonzepts für KMU
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_interaktionsdesign_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Interaktionsdesign eines {Risiko}-{Bewertungskonzepts} für {KMU}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16626/Beitrag_356_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ermert, Tobias},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {309--312},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Elmar von Radziewski (2018)
    Design eines BCM-Dashboards für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Design eines {BCM}-{Dashboards} für kleine und mittlere {Unternehmen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16796/Beitrag_453_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and von Radziewski, Elmar},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Infrastructure},
    pages = {579--586},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Christoph Amelunxen, Massimo Cristaldi (2018)
    112.SOCIAL: Design and Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis App for Bidirectional Communication between Emergency Services and Citizen
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Portsmouth, UK.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities‘ and citizens‘ information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_112social_2018,
    address = {Portsmouth, UK},
    title = {112.{SOCIAL}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Mobile} {Crisis} {App} for {Bidirectional} {Communication} between {Emergency} {Services} and {Citizen}},
    url = {http://ecis2018.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/1458-doc.pdf},
    abstract = {Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities' and citizens' information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Amelunxen, Christoph and Cristaldi, Massimo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Markus Lederer, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    IANUS am FiF und darüber hinaus: Die Bedeutung natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Friedensforschung für die TU Darmstadt
    In: Andreas Großmann, Heike Krebs, Josef Wiemeyer: Zwischendrin. 10 Jahre Forum interdisziplinäre Forschung der TU Darmstadt. Darmstadt: , , 71–89.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    IANUS steht seit 30 wechselhaften Jahren für natur- und ingenieur- wissenschaftliche Friedensforschung im Austausch mit den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften. Seit Januar 2018 ist IANUS ein Teil des Forums interdisziplinäre Forschung. Das FiF stellt das Dach, unter dem einige Aspekte der bisherigen IANUS-Arbeit weitergeführt werden sollen. Insofern das FiF nicht selbst wissenschaftlich arbeitet oder ein inhalt- liches Programm verfolgt, besteht das gemeinsame Dach in der admini- strativen Zusammenarbeit und dem Gedanken der Interdisziplinarität. Insofern IANUS von weitreichenderen Ambitionen geprägt ist, kann es unter dem gemeinsamen Dach derzeit nur auf sehr kleiner Flamme wei- terarbeiten. Freilich ergeben sich andererseits auch neue Perspektiven. Und wenn sich diese Perspektiven fruchtbar entwickeln lassen, würde ein erneuertes IANUS wesentlich zur internationalen Sichtbarkeit des FiF als Ausweis einer verantwortungsbewussten Forschungskultur an der TU Darmstadt beitragen. Was war IANUS und wofür steht es? Was ist IANUS heute – was kann und will es? Was könnte ein erneuertes IANUS werden – wie kann sein friedenspolitisch ausgerichteter wissenschaftlicher Anspruch zukünftig für das FiF und die TU Darmstadt wirksam werden? Diesen drei Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Abschnitte zu – und feiern somit, was nach 10 Jahren FiF, 30 Jahren IANUS und 140 Jahren TH/TU Darmstadt im Wandel der Forschungskulturen möglich war, ist und wird.

    @incollection{lederer_ianus_2018,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    title = {{IANUS} am {FiF} und darüber hinaus: {Die} {Bedeutung} natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher {Friedensforschung} für die {TU} {Darmstadt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_LedererNordmannReuter_IANUS_FIF-Festschrift.pdf},
    abstract = {IANUS steht seit 30 wechselhaften Jahren für natur- und ingenieur- wissenschaftliche Friedensforschung im Austausch mit den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften. Seit Januar 2018 ist IANUS ein Teil des Forums interdisziplinäre Forschung. Das FiF stellt das Dach, unter dem einige Aspekte der bisherigen IANUS-Arbeit weitergeführt werden sollen. Insofern das FiF nicht selbst wissenschaftlich arbeitet oder ein inhalt- liches Programm verfolgt, besteht das gemeinsame Dach in der admini- strativen Zusammenarbeit und dem Gedanken der Interdisziplinarität. Insofern IANUS von weitreichenderen Ambitionen geprägt ist, kann es unter dem gemeinsamen Dach derzeit nur auf sehr kleiner Flamme wei- terarbeiten. Freilich ergeben sich andererseits auch neue Perspektiven. Und wenn sich diese Perspektiven fruchtbar entwickeln lassen, würde ein erneuertes IANUS wesentlich zur internationalen Sichtbarkeit des FiF als Ausweis einer verantwortungsbewussten Forschungskultur an der TU Darmstadt beitragen. Was war IANUS und wofür steht es? Was ist IANUS heute – was kann und will es? Was könnte ein erneuertes IANUS werden – wie kann sein friedenspolitisch ausgerichteter wissenschaftlicher Anspruch zukünftig für das FiF und die TU Darmstadt wirksam werden? Diesen drei Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Abschnitte zu – und feiern somit, was nach 10 Jahren FiF, 30 Jahren IANUS und 140 Jahren TH/TU Darmstadt im Wandel der Forschungskulturen möglich war, ist und wird.},
    booktitle = {Zwischendrin. 10 {Jahre} {Forum} interdisziplinäre {Forschung} der {TU} {Darmstadt}},
    author = {Lederer, Markus and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Großmann, Andreas and Krebs, Heike and Wiemeyer, Josef},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {71--89},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 379–402. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia},
    pages = {379--402},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Informatik für Frieden und Sicherheit
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 573–595. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden} und {Sicherheit}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    abstract = {Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {573--595},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2018)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 621–630. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {621--630},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Einleitung und Überblick
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–14. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} – {Einleitung} und Überblick},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {3--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on IT-Support for Crisis and Continuity Management
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):v–viii.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_guest_2018,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Crisis} and {Continuity} {Management}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterPottebaum_EditorialCrisisContinuityManagement_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {v--viii},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Editorial of the Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):277–279. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2018,
    title = {Editorial of the {Special} {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesHiltzImranPlotnik_EditorialSpecialIssueSocialMediaCrisisManagement_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833},
    abstract = {Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, RSF, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {277--279},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gerhard Backfried, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr (2018)
    ISCRAM turns 15: A Trend Analysis of Social Media Papers 2004-2017
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Rochester, New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_iscram_2018,
    address = {Rochester, New York, USA},
    title = {{ISCRAM} turns 15: {A} {Trend} {Analysis} of {Social} {Media} {Papers} 2004-2017},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterBackfriedKaufholdSpahn_15YearsISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Backfried, Gerhard and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian},
    editor = {Boersma, Kees and Tomaszewski, Brian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2018)
    Studie: Wie sehen Mitarbeiter von Feuerwehr und THW den Einsatz sozialer Medien in Gefahrenlagen?
    2018.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{reuter_studie_2018,
    title = {Studie: {Wie} sehen {Mitarbeiter} von {Feuerwehr} und {THW} den {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Gefahrenlagen}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_FeuerwehrTHWSozialeMedienGefahrenlagen_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {64--66},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Cemal Kaygusuz (2018)
    Resiliente Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Landwirtschaft – mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.

    @inproceedings{reuter_resiliente_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Resiliente {Digitalisierung} der kritischen {Infrastruktur} {Landwirtschaft} - mobil, dezentral, ausfallsicher},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16930/Beitrag_330_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung der kritischen Infrastruktur Ernährungswirtschaft und setzt den Fokus insbesondere auf die dadurch resultierenden in-formationstechnologischen Folgen bezüglich der Angriffs- und Ausfallsicherheit in der Landwirtschaft und von ihr abhängigen Sektoren. In diesem Kontext wird die Modernisie-rungen der Landmaschinen und deren Vernetzung sowie das Cloud-Computing in der Landwirtschaft analysiert und zu treffende Maßnahmen bezüglich einer resilienten Struktur erläutert. In vielen Bereichen wird dabei aufgezeigt, dass das Ausfallrisiko der Produktion zugunsten von Vorteilen wie Ertrags- und Qualitätssteigerung vernachlässigt wird.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Kaygusuz, Cemal},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {623--632},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    Special Issue on IT Support for Crisis and Continuity Management
    .
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-2,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {IT} {Support} for {Crisis} and {Continuity} {Management}},
    volume = {10},
    number = {1},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Inken Leopold (2018)
    Mobile and Interactive Media in the Store? Design Case Study on Bluetooth Beacon Concepts for Food Retail
    Media in Action: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Cooperative Media ;1(99-134).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet has changed consumer behavior, having an impact on local retail. At the same time, the number of smartphone users is continuously increasing, making mobile applications more and more important. By using Bluetooth beacons – small radio transmitters which can be placed everywhere and processed by an according app – shopping can be facilitated and made more enjoyable. Even though some supermarkets, especially in the USA, are already using beacons, their use is not common and less researched in Germany. Pilot projects only refer to usage data and reaction times while customers are rarely asked for their opinion. This work analyzes potentials of usage and customer acceptance of concepts based on beacons in retail via an online consumer survey, the conception of an app as well as a subsequent qualitative evaluation. As a starting point for our concept development and app implementation, the previous online survey of 203 participants emphasizes the importance of user-friendly settings as well as costumers‘ interest in informative communica-tion. Throughout all steps of our design case study, concerns for data privacy linked with interest in transparency were apparent and included, respectively. The field experiment stresses users‘ perceptions of potentially useful functions, and highlights design-related aspects for improvement, offering useful implications for future design of shopping apps.

    @article{reuter_mobile_2018,
    title = {Mobile and {Interactive} {Media} in the {Store}? {Design} {Case} {Study} on {Bluetooth} {Beacon} {Concepts} for {Food} {Retail}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterLeopold_Beacon_MediaInAction.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet has changed consumer behavior, having an impact on local retail. At the same time, the number of smartphone users is continuously increasing, making mobile applications more and more important. By using Bluetooth beacons – small radio transmitters which can be placed everywhere and processed by an according app – shopping can be facilitated and made more enjoyable. Even though some supermarkets, especially in the USA, are already using beacons, their use is not common and less researched in Germany. Pilot projects only refer to usage data and reaction times while customers are rarely asked for their opinion. This work analyzes potentials of usage and customer acceptance of concepts based on beacons in retail via an online consumer survey, the conception of an app as well as a subsequent qualitative evaluation. As a starting point for our concept development and app implementation, the previous online survey of 203 participants emphasizes the importance of user-friendly settings as well as costumers' interest in informative communica-tion. Throughout all steps of our design case study, concerns for data privacy linked with interest in transparency were apparent and included, respectively. The field experiment stresses users' perceptions of potentially useful functions, and highlights design-related aspects for improvement, offering useful implications for future design of shopping apps.},
    number = {99-134},
    journal = {Media in Action: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Cooperative Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Leopold, Inken},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {HCI},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Michael Herczeg, Stefan Geisler, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum (2018)
    5. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten. Da in solchen Feldern – etwa Katastrophenmanagement, Verkehr, Produktion oder Medizin – MCI eine immer größere Relevanz erhält, sind viele wissenschaftliche Gebiete, unter anderem die Informatik oder Mensch-Maschine Interaktion, zunehmend gefragt. Die Herausfor-derung besteht darin, bestehende Ansätze und Methoden zu diskutieren, anzupassen und innovative Lösungen zu entwickeln, die von den Nutzenden sicher und effizient verwendet werden können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_5_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {5. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16929/Beitrag_328_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten. Da in solchen Feldern – etwa Katastrophenmanagement, Verkehr, Produktion oder Medizin – MCI eine immer größere Relevanz erhält, sind viele wissenschaftliche Gebiete, unter anderem die Informatik oder Mensch-Maschine Interaktion, zunehmend gefragt. Die Herausfor-derung besteht darin, bestehende Ansätze und Methoden zu diskutieren, anzupassen und innovative Lösungen zu entwickeln, die von den Nutzenden sicher und effizient verwendet werden können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Herczeg, Michael and Geisler, Stefan and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {565--569},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/hihc20/34/4?nav=tocList},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Usable Safety Engineering sicherheitskritischer interaktiver Systeme
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 17–40. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.

    @incollection{reuter_usable_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Usable {Safety} {Engineering} sicherheitskritischer interaktiver {Systeme}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    abstract = {Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {17--40},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement
    Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19522-9},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658195229},
    abstract = {Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2018)
    Resilienz durch Kooperationstechnologien
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 443–465. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anforderungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteure. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt unser Kapitel anhand von praktischen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_resilienz_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Resilienz durch {Kooperationstechnologien}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22},
    abstract = {Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anforderungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteure. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt unser Kapitel anhand von praktischen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {443--465},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Special Issue on Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jccm.2018.26.issue-1/issuetoc},
    number = {1},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2018)
    Soziale Medien und Apps in Notsituationen: Eine repräsentative Studie über die Wahrnehmung in Deutschland
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.

    @techreport{reuter_soziale_2018,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} und {Apps} in {Notsituationen}: {Eine} repräsentative {Studie} über die {Wahrnehmung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SozialeMedienAppsNotsituationen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--24},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler (2018)
    Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems – Editorial
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):2–3. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12192
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_human-computer-interaction_2018,
    title = {Human-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} – {Editorial}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-5973.12192/abstract},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12192},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {2--3},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Alfred Nordmann, Christian Reuter (2018)
    Responsible Research and Innovation: Interdisziplinärer Workshop von IANUS und Schader-Stiftung
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?

    @techreport{riebe_responsible_2018,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {Responsible {Research} and {Innovation}: {Interdisziplinärer} {Workshop} von {IANUS} und {Schader}-{Stiftung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_RiebeNordmannReuter_RRI_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Statt der Forschung ethische, rechtliche, gesellschaftliche Refl exion nur beizuge-sellen, verlangt Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), dass sich Forschung an europäischen Werten – den Werten der Europäischen Union – orientiert. Um diese Öff nung zu gewährleisten, setzt RRI zunächst nicht auf spezifi sche Werte, sondern prozedural auf eine Forschung, die Folgen antizipiert, unterschiedliche Interessen und Wertvorstellungen inklu-diert, sich selbst refl ektiert und in die Verantwortung nehmen lässt. Doch was heißt das ?},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Nordmann, Alfred and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {60--61},
    }

  • Simon Scholl, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    SocialML: EUD im Maschine Learning zur Analyse sozialer Medien
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.

    @inproceedings{scholl_socialml_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {{SocialML}: {EUD} im {Maschine} {Learning} zur {Analyse} sozialer {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16668/Beitrag_347_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Scholl, Simon and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {443--446},
    }

    2017

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Marvin Stefan (2017)
    Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_gesellschaftliche_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Gesellschaftliche {Herausforderungen} des {Missbrauchs} von {Bots} und sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3236/2017_WS01_386.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Stefan, Marvin},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {51--58},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Simon Scholl (2017)
    Social Media Analytics: Eine Marktstudie im Krisenmanagement
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Gesellschaft für Informatik Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Social {Media} {Analytics}: {Eine} {Marktstudie} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuterLudwigScholl_SocialMediaAnalytcisMarktstudie_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik}},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1325--1338},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    The Impact of Social Media for Emergency Situations: A Case Study with the Fire Department of Frankfurt
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_impact_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {The {Impact} of {Social} {Media} for {Emergency} {Situations}: {A} {Case} {Study} with the {Fire} {Department} of {Frankfurt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_ImpactSocialMediaFrankfurt_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {603--612},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Integration von Flow in die Mensch- Computer-Interaktion? Potenziale für die Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme
    Mittelstand-Digital „Wissenschaft trifft Praxis“ ;7(1):78–88.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Flow-Erleben beschreibt das „reflexionsfreie, gänzliche Aufgehen in einer glatt laufenden Tätigkeit, die man trotz hoher Beanspruchung noch unter Kontrolle hat“. Dabei zeigt die bestehende Literatur vielversprechende Effekte der Flow-Theorie auf, etwa positiver Affekt, verbessertes Lernen, Mitarbeiterproduktivität und Kundenloyalität, die einen Mehrwert in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme darstellen. Die Betrachtung der theoretischen Grundlagen zeigt, dass Flow ein komponentenreiches Konstrukt ist, welches kontextsensitiv erforscht werden muss: Die Beschaffenheit der gegenwärtigen Aufgabe und des interaktiven Systems, sowie demografische, individuelle und situative Faktoren beeinflussen das Flow-erleben. Zur Messung des Flow-erlebens wurden eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden entwickelt, welche die gegenwärtige Erfahrung, etwa der FQ oder die esM, oder eine vergangene Erfahrung im Nachgang, etwa komponentenbasierte Fragebogen und qualitative Methoden, erfassen. In der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme im Sinne der MCI wird einerseits die Betrachtung pragmatischer Qualitätskriterien (Effizienz, Durchschaubarkeit, Verlässlichkeit) der Usability und hedonistischer Qualitätskriterien (Attraktivität, Neuheit, Stimulation) der User Experience angestrebt. Andererseits untersucht ein separater Forschungsstrang die Relevanz der Flow-Theorie für die MCI. Während der Einfluss theoretischer Konstrukte des Flow-erlebens bereits deutlich untersucht wurde, fehlt die systematische Verknüpfung zu konkreten Designanforderungen zur Unterstützung des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen. Damit die Potenziale der Flow-Theorie in der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme bestmöglich berücksichtigt werden können, sind vor allem vier Herausforderungen in der Forschung und Praxis zu adressieren: 1. Definition der theoretischen Kontextfaktoren: Wie kann die Flow-Theorie in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ganzheitlich bestimmt werden? 2. Operationalisierung der Flow-Theorie: Wie können Bedingungen, Erleben und Auswirkungen des Flow-erlebens genau und systematisch gemessen werden? 3. Integration in die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: In welchem exakten Zusammenhang stehen die Konzepte Flow, Usability und User Experience? 4. Ableitung praktischer Designanforderungen: Wie können praktische Anforderungen zum Design des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen abgeleitet werden? Dieser Beitrag hat dazu die theoretischen Grundlagen des Flow-erlebens, bestehende Methoden und Metriken sowie verwandte Konzepte der MCI eingeleitet und diskutiert, um einerseits die systematische Erforschung der Flow-Theorie in der MCI und andererseits die Ableitung praktischer Design-Anforderungen zu motivieren.

    @article{kaufhold_integration_2017,
    title = {Integration von {Flow} in die {Mensch}- {Computer}-{Interaktion}? {Potenziale} für die {Gestaltung} interaktiver {Systeme}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_FlowMCI_MittelstandDigital.pdf},
    abstract = {Flow-Erleben beschreibt das „reflexionsfreie, gänzliche Aufgehen in einer glatt laufenden Tätigkeit, die man trotz hoher Beanspruchung noch unter Kontrolle hat“. Dabei zeigt die bestehende Literatur vielversprechende Effekte der Flow-Theorie auf, etwa positiver Affekt, verbessertes Lernen, Mitarbeiterproduktivität und Kundenloyalität, die einen Mehrwert in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme darstellen. Die Betrachtung der theoretischen Grundlagen zeigt, dass Flow ein komponentenreiches Konstrukt ist, welches kontextsensitiv erforscht werden muss: Die Beschaffenheit der gegenwärtigen Aufgabe und des interaktiven Systems, sowie demografische, individuelle und situative Faktoren beeinflussen das Flow-erleben. Zur Messung des Flow-erlebens wurden eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden entwickelt, welche die gegenwärtige Erfahrung, etwa der FQ oder die esM, oder eine vergangene Erfahrung im Nachgang, etwa komponentenbasierte Fragebogen und qualitative Methoden, erfassen. In der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme im Sinne der MCI wird einerseits die Betrachtung pragmatischer Qualitätskriterien (Effizienz, Durchschaubarkeit, Verlässlichkeit) der Usability und hedonistischer Qualitätskriterien (Attraktivität, Neuheit, Stimulation) der User Experience angestrebt. Andererseits untersucht ein separater Forschungsstrang die Relevanz der Flow-Theorie für die MCI. Während der Einfluss theoretischer Konstrukte des Flow-erlebens bereits deutlich untersucht wurde, fehlt die systematische Verknüpfung zu konkreten Designanforderungen zur Unterstützung des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen. Damit die Potenziale der Flow-Theorie in der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme bestmöglich berücksichtigt werden können, sind vor allem vier Herausforderungen in der Forschung und Praxis zu adressieren: 1. Definition der theoretischen Kontextfaktoren: Wie kann die Flow-Theorie in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ganzheitlich bestimmt werden? 2. Operationalisierung der Flow-Theorie: Wie können Bedingungen, Erleben und Auswirkungen des Flow-erlebens genau und systematisch gemessen werden? 3. Integration in die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: In welchem exakten Zusammenhang stehen die Konzepte Flow, Usability und User Experience? 4. Ableitung praktischer Designanforderungen: Wie können praktische Anforderungen zum Design des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen abgeleitet werden? Dieser Beitrag hat dazu die theoretischen Grundlagen des Flow-erlebens, bestehende Methoden und Metriken sowie verwandte Konzepte der MCI eingeleitet und diskutiert, um einerseits die systematische Erforschung der Flow-Theorie in der MCI und andererseits die Ableitung praktischer Design-Anforderungen zu motivieren.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Mittelstand-Digital "Wissenschaft trifft Praxis"},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI},
    pages = {78--88},
    }

  • Inken Leopold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Kundenakzeptanz von Bluetooth-Beacons im Lebensmittelhandel
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-mci-0350
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung des Internets hat zu einem veränderten Kaufverhalten der Gesellschaft geführt, was wiederum Auswirkungen auf den stationären Einzelhandel hat. Da die Anzahl an Smartphone-Nutzern ebenfalls kontinuierlich steigt, werden mobile Anwendungen immer wichtiger. Durch den Einsatz von Bluetooth-Beacons – kleinen, beliebig platzierbaren Funksendern, dessen Signale von einer entsprechenden App verarbeitet werden können – kann der Einkauf sowohl erleichtert als auch erlebnisreicher gestaltet werden. Der Gebrauch von Beacons in Deutschland ist weniger verbreitet und erforscht. Pilotprojekte stützen sich lediglich auf Nutzungsdaten und Reaktionszeiten, jedoch nicht auf Kundenmeinungen. Diese Arbeit untersucht Nutzungsmöglichkeiten und Kundenakzeptanz von auf Beacons basierenden Konzepten im Einzelhandel mittels einer Online-Kundenumfrage.

    @inproceedings{leopold_kundenakzeptanz_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Kundenakzeptanz von {Bluetooth}-{Beacons} im {Lebensmittelhandel}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_LeopoldReuter_BeaconLebensmittelhandel_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-mci-0350},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung des Internets hat zu einem veränderten Kaufverhalten der Gesellschaft geführt, was wiederum Auswirkungen auf den stationären Einzelhandel hat. Da die Anzahl an Smartphone-Nutzern ebenfalls kontinuierlich steigt, werden mobile Anwendungen immer wichtiger. Durch den Einsatz von Bluetooth-Beacons – kleinen, beliebig platzierbaren Funksendern, dessen Signale von einer entsprechenden App verarbeitet werden können – kann der Einkauf sowohl erleichtert als auch erlebnisreicher gestaltet werden. Der Gebrauch von Beacons in Deutschland ist weniger verbreitet und erforscht. Pilotprojekte stützen sich lediglich auf Nutzungsdaten und Reaktionszeiten, jedoch nicht auf Kundenmeinungen. Diese Arbeit untersucht Nutzungsmöglichkeiten und Kundenakzeptanz von auf Beacons basierenden Konzepten im Einzelhandel mittels einer Online-Kundenumfrage.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Leopold, Inken and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, Cooperation},
    pages = {361--364},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Kotthaus, Christian Reuter, Sören Van Dongen, Volkmar Pipek (2017)
    Situated crowdsourcing during disasters: Managing the tasks of spontaneous volunteers through public displays
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;102(C):103–121. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.09.008
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Abstract Although emergency services have already recognized the importance of citizen-initiated activities during disasters, still questions with regard to the coordination of spontaneous volunteers and their activities arise. Within our article, we will present a technological approach based on public displays which aims to foster situated crowdsourcing between affected citizens, spontaneous volunteers as well as official emergency services. We will address the research question: How can the situated tasks performed by spontaneous volunteers be supported by the use of public displays during disasters? First we will present the current state of the art with regard to the coordination practices of spontaneous volunteers and emergency services within disaster situations as well as related problems, potentials and specifics of situated crowdsourcing and public displays. To gain insight into actual coordination practices, we conducted an empirical study with 18 different stakeholders involved in disaster management. Based on the literature review and our empirical study, we have derived a technical concept that supports the task and activity management of spontaneous volunteers as well as the coordination both of the demands of affected people and the offers from spontaneous volunteers. We have implemented our concept as the public display application ‘City-Share‘, which provides a robust communication infrastructure and encompasses situated crowdsourcing mechanisms for managing offers and demands of activities on-the-ground. Based on its evaluation with several users, we will discuss our findings with regard to the assignment of tasks on-the-ground and situated crowdsourcing during emergencies. We outline that City-Share can improve a community’s disaster resilience, especially when focusing on the kind of collaborative resilience emerging between official stakeholders and spontaneous volunteers or affected citizens at a local level.

    @article{ludwig_situated_2017,
    title = {Situated crowdsourcing during disasters: {Managing} the tasks of spontaneous volunteers through public displays},
    volume = {102},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_Ludwigetal_SituatedCrowdsourcingPublicDisplay_IJHCS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.09.008},
    abstract = {Abstract Although emergency services have already recognized the importance of citizen-initiated activities during disasters, still questions with regard to the coordination of spontaneous volunteers and their activities arise. Within our article, we will present a technological approach based on public displays which aims to foster situated crowdsourcing between affected citizens, spontaneous volunteers as well as official emergency services. We will address the research question: How can the situated tasks performed by spontaneous volunteers be supported by the use of public displays during disasters? First we will present the current state of the art with regard to the coordination practices of spontaneous volunteers and emergency services within disaster situations as well as related problems, potentials and specifics of situated crowdsourcing and public displays. To gain insight into actual coordination practices, we conducted an empirical study with 18 different stakeholders involved in disaster management. Based on the literature review and our empirical study, we have derived a technical concept that supports the task and activity management of spontaneous volunteers as well as the coordination both of the demands of affected people and the offers from spontaneous volunteers. We have implemented our concept as the public display application ‘City-Share', which provides a robust communication infrastructure and encompasses situated crowdsourcing mechanisms for managing offers and demands of activities on-the-ground. Based on its evaluation with several users, we will discuss our findings with regard to the assignment of tasks on-the-ground and situated crowdsourcing during emergencies. We outline that City-Share can improve a community's disaster resilience, especially when focusing on the kind of collaborative resilience emerging between official stakeholders and spontaneous volunteers or affected citizens at a local level.},
    number = {C},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Kotthaus, Christoph and Reuter, Christian and Dongen, Sören Van and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {103--121},
    }

  • Gaia Mosconi, Matthias Korn, Christian Reuter, Peter Tolmie, Maurizio Teli, Volkmar Pipek (2017)
    From Facebook to the Neighbourhood: Infrastructuring of Hybrid Community Engagement
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;26(4-6):959–1003. doi:10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In recent years, social media have increased the resources that individuals and organizations are able to mobilize for the development of socially innovative practices. In this article, we engage with a naturally occurring development in a Trentinian neighbourhood to examine the cooperative interactions amongst members of a local community. The first author and local residents of the neighbourhood participated in online discussions, decision making, and physical activities that led to material changes in the area. The interventions are motivated by and based on the concept of Social Street that combines online interactions in a closed Facebook group with face-to-face meetings seeking to practically engage the collective in accomplishing certain immediate or ongoing needs. Over the course of two years, we studied this local instantiation of Social Street in Trento, Italy by way of an action-oriented (digital) ethnography. Through this work, we demonstrate how urban neighbourhoods might benefit from hybrid forms of community engagement that are enacted through a constant back and forth between online and face-to-face interactions. We further argue that the infrastructuring of local urban collectives should follow strategies that pay attention to the multiple issues in urban neighbourhoods and people’s attachments to them. Overall, the paper reflects upon the challenges and configurations of participation that this form of community-work entails.

    @article{mosconi_facebook_2017,
    title = {From {Facebook} to the {Neighbourhood}: {Infrastructuring} of {Hybrid} {Community} {Engagement}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z},
    abstract = {In recent years, social media have increased the resources that individuals and organizations are able to mobilize for the development of socially innovative practices. In this article, we engage with a naturally occurring development in a Trentinian neighbourhood to examine the cooperative interactions amongst members of a local community. The first author and local residents of the neighbourhood participated in online discussions, decision making, and physical activities that led to material changes in the area. The interventions are motivated by and based on the concept of Social Street that combines online interactions in a closed Facebook group with face-to-face meetings seeking to practically engage the collective in accomplishing certain immediate or ongoing needs. Over the course of two years, we studied this local instantiation of Social Street in Trento, Italy by way of an action-oriented (digital) ethnography. Through this work, we demonstrate how urban neighbourhoods might benefit from hybrid forms of community engagement that are enacted through a constant back and forth between online and face-to-face interactions. We further argue that the infrastructuring of local urban collectives should follow strategies that pay attention to the multiple issues in urban neighbourhoods and people's attachments to them. Overall, the paper reflects upon the challenges and configurations of participation that this form of community-work entails.},
    number = {4-6},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Mosconi, Gaia and Korn, Matthias and Reuter, Christian and Tolmie, Peter and Teli, Maurizio and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {959--1003},
    }

  • Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho, Saqib Saeed, Christian Reuter, Volker Wulf (2017)
    The Role of Technological Infrastructure in Nomadic Practices of a Social Activist Community
    Proceedings of the ECSCW-Workshop on Nomadic Culture Beyond Work Practices, International Reports on Socio-Informatics (IRSI) Sheffield, UK.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Infrastructure is undoubtedly a key resource for people engaged in technologically-mediated nomadicity. Tech-Nomads rely on technological infrastructure components, such as Wi-Fi availability, to mobilise their workplaces and effectively accomplish their productive activities. In this paper, we introduce findings from an investigation focusing on how technological infrastructures are re-instantiated according to emerging demands. We focus particularly on the European Social Forum (ESF) (an activists‘ platform) and the problems faced by the members of this network in mobilising its infrastructure, stressing findings from the literature about the importanceof making infrastructure visible for nomadic practices, which have not yet been sufficiently explored. We suggest that infrastructure (re-) design methods would be a relevant resource for Tech-Nomads engaged in activities such as the ones from ESF

    @inproceedings{pinatti_de_carvalho_role_2017,
    address = {Sheffield, UK},
    title = {The {Role} of {Technological} {Infrastructure} in {Nomadic} {Practices} of a {Social} {Activist} {Community}},
    url = {https://www.iisi.de/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/6_decarvalho-et-al_v14_n3.pdf},
    abstract = {Infrastructure is undoubtedly a key resource for people engaged in technologically-mediated nomadicity. Tech-Nomads rely on technological infrastructure components, such as Wi-Fi availability, to mobilise their workplaces and effectively accomplish their productive activities. In this paper, we introduce findings from an investigation focusing on how technological infrastructures are re-instantiated according to emerging demands. We focus particularly on the European Social Forum (ESF) (an activists' platform) and the problems faced by the members of this network in mobilising its infrastructure, stressing findings from the literature about the importanceof making infrastructure visible for nomadic practices, which have not yet been sufficiently explored. We suggest that infrastructure (re-) design methods would be a relevant resource for Tech-Nomads engaged in activities such as the ones from ESF},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {ECSCW}-{Workshop} on {Nomadic} {Culture} {Beyond} {Work} {Practices}, {International} {Reports} on {Socio}-{Informatics} ({IRSI})},
    author = {Pinatti de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano and Saeed, Saqib and Reuter, Christian and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {HCI, Infrastructure, Peace, Ranking-WKWI-C},
    pages = {41--47},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on IT-Support for Critical Infrastructure Protection
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;9(4):iv–vii.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{pottebaum_guest_2017,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Critical} {Infrastructure} {Protection}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_PottebaumReuter_EditorialCriticalInfrastructureProtection_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure},
    pages = {iv--vii},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Erfurth, Christian Reuter (2017)
    IT-Rettung 2017: IT-Unterstützung in Emergency Management & Response
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Notfallsituationen sind kritische Situationen, in denen eine Gefahr für Menschen, Infrastrukturen und die Umwelt besteht. IT-Unterstützung kann in der Vermeidung sowie der Verbesserung der Vorbereitung, der Abwehr und der Bewältigung helfenkomplexe und kritische Situationen zu beherrschen. Allerdings zeigen Erfahrungen, dass der Einsatz von IT als operatives Einsatzmittel oder Entscheidungsunterstützungswerkzeug auch für eine Zunahme der gefühlten Komplexität einer Einsatzlage bei vielen Beteiligten sorgen kann. Im Fokus des Workshops stehen die Herausforderungen und technischen Konsequenzen, die sich für die IT in diesem Umfeld ergeben. Neben der Ergebnisdarstellung werdenvor allem Erfahrungen aus der Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Methoden im Kontext der zivilen Sicherheit adressiert. Zieldes Workshops ist es, aus fallstudienorientierten Beiträgen –diese ergeben sich unter anderem aus der Struktur der Förderlandschaft in der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung –übertragbare Schlüsse abzuleiten.

    @inproceedings{pottebaum_it-rettung_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {{IT}-{Rettung} 2017: {IT}-{Unterstützung} in {Emergency} {Management} \& {Response}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3891/B16-0.pdf},
    abstract = {Notfallsituationen sind kritische Situationen, in denen eine Gefahr für Menschen, Infrastrukturen und die Umwelt besteht. IT-Unterstützung kann in der Vermeidung sowie der Verbesserung der Vorbereitung, der Abwehr und der Bewältigung helfenkomplexe und kritische Situationen zu beherrschen. Allerdings zeigen Erfahrungen, dass der Einsatz von IT als operatives Einsatzmittel oder Entscheidungsunterstützungswerkzeug auch für eine Zunahme der gefühlten Komplexität einer Einsatzlage bei vielen Beteiligten sorgen kann. Im Fokus des Workshops stehen die Herausforderungen und technischen Konsequenzen, die sich für die IT in diesem Umfeld ergeben. Neben der Ergebnisdarstellung werdenvor allem Erfahrungen aus der Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Methoden im Kontext der zivilen Sicherheit adressiert. Zieldes Workshops ist es, aus fallstudienorientierten Beiträgen –diese ergeben sich unter anderem aus der Struktur der Förderlandschaft in der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung –übertragbare Schlüsse abzuleiten.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Erfurth, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C},
    pages = {1281--1282},
    }

  • Jens Pottebaum, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Special Issue on IT-Support for Critical Infrastructure Protection
    .
    [BibTeX]

    @book{pottebaum_special_2017,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {IT}-{Support} for {Critical} {Infrastructure} {Protection}},
    volume = {9},
    number = {4},
    author = {Pottebaum, Jens and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Jonas Klös (2017)
    Benutzbare Sicherheit: Usability, Safety und Security bei Passwörtern
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_benutzbare_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Benutzbare {Sicherheit}: {Usability}, {Safety} und {Security} bei {Passwörtern}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3214/2017_WS01_384.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384},
    abstract = {Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klös, Jonas},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec},
    pages = {33--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Daniel Wiegärtner, Claudia Müller (2017)
    DIVOA – Unterstützung der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-mci-0352
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der demographische Wandel und die Urbanisierung können als die Megatrends der kommenden Jahre betrachten werden, wodurch sich neue Herausforderungen und Chancen für Städte ergeben. Gerade im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren benötigt das System Stadt resiliente Ansätze, die mittels neuer Technologien gewährleistet werden können. Da IKT zeitnahe, kontextspezifische und persönliche Informationen ortsunabhängig liefern können, ist diese Entwicklung von hoher Relevanz für die Sicherstellung des Systems Stadt und dessen Bewohner. Im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren weisen ältere Menschen aufgrund ihrer eingeschränkten physischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Fähigkeiten jedoch eine erhöhte Vulnerabilität auf. Diese Arbeit möchte, dies adressierend, einen Beitrag zur Integration der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen darstellen und ein Konzept vorstellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_divoa_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {{DIVOA} – {Unterstützung} der älteren {Bevölkerung} bei {Schadenslagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3279/2017_MCI_352.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-mci-0352},
    abstract = {Der demographische Wandel und die Urbanisierung können als die Megatrends der kommenden Jahre betrachten werden, wodurch sich neue Herausforderungen und Chancen für Städte ergeben. Gerade im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren benötigt das System Stadt resiliente Ansätze, die mittels neuer Technologien gewährleistet werden können. Da IKT zeitnahe, kontextspezifische und persönliche Informationen ortsunabhängig liefern können, ist diese Entwicklung von hoher Relevanz für die Sicherstellung des Systems Stadt und dessen Bewohner. Im Kontext von Katastrophen und Gefahren weisen ältere Menschen aufgrund ihrer eingeschränkten physischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Fähigkeiten jedoch eine erhöhte Vulnerabilität auf. Diese Arbeit möchte, dies adressierend, einen Beitrag zur Integration der älteren Bevölkerung bei Schadenslagen darstellen und ein Konzept vorstellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Wiegärtner, Daniel and Müller, Claudia},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student},
    pages = {295--298},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    IT for Peace? Fighting Against Terrorism in Social Media – An Explorative Twitter Study
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;16(2):181–195. doi:10.1515/icom-2017-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.

    @article{reuter_it_2017,
    title = {{IT} for {Peace}? {Fighting} {Against} {Terrorism} in {Social} {Media} – {An} {Explorative} {Twitter} {Study}},
    volume = {16},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_ITforPeaceTerrorismSocialMedia_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2017-0013},
    abstract = {The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {181--195},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Marén Schorch, Jan Gerwinski, Christian Soost, Sohaib S. Hassan, Gebhard Rusch, Petra Moog, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2017)
    Digitalisierung und Zivile Sicherheit: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität in Katastrophenlagen (KontiKat)
    In: Gero Hoch, Hildegard Schröteler von Brandt, Volker Stein, Angela Schwarz: Sicherheit (DIAGONAL Jahrgang 38). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, , 207–224. doi:10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.

    @incollection{reuter_digitalisierung_2017,
    address = {Göttingen},
    title = {Digitalisierung und {Zivile} {Sicherheit}: {Zivilgesellschaftliche} und betriebliche {Kontinuität} in {Katastrophenlagen} ({KontiKat})},
    isbn = {978-3-8471-0739-2},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSchorchetal_DigitalisierungSicherheitKontiKat_Diagonal.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheit ({DIAGONAL} {Jahrgang} 38)},
    publisher = {Vandenhoeck \& Ruprecht},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schorch, Marén and Gerwinski, Jan and Soost, Christian and Hassan, Sohaib S. and Rusch, Gebhard and Moog, Petra and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Hoch, Gero and Schröteler von Brandt, Hildegard and Stein, Volker and Schwarz, Angela},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {207--224},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer Medien – ein explorativer Einblick am Beispiel von Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorbekampfung_2017,
    address = {St. Gallen, Switzerland},
    title = {Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer {Medien} – ein explorativer {Einblick} am {Beispiel} von {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_TerrorbekaempfungSozialeMedien_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Leimeister, J.M. and Brenner, W.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {649--663},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler (2017)
    4. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_4_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {4. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3170/2017_WS01_380.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380},
    abstract = {Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {5--8},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2017)
    Social Media in Emergencies: A Representative Study on Citizens‘ Perception in Germany
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;1(2):1–19. doi:10.1145/3134725
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones‘ weather and first aid apps.

    @article{reuter_social_2017,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Representative} {Study} on {Citizens}' {Perception} in {Germany}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SocialMediaEmergenciesGermany_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3134725},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens' perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones' weather and first aid apps.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Place: New York, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Projekt-EmerGent, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Informing the Population: Mobile Warning Apps
    In: Michael Klafft: Risk and Crisis Communication in Disaster Prevention and Management. Wilhelmshaven: epubli, , 31–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.

    @incollection{reuter_informing_2017,
    address = {Wilhelmshaven},
    title = {Informing the {Population}: {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-7450-5448-4},
    url = {http://publica.fraunhofer.de/eprints/urn_nbn_de_0011-n-4527283.pdf#page=35},
    abstract = {Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.},
    booktitle = {Risk and {Crisis} {Communication} in {Disaster} {Prevention} and {Management}},
    publisher = {epubli},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    editor = {Klafft, Michael},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Peace},
    pages = {31--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Katwarn, NINA or FEMA? Multi-Method Study on Distribution, Use and Public Views on Crisis Apps
    European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Guimarães, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens‘ perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.

    @inproceedings{reuter_katwarn_2017,
    address = {Guimarães, Portugal},
    title = {Katwarn, {NINA} or {FEMA}? {Multi}-{Method} {Study} on {Distribution}, {Use} and {Public} {Views} on {Crisis} {Apps}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdLeopoldKnipp_CrisisApps_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens' perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.},
    booktitle = {European {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {2187--2201},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, René Steinfort (2017)
    Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information’s believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rumors_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {Rumors, {Fake} {News} and {Social} {Bots} in {Conflicts} and {Emergencies}: {Towards} a {Model} for {Believability} in {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSteinfort_RumorsFakeNewsBotsBelievability_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information's believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Steinfort, René},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {583--591},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Ludwig (2017)
    End-User Development and Social Big Data – Towards Tailorable Situation Assessment with Social Media
    In: Fabio Paternò, Volker Wulf: New Perspectives in End-User Development. Springer, , 307–332. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.

    @incollection{reuter_end-user_2017,
    title = {End-{User} {Development} and {Social} {Big} {Data} - {Towards} {Tailorable} {Situation} {Assessment} with {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-319-60290-5},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    abstract = {The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.},
    booktitle = {New {Perspectives} in {End}-{User} {Development}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Paternò, Fabio and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {307--332},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Julian Hupertz (2017)
    Social Media Resilience during Infrastructure Breakdowns using Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
    Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics – Proceedings of the 30th EnviroInfo Conference Berlin, Germany. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2017-1,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Resilience} during {Infrastructure} {Breakdowns} using {Mobile} {Ad}-{Hoc} {Networks}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_Reuteretal_SocialMediaResilienceMANET_EnviroInfo.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7},
    abstract = {Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.},
    booktitle = {Advances and {New} {Trends} in {Environmental} {Informatics} - {Proceedings} of the 30th {EnviroInfo} {Conference}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, V. and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    pages = {75--88},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Spielhofer (2017)
    Towards Social Resilience: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey on Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media in Emergencies in Europe
    Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;121:168–180. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.038
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is increasingly being used during emergencies. Most available studies are focused on how citizens and/or authorities use these technologies in concrete events. However, larger quantitative studies with significant results on attitudes, needs and future plans of citizens in such events are not available – especially such of a comparative nature related to emergency services. As part of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ this article presents the findings of a survey of 1034 citizens across 30 European countries conducted between February and June 2015 to explore citizens‘ attitudes towards the use of social media for private purposes and in emergency situations. The article briefly compares these findings with a second survey conducted with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The aim of the overall study is to discuss citizens‘ attitudes towards social media in emergencies in order to derive challenges and opportunities for social resilience.

    @article{reuter_towards_2017,
    title = {Towards {Social} {Resilience}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} on {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies} in {Europe}},
    volume = {121},
    url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162516301986},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.038},
    abstract = {Social media is increasingly being used during emergencies. Most available studies are focused on how citizens and/or authorities use these technologies in concrete events. However, larger quantitative studies with significant results on attitudes, needs and future plans of citizens in such events are not available - especially such of a comparative nature related to emergency services. As part of the EU project ‘EmerGent' this article presents the findings of a survey of 1034 citizens across 30 European countries conducted between February and June 2015 to explore citizens' attitudes towards the use of social media for private purposes and in emergency situations. The article briefly compares these findings with a second survey conducted with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The aim of the overall study is to discuss citizens' attitudes towards social media in emergencies in order to derive challenges and opportunities for social resilience.},
    journal = {Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF},
    pages = {168--180},
    }

  • Daniel Wiegärtner, Christian Reuter, Claudia Müller (2017)
    Erwartungen der älteren Bevölkerung an IKT für Krisenkommunikation
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws17-0416
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aufgrund des demographischen Wandels und der zunehmenden Bevölkerungsdichte im urbanen Raum wird es in Zukunft zu neuen Herausforderungen in der Planung und Vorbereitung von Katastrophen-lagen in Städten kommen. Dabei wird vor allem der Nutzen von IKT für ältere Menschen in Bezug auf (Groß-)Schadenslagen von hoher Relevanz sein, der in der bisherigen Forschung nicht angemessen be-trachtet wurde. Mittels eines nutzerzentrierten Ansatzes wird untersucht, wie eine geeignete Krisenkommunikation durch IKT für ältere Menschen funktionieren könnte. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Vorbereitung für die ältere Population in Großstädten im Falle einer (Groß-)Schadenslage zu untersuchen und zu un-terstützen. Gerade für das System Stadt sind die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit von Relevanz und können hel-fen, den urbanen Raum resilienter gegen mögliche Katastrophen zu gestalten.

    @inproceedings{wiegartner_erwartungen_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Erwartungen der älteren {Bevölkerung} an {IKT} für {Krisenkommunikation}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3243/2017_WS17_416.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws17-0416},
    abstract = {Aufgrund des demographischen Wandels und der zunehmenden Bevölkerungsdichte im urbanen Raum wird es in Zukunft zu neuen Herausforderungen in der Planung und Vorbereitung von Katastrophen-lagen in Städten kommen. Dabei wird vor allem der Nutzen von IKT für ältere Menschen in Bezug auf (Groß-)Schadenslagen von hoher Relevanz sein, der in der bisherigen Forschung nicht angemessen be-trachtet wurde. Mittels eines nutzerzentrierten Ansatzes wird untersucht, wie eine geeignete Krisenkommunikation durch IKT für ältere Menschen funktionieren könnte. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, die Vorbereitung für die ältere Population in Großstädten im Falle einer (Groß-)Schadenslage zu untersuchen und zu un-terstützen. Gerade für das System Stadt sind die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit von Relevanz und können hel-fen, den urbanen Raum resilienter gegen mögliche Katastrophen zu gestalten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Wiegärtner, Daniel and Reuter, Christian and Müller, Claudia},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student},
    pages = {609--614},
    }

    2016

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2016)
    The Self-Organization of Digital Volunteers across Social Media: The Case of the 2013 European Floods in Germany
    Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM) ;13(1):137–166. doi:10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.

    @article{kaufhold_self-organization_2016,
    title = {The {Self}-{Organization} of {Digital} {Volunteers} across {Social} {Media}: {The} {Case} of the 2013 {European} {Floods} in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_KaufholdReuter_SelfOrganizationDigitalVolunteersEuropeanFloods_JHSEM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063},
    abstract = {For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {137--166},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    From Publics to Communities: Researching the Path of Shared Issues Through ICT
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;25(2-3):193–225. doi:10.1007/s10606-016-9252-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In recent years, citizens‘ movements such as the Arab Spring or Euromaidan protests have clearly shown that, whenever affected — whether negatively or positively — by the state and government decisions, citizens act to deal with the shared issues. Groups of people who organize themselves to address (mainly political) issues were defined as a `public‘ by the philosopher John Dewey. He believed it is necessary to improve communication to create a `Great Community‘ as a cohesive group of a public. Although information and communication technologies (ICT) lead to ambivalent effects on pursuing this goal and often distract the mass of people from discussing these issues, we argue that nowadays ICT can improve communication and has the potential to foster the detection of issues and therefore promote the (trans-)formation of a public into an issue-based community. As our foundation we took a literature study covering the formation of publics and their potential to evolve into communities, as well as their interplay with technology. This formed the basis for the development of our operational model that `follows the issues‘ for capturing the (trans-)formation of a public. Based on our model, we outline different perspectives on detecting shared issues as early indicators for publics based on ICT and derive implications for researching this process from a practical perspective.

    @article{ludwig_publics_2016,
    title = {From {Publics} to {Communities}: {Researching} the {Path} of {Shared} {Issues} {Through} {ICT}},
    volume = {25},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_ludwigreuterpipek_frompublicstocommunities_jcscw.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-016-9252-y},
    abstract = {In recent years, citizens' movements such as the Arab Spring or Euromaidan protests have clearly shown that, whenever affected — whether negatively or positively — by the state and government decisions, citizens act to deal with the shared issues. Groups of people who organize themselves to address (mainly political) issues were defined as a `public' by the philosopher John Dewey. He believed it is necessary to improve communication to create a `Great Community' as a cohesive group of a public. Although information and communication technologies (ICT) lead to ambivalent effects on pursuing this goal and often distract the mass of people from discussing these issues, we argue that nowadays ICT can improve communication and has the potential to foster the detection of issues and therefore promote the (trans-)formation of a public into an issue-based community. As our foundation we took a literature study covering the formation of publics and their potential to evolve into communities, as well as their interplay with technology. This formed the basis for the development of our operational model that `follows the issues' for capturing the (trans-)formation of a public. Based on our model, we outline different perspectives on detecting shared issues as early indicators for publics based on ICT and derive implications for researching this process from a practical perspective.},
    number = {2-3},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    note = {Place: Norwell, MA, USA
    Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {193--225},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Stefan Geisler (2016)
    Special Issue on Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{mentler_special_2016,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Machine} {Interaction} and {Cooperation} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems}},
    volume = {15},
    url = {https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2016.15.issue-3/issue-files/icom.2016.15.issue-3.xml},
    number = {3},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2016},
    note = {Publication Title: i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Stefan Geisler (2016)
    Introduction to this Special Issue on “Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems”
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;15(3):219–226. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2016-0037
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mission- and safety-critical domains are more and more characterized by interactive and multimedia systems varying from large-scale technologies (e. g. airplanes) to wearable devices (e. g. smartglasses) operated by professional staff or volunteering laypeople. While technical availability, reliability and security of computer-based systems are of utmost importance, outcomes and performances increasingly depend on sufficient human-machine interaction or even cooperation to a large extent. While this i-com Special Issue on “Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems” presents recent research results from specific application domains like aviation, automotive, crisis management and healthcare, this introductory paper outlines the diversity of users, technologies and interaction or cooperation models involved.

    @article{mentler_introduction_2016,
    title = {Introduction to this {Special} {Issue} on “{Human}-{Machine} {Interaction} and {Cooperation} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems}”},
    volume = {15},
    url = {https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2016.15.issue-3/icom-2016-0037/icom-2016-0037.xml?format=INT},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2016-0037},
    abstract = {Mission- and safety-critical domains are more and more characterized by interactive and multimedia systems varying from large-scale technologies (e. g. airplanes) to wearable devices (e. g. smartglasses) operated by professional staff or volunteering laypeople. While technical availability, reliability and security of computer-based systems are of utmost importance, outcomes and performances increasingly depend on sufficient human-machine interaction or even cooperation to a large extent. While this i-com Special Issue on “Human-Machine Interaction and Cooperation in Safety-Critical Systems” presents recent research results from specific application domains like aviation, automotive, crisis management and healthcare, this introductory paper outlines the diversity of users, technologies and interaction or cooperation models involved.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {219--226},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2016)
    Aktuelle Ansätze zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0000
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zunehmende Durchdringung der Lebenswelt mit IT macht auch nicht vor sicherheitskritischen Systemen halt. Anwendungsfelder betreffen kritische Infrastrukturen, Leitstellensysteme, Fahrzeug- und Verkehrsführungssoftware, Prozessführungssysteme, Produktionstechnologien, Anwendung der Medizintechnik, des Krisenmanagements, der Gefahrenabwehr oder des Terrorismus. Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in solchen sicherheitskritischen Systemen und Anwendungsfeldern ist eine Herausforderung nicht nur für die Informatik, sondern eine interdisziplinäre Aufgabe an der Schnittstelle vieler Disziplinen. Zunehmend müssen auch mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Netzwerke in die Betrachtungen einbezogen werden.

    @inproceedings{reuter_aktuelle_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Aktuelle {Ansätze} zur {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/314/bitstream_9083.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0000},
    abstract = {Die zunehmende Durchdringung der Lebenswelt mit IT macht auch nicht vor sicherheitskritischen Systemen halt. Anwendungsfelder betreffen kritische Infrastrukturen, Leitstellensysteme, Fahrzeug- und Verkehrsführungssoftware, Prozessführungssysteme, Produktionstechnologien, Anwendung der Medizintechnik, des Krisenmanagements, der Gefahrenabwehr oder des Terrorismus. Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in solchen sicherheitskritischen Systemen und Anwendungsfeldern ist eine Herausforderung nicht nur für die Informatik, sondern eine interdisziplinäre Aufgabe an der Schnittstelle vieler Disziplinen. Zunehmend müssen auch mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Netzwerke in die Betrachtungen einbezogen werden.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2016)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“
    Aachen, Germany: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V..
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_proceedings_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}"},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_proc-sicherheitskritischemmi_muc.pdf},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    note = {Publication Title: Mensch \& Computer: Workshopband},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2016)
    Terrorismus und soziale Medien – Propaganda und Gegenpropaganda
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0209
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Terrorismus nutzt das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien bereits seit einiger Zeit zur Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und zur Verbreitung ihrer Ideologie. Aber auch deren Gegner nutzen das Internet zur Terrorbekämpfung. Auch wenn es zum Einsatz sozialer Medien in Krisen bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen gibt, wurde deren Einsatz im Terrorismus, einer besonderen Art der Krise, insbesondere in der digitalen Terrorbekämpfung, noch weniger betrachtet. Dieser Artikel fasst im ersten Teil den Stand der Forschung in jenem Bereich zusammen. Im zweiten Teil stellt er eine explorative empirische Studie zur Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien dar. Hierzu werden verschiedene, möglichst repräsentative Formen am Beispiel von Twitter analysiert und gegliedert. Ziel ist die Schaffung eines Überblicks, der weiteren Forschungsarbeiten als Grundlage dienen kann.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorismus_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Terrorismus und soziale {Medien} – {Propaganda} und {Gegenpropaganda}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/178/bitstream_8792.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0209},
    abstract = {Der Terrorismus nutzt das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien bereits seit einiger Zeit zur Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und zur Verbreitung ihrer Ideologie. Aber auch deren Gegner nutzen das Internet zur Terrorbekämpfung. Auch wenn es zum Einsatz sozialer Medien in Krisen bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen gibt, wurde deren Einsatz im Terrorismus, einer besonderen Art der Krise, insbesondere in der digitalen Terrorbekämpfung, noch weniger betrachtet. Dieser Artikel fasst im ersten Teil den Stand der Forschung in jenem Bereich zusammen. Im zweiten Teil stellt er eine explorative empirische Studie zur Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien dar. Hierzu werden verschiedene, möglichst repräsentative Formen am Beispiel von Twitter analysiert und gegliedert. Ziel ist die Schaffung eines Überblicks, der weiteren Forschungsarbeiten als Grundlage dienen kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Kotthaus, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elmar von Radziewski, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    Big Data in a Crisis? Creating Social Media Datasets for Emergency Management Research
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;15(3):249–264. doi:10.1515/icom-2016-0036
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed) data, such as Facebook or Google+. Based on the experience gained from a research project on social media in emergencies and our task to collect social media data sets for other partners, we present the design and evaluation of a graphical user interface that supports those stakeholders (such as emergency services or researchers) that are interested in creating social media datasets for further crisis management research. We do not specifically focus on the analysis of social media data. Rather we aim to support the gathering process and how actors without sophisticated technical skills can be supported to get what they want and especially need: relevant social media data. Within this article, we present a practice-oriented approach and implications for designing tools that support the collection of social media data as well as future work.

    @article{reuter_big_2016,
    title = {Big {Data} in a {Crisis}? {Creating} {Social} {Media} {Datasets} for {Emergency} {Management} {Research}},
    volume = {15},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_Reuteretal_BigDatainCrisisDatasets_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2016-0036},
    abstract = {A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed) data, such as Facebook or Google+. Based on the experience gained from a research project on social media in emergencies and our task to collect social media data sets for other partners, we present the design and evaluation of a graphical user interface that supports those stakeholders (such as emergency services or researchers) that are interested in creating social media datasets for further crisis management research. We do not specifically focus on the analysis of social media data. Rather we aim to support the gathering process and how actors without sophisticated technical skills can be supported to get what they want and especially need: relevant social media data. Within this article, we present a practice-oriented approach and implications for designing tools that support the collection of social media data as well as future work.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kotthaus, Christoph and Kaufhold, Marc-André and von Radziewski, Elmar and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {249--264},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Christoph Amelunxen, Matthias Moi (2016)
    Semi-Automatic Alerts and Notifications for Emergency Services based on Cross-Platform Social Media Data –Evaluation of a Prototype
    Informatik 2016: von Menschen für Menschen, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Klagenfurt.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The convergence of social networking and mobile media technology is shifting the way how people communicate and gain or share information. People are using social media to a greater extent, also in emergency situations. During disasters throughout the world, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2013 European floods, or the terror attacks 2015 in Paris and 2016 in Brussels, this has been illustrated again. Often information about disasters even finds its way faster to social media than it reaches regular news companies and emergency services. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced have even more potential. Yet many emergency services still have not found a way to put this potential to an effective use. Within our project EmerGent we are developing a system to process and analyse information from social media particularly tailored for the specific needs of emergency services. The aim is to transform the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. In the first part of this paper we present our approach from a user interface perspective. The second part deals with the evaluation of the approach and the derivation of future potentials of the approach.

    @inproceedings{reuter_semi-automatic_2016,
    address = {Klagenfurt},
    title = {Semi-{Automatic} {Alerts} and {Notifications} for {Emergency} {Services} based on {Cross}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Data} –{Evaluation} of a {Prototype}},
    url = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings259/P-259.pdf#page=1806},
    abstract = {The convergence of social networking and mobile media technology is shifting the way how people communicate and gain or share information. People are using social media to a greater extent, also in emergency situations. During disasters throughout the world, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2013 European floods, or the terror attacks 2015 in Paris and 2016 in Brussels, this has been illustrated again. Often information about disasters even finds its way faster to social media than it reaches regular news companies and emergency services. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced have even more potential. Yet many emergency services still have not found a way to put this potential to an effective use. Within our project EmerGent we are developing a system to process and analyse information from social media particularly tailored for the specific needs of emergency services. The aim is to transform the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. In the first part of this paper we present our approach from a user interface perspective. The second part deals with the evaluation of the approach and the derivation of future potentials of the approach.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2016: von {Menschen} für {Menschen}, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Amelunxen, Christoph and Moi, Matthias},
    editor = {Mayr, Heinrich C. and Pinzger, Martin},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1805--1818},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Robin Gellert, Gordian Geilen (2016)
    Reception of Terror in Germany – Security, Privacy and Social Media
    Environmental Informatics – Stability, Continuity, Innovation. Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. Adjunct Proceedings of the EnviroInfo 2016 conference Berlin.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{reuter_reception_2016,
    address = {Berlin},
    title = {Reception of {Terror} in {Germany} – {Security}, {Privacy} and {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_ReuterGeilenGellert_ReceptionTerrorGermany-SecurityPrivacySocialMedia_EnviroInfo_selbst.pdf},
    booktitle = {Environmental {Informatics} – {Stability}, {Continuity}, {Innovation}. {Current} trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. {Adjunct} {Proceedings} of the {EnviroInfo} 2016 conference},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Gellert, Robin and Geilen, Gordian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, Volker and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gordian Geilen, Robin Gellert (2016)
    Sicherheit vs. Privatsphäre: Zur Akzeptanz von Überwachung in sozialen Medien im Kontext von Terrorkrisen
    Informatik 2016: von Menschen für Menschen Klagenfurt.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nach den terroristischen Anschlägen in Paris 2015 und Brüssel 2016 wurde das Bedürfnis nach mehr Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet laut. Als Folge der Enthüllungen der Überwachungs- und Spionagetechniken der National Security Agency (NSA) durch Edward Snowden 2013 konnte in der Bevölkerung aber auch ein Aufschrei nach erhöhtem Schutz der Privatsphäre im Internet wahrgenommen werden. Die geschilderten Ereignisse verdeutlichen die gegensätzlichen Wünsche nach Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet sowie Schutz der Privatsphäre. Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags stellen wir den Stand der Forschung im Bereich Terror, Sicherheit und Privatsphäre in sozialen Medien dar. Im zweiten Teil führen wir eine explorative Studie durch, um zu beleuchten, ob Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Krisenzeiten bereit wären, ihre Privatsphäre im Internet, vor allem in sozialen Netzwerken, zugunsten von Sicherheit zu reduzieren. Basierend auf qualitativen Daten zeigt diese Arbeit Meinungscluster und Tendenzen in Bezug auf das Nullsummenspiel „Sicherheit und Privatsphäre“.

    @inproceedings{reuter_sicherheit_2016,
    address = {Klagenfurt},
    title = {Sicherheit vs. {Privatsphäre}: {Zur} {Akzeptanz} von Überwachung in sozialen {Medien} im {Kontext} von {Terrorkrisen}},
    url = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings259/P-259.pdf#page=1760},
    abstract = {Nach den terroristischen Anschlägen in Paris 2015 und Brüssel 2016 wurde das Bedürfnis nach mehr Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet laut. Als Folge der Enthüllungen der Überwachungs- und Spionagetechniken der National Security Agency (NSA) durch Edward Snowden 2013 konnte in der Bevölkerung aber auch ein Aufschrei nach erhöhtem Schutz der Privatsphäre im Internet wahrgenommen werden. Die geschilderten Ereignisse verdeutlichen die gegensätzlichen Wünsche nach Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet sowie Schutz der Privatsphäre. Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags stellen wir den Stand der Forschung im Bereich Terror, Sicherheit und Privatsphäre in sozialen Medien dar. Im zweiten Teil führen wir eine explorative Studie durch, um zu beleuchten, ob Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Krisenzeiten bereit wären, ihre Privatsphäre im Internet, vor allem in sozialen Netzwerken, zugunsten von Sicherheit zu reduzieren. Basierend auf qualitativen Daten zeigt diese Arbeit Meinungscluster und Tendenzen in Bezug auf das Nullsummenspiel „Sicherheit und Privatsphäre“.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2016: von {Menschen} für {Menschen}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Geilen, Gordian and Gellert, Robin},
    editor = {Mayr, Heinrich C. and Pinzger, Martin},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2016)
    Emergency Services Attitudes towards Social Media: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey across Europe
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;95:96–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2016,
    title = {Emergency {Services} {Attitudes} towards {Social} {Media}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} across {Europe}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuteretal_emergencyservicesattiudessurveysocialmedia_ijhcs.pdf http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1071581916000379},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005},
    abstract = {Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent' with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {96--111},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Julian Hupertz (2016)
    Sozial auch ohne Netz – Soziale Medien bei Infrastrukturproblemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Aachen, Germany. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Menschen tauschen sich aus und gerade in schwierigen Situationen ist Kommunikation sehr wichtig. In Katastrophenlagen, wie schweren Unwettern, sind jedoch teilweise zentrale Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen betroffen durch der durch Kommunikationsmedien unterstützte Informationsaustausch naturgemäß schwerer möglich als in Zeiten ohne solche Ausfälle. In jenen Fällen ist Kreativität erforderlich. Den Ansatz des Infrastructuring, d.h. der Re-Konzeptualisierung der eigenen Arbeit im Kontext bestehender und potentieller Werkzeuge, aufgreifend werden in diesem Artikel Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten in solchen Fällen untersucht. Basierend auf der Analyse der Verfügbarkeit von Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen wird betrachtet, welche Ansätze zur Kommunikation basierend auf alternativen und dezentralen Infrastrukturen wie MANETs, Wi-Fi und Bluetooth existieren und mithilfe von Smartphones nutzbar gemacht werden können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_sozial_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Sozial auch ohne {Netz} – {Soziale} {Medien} bei {Infrastrukturproblemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/287},
    doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0004},
    abstract = {Menschen tauschen sich aus und gerade in schwierigen Situationen ist Kommunikation sehr wichtig. In Katastrophenlagen, wie schweren Unwettern, sind jedoch teilweise zentrale Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen betroffen durch der durch Kommunikationsmedien unterstützte Informationsaustausch naturgemäß schwerer möglich als in Zeiten ohne solche Ausfälle. In jenen Fällen ist Kreativität erforderlich. Den Ansatz des Infrastructuring, d.h. der Re-Konzeptualisierung der eigenen Arbeit im Kontext bestehender und potentieller Werkzeuge, aufgreifend werden in diesem Artikel Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten in solchen Fällen untersucht. Basierend auf der Analyse der Verfügbarkeit von Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen wird betrachtet, welche Ansätze zur Kommunikation basierend auf alternativen und dezentralen Infrastrukturen wie MANETs, Wi-Fi und Bluetooth existieren und mithilfe von Smartphones nutzbar gemacht werden können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    Kooperative Resilienz – ein soziotechnischer Ansatz durch Kooperationstechnologien im Krisenmanagement
    Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO) ;47(2):159–169. doi:10.1007/s11612-016-0317-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich auf die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert ist, betrachtet unser Beitrag Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt und zeigt Möglichkeiten zur Förderung kooperativer Resilienz, insbesondere durch Kooperationstechnologie, auf. Nach einer Definition von Resilienz im Allgemeinen und im Katastrophenschutz – unserem Anwendungsfeld – sowie im Kontext kooperativer Strukturen, stellen wir unsere Methodik und die entwickelten Kooperationstechnologien vor. Diese adressieren die Zusammenarbeit verschiedener Akteure (z. B. Feuerwehr, Polizei, Bevölkerung) in Schadenslagen. Abschließend diskutieren wir den Beitrag dieser Technologien zur kooperativen Resilienz als Fähigkeit, Krisen der Kooperation durch Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten mithilfe von Kooperationstechnologie zu überstehen.

    @article{reuter_kooperative_2016,
    title = {Kooperative {Resilienz} – ein soziotechnischer {Ansatz} durch {Kooperationstechnologien} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuterludwigpipek_kooperativeresilienz_gio.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11612-016-0317-7},
    abstract = {Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich auf die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert ist, betrachtet unser Beitrag Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt und zeigt Möglichkeiten zur Förderung kooperativer Resilienz, insbesondere durch Kooperationstechnologie, auf. Nach einer Definition von Resilienz im Allgemeinen und im Katastrophenschutz – unserem Anwendungsfeld – sowie im Kontext kooperativer Strukturen, stellen wir unsere Methodik und die entwickelten Kooperationstechnologien vor. Diese adressieren die Zusammenarbeit verschiedener Akteure (z. B. Feuerwehr, Polizei, Bevölkerung) in Schadenslagen. Abschließend diskutieren wir den Beitrag dieser Technologien zur kooperativen Resilienz als Fähigkeit, Krisen der Kooperation durch Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten mithilfe von Kooperationstechnologie zu überstehen.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Organisationspsychologie (GIO)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    pages = {159--169},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger (2016)
    Informelle E-Partizipation in Parteien
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-mci-0215
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Politische Partizipation im Internet hat zunehmenden Einfluss auf reale politische Willensbildungsprozesse. Parteien, die ein Kernelement des politischen Systems in Deutschland bilden, stehen vor einer wichtigen Gestaltungsaufgabe, wenn sie den Strukturwandel der politischen Kommunikation erfolgreich bewältigen möchten. Ziel unseres Beitrags ist es, Erkenntnisse für diese Gestaltungsaufgabe zu liefern. Dafür wurden 91 Vorschläge von CDU-Mitgliedern ausgewertet und ergänzende Interviews geführt, um Praktiken der (E-)Partizipation sowie ihre Defizite und Bedingungen zu identifizieren. Aus den Ergebnissen leiten wir die Notwendigkeit von insbesondere informellen E-Partizipations-und Vernetzungs-Technologien für den Einsatz in der CDU, potentiell aber auch anderen Parteien, ab

    @inproceedings{reuter_informelle_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Informelle {E}-{Partizipation} in {Parteien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/182/bitstream_8804.pdf},
    doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-mci-0215},
    abstract = {Politische Partizipation im Internet hat zunehmenden Einfluss auf reale politische Willensbildungsprozesse. Parteien, die ein Kernelement des politischen Systems in Deutschland bilden, stehen vor einer wichtigen Gestaltungsaufgabe, wenn sie den Strukturwandel der politischen Kommunikation erfolgreich bewältigen möchten. Ziel unseres Beitrags ist es, Erkenntnisse für diese Gestaltungsaufgabe zu liefern. Dafür wurden 91 Vorschläge von CDU-Mitgliedern ausgewertet und ergänzende Interviews geführt, um Praktiken der (E-)Partizipation sowie ihre Defizite und Bedingungen zu identifizieren. Aus den Ergebnissen leiten wir die Notwendigkeit von insbesondere informellen E-Partizipations-und Vernetzungs-Technologien für den Einsatz in der CDU, potentiell aber auch anderen Parteien, ab},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Cooperation},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2016)
    Chapter 44: Communication between Power Blackout and Mobile Network Overload
    In: Mehdi Khosrow-Pour: E-Health and Telemedicine: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. IGI Global, , 876–891.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In cases of power outages the communication of organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public poses several challenges, pri-marily the breakdowns of many communication infrastructures and therefore the limitations of the use of classical communication media. This paper surveys technical concepts to support crisis communica-tion during blackouts. Therefore it first investigates the perception and information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Furthermore, it analyzes communication infrastructures and their availability in different scenarios. Finally it proposes ‘BlaCom‘, an ICT-based concept for blackout communication, which addresses the time span between the occurrence of the energy blackout and the possible overload of the mobile phone network. It combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information, was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users.

    @incollection{reuter_chapter_2016,
    title = {Chapter 44: {Communication} between {Power} {Blackout} and {Mobile} {Network} {Overload}},
    volume = {II},
    isbn = {978-1-4666-8756-1},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuter_communicationpowerblackoutnetworkoverload_ehealth.pdf},
    abstract = {In cases of power outages the communication of organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public poses several challenges, pri-marily the breakdowns of many communication infrastructures and therefore the limitations of the use of classical communication media. This paper surveys technical concepts to support crisis communica-tion during blackouts. Therefore it first investigates the perception and information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Furthermore, it analyzes communication infrastructures and their availability in different scenarios. Finally it proposes ‘BlaCom', an ICT-based concept for blackout communication, which addresses the time span between the occurrence of the energy blackout and the possible overload of the mobile phone network. It combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information, was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users.},
    booktitle = {E-{Health} and {Telemedicine}: {Concepts}, {Methodologies}, {Tools}, and {Applications}},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {{Mehdi Khosrow-Pour}},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF},
    pages = {876--891},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2016)
    Warum Katastrophenschutzbehörden soziale Medien nicht nutzen wollen
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold & Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_warum_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Warum {Katastrophenschutzbehörden} soziale {Medien} nicht nutzen wollen},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/174/bitstream_8783.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205},
    abstract = {In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold \& Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2016)
    Emergence as a Characteristic of Resilient Cooperation Technologies
    Environmental Informatics – Stability, Continuity, Innovation. Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. Adjunct Proceedings of the EnviroInfo 2016 conference Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{reuter_emergence_2016,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Emergence as a {Characteristic} of {Resilient} {Cooperation} {Technologies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_Reuter_EmergenceCharacteristicResilientTechnologies_EnviroInfo.pdf},
    booktitle = {Environmental {Informatics} – {Stability}, {Continuity}, {Innovation}. {Current} trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. {Adjunct} {Proceedings} of the {EnviroInfo} 2016 conference},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, Volker and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Infrastructure, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF},
    pages = {141--144},
    }

    2015

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2015)
    Konzept und Evaluation einer Facebook-Applikation zur crossmedialen Selbstorganisation freiwilliger Helfer
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Osnabrück, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_konzept_2015,
    address = {Osnabrück, Germany},
    title = {Konzept und {Evaluation} einer {Facebook}-{Applikation} zur crossmedialen {Selbstorganisation} freiwilliger {Helfer}},
    url = {http://www.wi2015.uni-osnabrueck.de/Files/WI2015-D-14-911.pdf},
    abstract = {Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1844--1858},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    Social Haystack: Dynamic Quality Assessment of Citizen-Generated Content during Emergencies
    ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) ;21(4):Article 17. doi:10.1145/2749461
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People all over the world are regularly affected by disasters and emergencies. Besides official emergency services, ordinary citizens are getting increasingly involved in crisis response work. They are usually present on-site at the place of incident and use social media to share information about the event. For emergency services, the large amount of citizen-generated content in social media, however, means that finding high-quality information is similar to “finding a needle in a haystack”. This article presents an approach to how a dynamic and subjective quality assessment of citizen-generated content could support the work of emergency services. First, we present results of our empirical study concerning the usage of citizen-generated content by emergency services. Based on our literature review and empirical study, we derive design guidelines and describe a concept for dynamic quality measurement that is implemented as a service-oriented web-application “Social Haystack.” Finally, we outline findings of its evaluation and implications thereof.

    @article{ludwig_social_2015,
    title = {Social {Haystack}: {Dynamic} {Quality} {Assessment} of {Citizen}-{Generated} {Content} during {Emergencies}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreuterpipek_socialhaystack_tochi.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2749461},
    abstract = {People all over the world are regularly affected by disasters and emergencies. Besides official emergency services, ordinary citizens are getting increasingly involved in crisis response work. They are usually present on-site at the place of incident and use social media to share information about the event. For emergency services, the large amount of citizen-generated content in social media, however, means that finding high-quality information is similar to “finding a needle in a haystack”. This article presents an approach to how a dynamic and subjective quality assessment of citizen-generated content could support the work of emergency services. First, we present results of our empirical study concerning the usage of citizen-generated content by emergency services. Based on our literature review and empirical study, we derive design guidelines and describe a concept for dynamic quality measurement that is implemented as a service-oriented web-application “Social Haystack.” Finally, we outline findings of its evaluation and implications thereof.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {Article 17},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Tim Siebigteroth, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    CrowdMonitor: Mobile Crowd Sensing for Assessing Physical and Digital Activities of Citizens during Emergencies
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies such as the 2013 Central European flood or the 2013 typhoon Haiyan in Philippines have shown how citizens can organize themselves and coordinate private relief activities. These activities can be found in (physical) groups of affected people, but also within (digital) social media communities. There is an evident need, however, for a clearer picture of what exactly is going on to be available for use by the official emergency services: to enlist them, to keep them safe, to support their efforts and to avoid need-less duplications or conflicts. Aligning emergency services and volunteer activities is, then, crucial. In this paper we present a mobile crowd sensing based concept, which was designed as well as implemented as the application CrowdMonitor and facilitates the detection of physical and digital activities and the assignment of specific tasks to citizens. Finally, we outline the findings of its evaluation.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_crowdmonitor_2015,
    address = {New York, USA},
    title = {{CrowdMonitor}: {Mobile} {Crowd} {Sensing} for {Assessing} {Physical} and {Digital} {Activities} of {Citizens} during {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreutersiebigterothpipek_crowdmonitor_chi.pdf},
    abstract = {Emergencies such as the 2013 Central European flood or the 2013 typhoon Haiyan in Philippines have shown how citizens can organize themselves and coordinate private relief activities. These activities can be found in (physical) groups of affected people, but also within (digital) social media communities. There is an evident need, however, for a clearer picture of what exactly is going on to be available for use by the official emergency services: to enlist them, to keep them safe, to support their efforts and to avoid need-less duplications or conflicts. Aligning emergency services and volunteer activities is, then, crucial. In this paper we present a mobile crowd sensing based concept, which was designed as well as implemented as the application CrowdMonitor and facilitates the detection of physical and digital activities and the assignment of specific tasks to citizens. Finally, we outline the findings of its evaluation.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Siebigteroth, Tim and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Begole, Bo and Jinwoo, Kim and Kor, Inkpeni and Woontack, Woo},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4083--4092},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Ralf Heukäufer (2015)
    CoTable: Collaborative Social Media Analysis with Multi-Touch Tables
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Kristiansand, Norway.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    To be able to take efficient measures in crisis management, it is essential for emergency services to get as much details about an actual situation on-site as possible. Currently content from social media plays an important role since those platforms are used to spread crisis-relevant data within the population. Our contribution presents a concept which supports the situation assessment practices of emergency services by collaboratively evaluating and by analyzing citizen-generated content from social media using a multi-touch table. The concept was implemented based on a Microsoft PixelSense and evaluated with 14 participants. The results reveal the impact of subjectivity of the participants, their positioning around the table as well as the uniqueness of social media posts on the collaborative situation assessment with multi-touch tables

    @inproceedings{ludwig_cotable_2015,
    address = {Kristiansand, Norway},
    title = {{CoTable}: {Collaborative} {Social} {Media} {Analysis} with {Multi}-{Touch} {Tables}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreuterheukaeuferpipek_cotable_iscram.pdf},
    abstract = {To be able to take efficient measures in crisis management, it is essential for emergency services to get as much details about an actual situation on-site as possible. Currently content from social media plays an important role since those platforms are used to spread crisis-relevant data within the population. Our contribution presents a concept which supports the situation assessment practices of emergency services by collaboratively evaluating and by analyzing citizen-generated content from social media using a multi-touch table. The concept was implemented based on a Microsoft PixelSense and evaluated with 14 participants. The results reveal the impact of subjectivity of the participants, their positioning around the table as well as the uniqueness of social media posts on the collaborative situation assessment with multi-touch tables},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Heukäufer, Ralf},
    editor = {Palen, Leysia and Büscher, Monika and Comes, Tina and Hughes, Amanda Lee},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Matthias Moi, Therese Friberg, Robin Marterer, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Deborah Markham, Mike Hewlett, Andrew Muddiman (2015)
    Strategy for Processing and Analyzing Social Media Data Streams in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management (ICT-DM) Brest, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    People are using social media to a greater extent, particularly in emergency situations. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced currently lag far behind. In this paper we discuss important steps, and the associated challenges, for processing and analyzing social media in emergencies. In our research project EmerGent, a huge volume of low-quality messages will be continuously gathered from a variety of social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. Our aim is to design a software system that will process and analyze social media data, transforming the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. Therefore, suitable techniques are needed to extract and condense key information from raw social media data, allowing detection of relevant events and generation of alerts pertinent to emergency personnel.

    @inproceedings{moi_strategy_2015,
    address = {Brest, France},
    title = {Strategy for {Processing} and {Analyzing} {Social} {Media} {Data} {Streams} in {Emergencies}},
    abstract = {People are using social media to a greater extent, particularly in emergency situations. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced currently lag far behind. In this paper we discuss important steps, and the associated challenges, for processing and analyzing social media in emergencies. In our research project EmerGent, a huge volume of low-quality messages will be continuously gathered from a variety of social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. Our aim is to design a software system that will process and analyze social media data, transforming the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. Therefore, suitable techniques are needed to extract and condense key information from raw social media data, allowing detection of relevant events and generation of alerts pertinent to emergency personnel.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Information} and {Communication} {Technologies} for {Disaster} {Management} ({ICT}-{DM})},
    author = {Moi, Matthias and Friberg, Therese and Marterer, Robin and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Markham, Deborah and Hewlett, Mike and Muddiman, Andrew},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Betriebliches Kontinuitätsmanagement in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen – Smart Services für die Industrie 4.0
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebliches Kontinuitätsmanagement (Business Continuity Management, kurz: BCM) ist im Sinne des betrieblichen Notfallmanagements integraler Bestandteil ziviler Sicherheit. BCM ist laut ISO 22301 (2014) ein ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der potenzielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und deren Auswirkungen auf Geschäftsabläufe ermittelt. Bei Betrachtung der aktuellen Studienlage liegt der Schluss nahe, dass die Anwendung von BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterrepräsentiert ist und der Sicherheitslevel teilweise im nicht-wirtschaftlichen Bereich liegt. Dieser Beitrag stellt den Einsatz von BCM in KMU vor und diskutiert diesbezügliche Forschungsergebnisse. Hierauf aufbauend wird eine Matrix zu möglichen Auswirkungen vs. Umfang und Qualität des Notfallmanagements verschiedener Akteure dargestellt. Abschließend werden leichtgewichtige und einfach zu handhabende BCM-Sicherheitslösungen, in Form von Smart Services, als möglicher Lösungsansatz für die vermehrt von kontinuierlichem IT-Einsatz abhängigen Industrie 4.0 vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_betriebliches_2015,
    title = {Betriebliches {Kontinuitätsmanagement} in kleinen und mittleren {Unternehmen} – {Smart} {Services} für die {Industrie} 4.0},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_bcminkmu_smartservicesindustrie40_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebliches Kontinuitätsmanagement (Business Continuity Management, kurz: BCM) ist im Sinne des betrieblichen Notfallmanagements integraler Bestandteil ziviler Sicherheit. BCM ist laut ISO 22301 (2014) ein ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der potenzielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und deren Auswirkungen auf Geschäftsabläufe ermittelt. Bei Betrachtung der aktuellen Studienlage liegt der Schluss nahe, dass die Anwendung von BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterrepräsentiert ist und der Sicherheitslevel teilweise im nicht-wirtschaftlichen Bereich liegt. Dieser Beitrag stellt den Einsatz von BCM in KMU vor und diskutiert diesbezügliche Forschungsergebnisse. Hierauf aufbauend wird eine Matrix zu möglichen Auswirkungen vs. Umfang und Qualität des Notfallmanagements verschiedener Akteure dargestellt. Abschließend werden leichtgewichtige und einfach zu handhabende BCM-Sicherheitslösungen, in Form von Smart Services, als möglicher Lösungsansatz für die vermehrt von kontinuierlichem IT-Einsatz abhängigen Industrie 4.0 vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Schmidt, Albrecht and Weisbecke, Anette and Burmester, Michael},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {37--44},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Der Einsatz sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    Crisis Prevention – Fachmagazin für Innere Sicherheit, Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe ;5(4):43–44.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_einsatz_2015,
    title = {Der {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_dereinsatzsozialermedieninkatastrophenlagen_crisisprevention.pdf},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Crisis Prevention – Fachmagazin für Innere Sicherheit, Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {43--44},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Julian Schröter (2015)
    Microblogging during the European Floods 2013: What Twitter May Contribute in German Emergencies
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(1):22–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is becoming more and more important in crisis management. However its analysis by emergency services still bears unaddressed challenges and the majority of studies focus on the use of social media in the USA. In this paper German tweets of the European Flood 2013 are therefore captured and analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data coding, and computational algorithms. Our work illustrates that this event provided sufficient German traffic and geo-locations as well as enough original data (not derivative). However, up-to-date Named Entity Recognizer (NER) with German classifier could not recognize German rivers and highways satisfactorily. Furthermore our analysis revealed pragmatic (linguistic) barriers resulting from irony, wordplay, and ambiguity, as well as in retweet-behavior. To ease the analysis of data we suggest a retweet ratio, which is illustrated to be higher with important tweets and may help selecting tweets for mining. We argue that existing software has to be adapted and improved for German language characteristics, also to detect markedness, seriousness and truth

    @article{reuter_microblogging_2015,
    title = {Microblogging during the {European} {Floods} 2013: {What} {Twitter} {May} {Contribute} in {German} {Emergencies}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterSchroeter_MicrobloggingEuropeanFloods_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is becoming more and more important in crisis management. However its analysis by emergency services still bears unaddressed challenges and the majority of studies focus on the use of social media in the USA. In this paper German tweets of the European Flood 2013 are therefore captured and analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data coding, and computational algorithms. Our work illustrates that this event provided sufficient German traffic and geo-locations as well as enough original data (not derivative). However, up-to-date Named Entity Recognizer (NER) with German classifier could not recognize German rivers and highways satisfactorily. Furthermore our analysis revealed pragmatic (linguistic) barriers resulting from irony, wordplay, and ambiguity, as well as in retweet-behavior. To ease the analysis of data we suggest a retweet ratio, which is illustrated to be higher with important tweets and may help selecting tweets for mining. We argue that existing software has to be adapted and improved for German language characteristics, also to detect markedness, seriousness and truth},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schröter, Julian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Emergente Kollaborationsinfrastrukturen – Technologiegestaltung am Beispiel des inter-organisationalen Krisenmanagements
    In: Steffen Hölldobler: Ausgezeichnete Informatikdissertationen 2014. GI- Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), D-14. Bonner Köllen Verlag, , 209–218.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements untersucht die hier vorgestellte Dissertation die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten der Technologiegestaltung für emergente, d.h. dynamische und nicht vorhersehbare, Kontexte. Hierfür wird empirisch die kollaborative Arbeit von Polizei, Feuerwehr, Energienetzbetreibern und Bürgern im inter-organisationalen Katastrophenschutz erforscht, um exemplarische Kollaborationspraktiken zu ermitteln, die Limitationen der Arbeitsinfrastruktur aufdecken. Hierauf aufbauend werden neuartige Konzepte und IT-Artefakte gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, die emergente Kollaboration ermöglichen sollen. Neben der Erforschung potentieller organisationaler Effekte auf die Fähigkeit mit Emergenz umzugehen, werden methodische Implikationen für die Technologiegestaltung abgeleitet.

    @incollection{reuter_emergente_2015,
    title = {Emergente {Kollaborationsinfrastrukturen} – {Technologiegestaltung} am {Beispiel} des inter-organisationalen {Krisenmanagements}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_emergentekollaborationstechnologien_gi-dissertationspreis.pdf},
    abstract = {Am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements untersucht die hier vorgestellte Dissertation die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten der Technologiegestaltung für emergente, d.h. dynamische und nicht vorhersehbare, Kontexte. Hierfür wird empirisch die kollaborative Arbeit von Polizei, Feuerwehr, Energienetzbetreibern und Bürgern im inter-organisationalen Katastrophenschutz erforscht, um exemplarische Kollaborationspraktiken zu ermitteln, die Limitationen der Arbeitsinfrastruktur aufdecken. Hierauf aufbauend werden neuartige Konzepte und IT-Artefakte gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, die emergente Kollaboration ermöglichen sollen. Neben der Erforschung potentieller organisationaler Effekte auf die Fähigkeit mit Emergenz umzugehen, werden methodische Implikationen für die Technologiegestaltung abgeleitet.},
    booktitle = {Ausgezeichnete {Informatikdissertationen} 2014. {GI}- {Edition}-{Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {D}-14},
    publisher = {Bonner Köllen Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Hölldobler, Steffen},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, RSF},
    pages = {209--218},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2015)
    Editorial: Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fach-bereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_editorial_2015,
    title = {Editorial: {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuteretal_editorial-kritischehci_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fach-bereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Schmidt, Albrecht and Weisbecke, Anette and Burmester, Michael},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems II: Authorities and Industry
    .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.

    @book{reuter_special_2015,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {II}: {Authorities} and {Industry}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ijiscram-specialissue_hci-criticalsystems-ii.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.},
    number = {3},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Michael Ritzkatis, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    Social-QAS: Tailorable Quality Assessment Service for Social Media Content
    Proceedings of the International Symposium on End-User Development (IS-EUD). Lecture Notes in Computer Science . doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_11
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    More than 3 billion people use the Internet, many of whom also use social media services such as the social network Facebook with about 1.35 billion active users monthly or the microblogging platform Twitter numbering approximately 284 million active users monthly. This paper researches how a tailorable quality assessment service can assist the use of citizen-generated content from social media. In particular, we want to study how users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately. A presentation of related work is followed by an empirical study on the use of social media in the field of emergency management, focusing on situation assessment practices by the emergency services. Based on this, we present the tailorable quality assessment service (QAS) for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an existing application for both volunteers and the emergency services.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social-qas_2015,
    title = {Social-{QAS}: {Tailorable} {Quality} {Assessment} {Service} for {Social} {Media} {Content}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-18425-8_11},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_11},
    abstract = {More than 3 billion people use the Internet, many of whom also use social media services such as the social network Facebook with about 1.35 billion active users monthly or the microblogging platform Twitter numbering approximately 284 million active users monthly. This paper researches how a tailorable quality assessment service can assist the use of citizen-generated content from social media. In particular, we want to study how users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately. A presentation of related work is followed by an empirical study on the use of social media in the field of emergency management, focusing on situation assessment practices by the emergency services. Based on this, we present the tailorable quality assessment service (QAS) for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an existing application for both volunteers and the emergency services.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Symposium} on {End}-{User} {Development} ({IS}-{EUD}). {Lecture} {Notes} in {Computer} {Science}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Ritzkatis, Michael and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {156--170},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    XHELP: Design of a Cross-Platform Social-Media Application to Support Volunteer Moderators in Disasters
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702171
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with „digital volunteers“ such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application „XHELP“, which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.

    @inproceedings{reuter_xhelp_2015,
    address = {Seoul, Korea},
    title = {{XHELP}: {Design} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Social}-{Media} {Application} to {Support} {Volunteer} {Moderators} in {Disasters}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterLudwigKaufholdPipek_XHELP_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2702123.2702171},
    abstract = {Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with "digital volunteers" such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application "XHELP", which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4093--4102},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2015)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fachbereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_proceedings_2015,
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}"},
    abstract = {Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fachbereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weisbecker, Anette and Burmester, Michael and Schmidt, Albrecht},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Towards Efficient Security: Business Continuity Management in Small and Medium Enterprises
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(3):69–79. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015070105
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business Continuity Management BCM is an integral part of civil security in terms of corporate crisis management. According to the ISO 22301 2014 BCM is defined as a holistic management process which identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts those threats might have on business operations. Looking at the current situation of studies conducted in this field it seems to be obvious that the use of BCM in Small and Medium Enterprises SME is underrepresented and that the security level is partially located in an uneconomical range. This paper presents a literature research on the use of BCM in SME and discusses research findings concerning this matter. Based on this a matrix for possible impacts vs. quality of the crisis management for different actors is derived. The article concludes with the presentation of lightweight und easy to handle BCM security solutions in form of Smart Services, as a possible solution for the increasingly IT relaying industry 4.0.

    @article{reuter_towards_2015,
    title = {Towards {Efficient} {Security}: {Business} {Continuity} {Management} in {Small} and {Medium} {Enterprises}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_towardsefficientsecurity-bcminsme.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015070105},
    abstract = {Business Continuity Management BCM is an integral part of civil security in terms of corporate crisis management. According to the ISO 22301 2014 BCM is defined as a holistic management process which identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts those threats might have on business operations. Looking at the current situation of studies conducted in this field it seems to be obvious that the use of BCM in Small and Medium Enterprises SME is underrepresented and that the security level is partially located in an uneconomical range. This paper presents a literature research on the use of BCM in SME and discusses research findings concerning this matter. Based on this a matrix for possible impacts vs. quality of the crisis management for different actors is derived. The article concludes with the presentation of lightweight und easy to handle BCM security solutions in form of Smart Services, as a possible solution for the increasingly IT relaying industry 4.0.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Infrastructure, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    pages = {69--79},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Timo Funke, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    SOMAP: Network Independent Social-Offline-Map-Mashup
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Kristiansand, Norway.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Maps, showing the tactical or the administrative situation at any particular time, play a central role in disaster management. They can be realized as interactive map mashups. In addition to classical information (weather, water levels, energy network, forces), they can also be used to present a view on citizen-generated content, e.g. from social media. In this paper we offer insights into how mobile map mashups can assist citizens during infrastructure failures that often occur in large-scale emergencies. Based on a review of approaches and mobile applications from literature and especially from practice, we present SOMAP (social offline map), a mobile app we developed in Android. It offers offline map functionality in terms of (A) pro-active loading and storing of potentially needed maps of the respective area as well as (B) the possibility of exchanging information from social media using Bluetooth. The application was evaluated qualitatively, to gain insights into the potential of such applications.

    @inproceedings{reuter_somap_2015,
    address = {Kristiansand, Norway},
    title = {{SOMAP}: {Network} {Independent} {Social}-{Offline}-{Map}-{Mashup}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuterludwigfunkepipek_somap-socialofflinemap_iscram.pdf},
    abstract = {Maps, showing the tactical or the administrative situation at any particular time, play a central role in disaster management. They can be realized as interactive map mashups. In addition to classical information (weather, water levels, energy network, forces), they can also be used to present a view on citizen-generated content, e.g. from social media. In this paper we offer insights into how mobile map mashups can assist citizens during infrastructure failures that often occur in large-scale emergencies. Based on a review of approaches and mobile applications from literature and especially from practice, we present SOMAP (social offline map), a mobile app we developed in Android. It offers offline map functionality in terms of (A) pro-active loading and storing of potentially needed maps of the respective area as well as (B) the possibility of exchanging information from social media using Bluetooth. The application was evaluated qualitatively, to gain insights into the potential of such applications.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Funke, Timo and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Palen, Leysia and Büscher, Monika and Comes, Tina and Hughes, Amanda Lee},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler (2015)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems I: Citizen and Volunteers
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(2):i–ix.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.

    @article{reuter_guest_2015,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {I}: {Citizen} and {Volunteers}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_editorial-specialissue-hci-criticalsystems-i.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {i--ix},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler (2015)
    Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems I: Citizen and Volunteers
    .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.

    @book{reuter_special_2015-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {I}: {Citizen} and {Volunteers}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ijiscram-specialissue_hci-criticalsystems-i.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.},
    number = {2},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2015},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems II: Authorities and Industry
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(3):iv–vi.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.

    @article{reuter_guest_2015-1,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {II}: {Authorities} and {Industry}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_editorial-specialissue-hci-criticalsystems-ii.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {iv--vi},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Therese Friberg, Sylvia Pratzler-Wanczura, Alexis Gizikis (2015)
    Social Media and Emergency Services? Interview Study on Current and Potential Use in 7 European Countries
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(2):36–58. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015040103
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies. Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service’s participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.

    @article{reuter_social_2015,
    title = {Social {Media} and {Emergency} {Services}? {Interview} {Study} on {Current} and {Potential} {Use} in 7 {European} {Countries}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuteretal_socialmediaemergencyservices-interview-study_ijiscram.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015040103},
    abstract = {Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies. Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service's participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Friberg, Therese and Pratzler-Wanczura, Sylvia and Gizikis, Alexis},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {36--58},
    }

    2014

  • Reynold Greenlaw, Andrew Muddiman, Therese Friberg, Matthias Moi, Massimo Cristaldi, Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter (2014)
    The EmerGent project: Emergency Management in Social Media Generation – Dealing with Big Data from Social Media Data Stream
    Workshop on Big Data, Intelligence Management and Analytics Workshop. 7th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC) London, United Kingdom. doi:10.1109/UCC.2014.111
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper describes EmerGent which is a new EU FP7 project currently engaging with users, gathering requirements and writing initial technical specifications and deals with the impact of social media in emergency management. This paper describes the overall objectives of the project and the plans to create an online big data semantic store of social media will be outlined.

    @inproceedings{greenlaw_emergent_2014,
    address = {London, United Kingdom},
    title = {The {EmerGent} project: {Emergency} {Management} in {Social} {Media} {Generation} – {Dealing} with {Big} {Data} from {Social} {Media} {Data} {Stream}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_emergentbigdata_ucc.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/UCC.2014.111},
    abstract = {This paper describes EmerGent which is a new EU FP7 project currently engaging with users, gathering requirements and writing initial technical specifications and deals with the impact of social media in emergency management. This paper describes the overall objectives of the project and the plans to create an online big data semantic store of social media will be outlined.},
    booktitle = {Workshop on {Big} {Data}, {Intelligence} {Management} and {Analytics} {Workshop}. 7th {IEEE}/{ACM} {International} {Conference} on {Utility} and {Cloud} {Computing} ({UCC})},
    author = {Greenlaw, Reynold and Muddiman, Andrew and Friberg, Therese and Moi, Matthias and Cristaldi, Massimo and Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {687--689},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Vernetzte Selbsthilfe in Sozialen Medien am Beispiel des Hochwassers 2013 / Linked Self-Help in Social Media using the example of the Floods 2013 in Germany
    i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien ;13(1):20–28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @article{kaufhold_vernetzte_2014,
    title = {Vernetzte {Selbsthilfe} in {Sozialen} {Medien} am {Beispiel} des {Hochwassers} 2013 / {Linked} {Self}-{Help} in {Social} {Media} using the example of the {Floods} 2013 in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_kaufholdreuter_vernetzteselbsthilfehochwasser_icom.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004},
    abstract = {Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {20--28},
    }

  • Benedikt Ley, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Dave Randall, Christian Reuter, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2014)
    Information and Expertise Sharing in Inter-Organizational Crisis Management
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;23(4-6):347–387. doi:10.1007/s10606-014-9205-2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergency or crisis management, as is well-attested, is a complex management problem. A variety of agencies need to collaborate and coordinate in real-time and with an urgency that is not always present in other domains. It follows that accurate information of varying kinds (e.g. geographical and weather conditions; available skills and expertises; state-of-play; current dispositions and deployments) needs to be made available in a timely fashion to the organizations and individuals who need it. By definition, this information will come from a number of sources both within and across organizations. Large-scale events in particular necessitate collaboration with other organizations. Of course, plans and processes exist to deal with such events but the number of dynamically changing factors as well as the high number of heterogeneous organizations and the high degree of interdependency involved make it impossible to plan for all contingencies. A degree of ongoing improvisation, which typically occurs by means of a variety of information and expertise sharing practices, therefore becomes necessary. This, however, faces many challenges, such as different organizational cultures, distinct individual and coordinative work practices and discrete information systems. Our work entails an examination of the practices of information and expertise sharing, and the obstacles to it, in inter-organizational crisis management. We conceive of this as a design case study, such that we examine a problem area and its scope; conduct detailed enquiries into practice in that area, and provide design recommendations for implementation and evaluation. First, we will present the results of an empirical study of collaboration practices between organizations and public authorities with security responsibilities such as the police, fire departments, public administration and electricity network operators, mainly in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Based on these results, we will describe a concept, which was designed, implemented and evaluated as a system prototype, in two iterations. While the first iteration focuses on situation assessment, the second iteration also includes inter-organizational collaboration functionalities. Based on the findings of our evaluations with practitioners, we will discuss how to support collaboration with a particular focus on information and expertise sharing.

    @article{ley_information_2014,
    title = {Information and {Expertise} {Sharing} in {Inter}-{Organizational} {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {23},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_informationsharingcrisis_jcscw.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-014-9205-2},
    abstract = {Emergency or crisis management, as is well-attested, is a complex management problem. A variety of agencies need to collaborate and coordinate in real-time and with an urgency that is not always present in other domains. It follows that accurate information of varying kinds (e.g. geographical and weather conditions; available skills and expertises; state-of-play; current dispositions and deployments) needs to be made available in a timely fashion to the organizations and individuals who need it. By definition, this information will come from a number of sources both within and across organizations. Large-scale events in particular necessitate collaboration with other organizations. Of course, plans and processes exist to deal with such events but the number of dynamically changing factors as well as the high number of heterogeneous organizations and the high degree of interdependency involved make it impossible to plan for all contingencies. A degree of ongoing improvisation, which typically occurs by means of a variety of information and expertise sharing practices, therefore becomes necessary. This, however, faces many challenges, such as different organizational cultures, distinct individual and coordinative work practices and discrete information systems. Our work entails an examination of the practices of information and expertise sharing, and the obstacles to it, in inter-organizational crisis management. We conceive of this as a design case study, such that we examine a problem area and its scope; conduct detailed enquiries into practice in that area, and provide design recommendations for implementation and evaluation. First, we will present the results of an empirical study of collaboration practices between organizations and public authorities with security responsibilities such as the police, fire departments, public administration and electricity network operators, mainly in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Based on these results, we will describe a concept, which was designed, implemented and evaluated as a system prototype, in two iterations. While the first iteration focuses on situation assessment, the second iteration also includes inter-organizational collaboration functionalities. Based on the findings of our evaluations with practitioners, we will discuss how to support collaboration with a particular focus on information and expertise sharing.},
    number = {4-6},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Ley, Benedikt and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Randall, Dave and Reuter, Christian and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {347--387},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Entwicklung einer mobilen Reporting-Applikation zur Artikulation entscheidungsrelevanter Informationsbedarfe im Katastrophenschutz
    Informatik 2014 – Big Data – Komplexität meistern Stuttgart, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen stets möglichst aktuelle und genaue Informationen. Diese werden dabei je nach Lage von den Einsatzkräften, welche sich am Schadensort befinden, via Funk an die teilweise entfernt sitzenden Entscheidungsträger berichtet. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Berichts- bzw. Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie deckten wir die Kommunikationspraktiken von BOS auf und entwickelten darauf aufbauend ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag präsentiert, wie zielgerichtete Anfragen von Informationen unter Berücksichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Berichts- und Meldewesen örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_entwicklung_2014,
    address = {Stuttgart, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung einer mobilen {Reporting}-{Applikation} zur {Artikulation} entscheidungsrelevanter {Informationsbedarfe} im {Katastrophenschutz}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_ludwigreuter_morepartikulation_inf.pdf},
    abstract = {Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen stets möglichst aktuelle und genaue Informationen. Diese werden dabei je nach Lage von den Einsatzkräften, welche sich am Schadensort befinden, via Funk an die teilweise entfernt sitzenden Entscheidungsträger berichtet. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Berichts- bzw. Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie deckten wir die Kommunikationspraktiken von BOS auf und entwickelten darauf aufbauend ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag präsentiert, wie zielgerichtete Anfragen von Informationen unter Berücksichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Berichts- und Meldewesen örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2014 - {Big} {Data} - {Komplexität} meistern},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Plöderereder, E. and Grunske, L. and Schneider, E. and Ull, D.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Cooperation},
    pages = {941--952},
    }

  • Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Special Issue zu „Interaktion und Kooperation im Krisenmanagement“
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{pipek_special_2014,
    title = {Special {Issue} zu "{Interaktion} und {Kooperation} im {Krisenmanagement}"},
    volume = {13},
    url = {http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/icom.2014.13.issue-1/issue-files/icom.2014.13.issue-1.xml},
    number = {1},
    author = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    note = {Publication Title: i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI},
    }

  • Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Forschungsherausforderungen der Interaktion und Kooperation im Krisenmanagement
    i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien ;13(1):1–3.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{pipek_forschungsherausforderungen_2014,
    title = {Forschungsherausforderungen der {Interaktion} und {Kooperation} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_pipekreuter_forschungsherausforderungenkrisen_icom.pdf},
    number = {1},
    journal = {i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    author = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {HCI, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2014)
    Ad Hoc Participation in Situation Assessment: Supporting Mobile Collaboration in Emergencies
    ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) ;21(5):1–26. doi:10.1145/2651365
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This paper presents a study on how emergent ‘collaboration needs‘ in current work of response teams, who are located on-site and in the control center, could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.

    @article{reuter_ad_2014,
    title = {Ad {Hoc} {Participation} in {Situation} {Assessment}: {Supporting} {Mobile} {Collaboration} in {Emergencies}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterludwigpipek_adhocparticipation_tochi.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2651365},
    abstract = {Emergencies are characterized by high complexity and unpredictability. In order to assess and manage them successfully, improvisation work and informal communication, even beyond local and organizational boundaries, is needed. Such informal practices can facilitate ad hoc participation of units in situation assessment, but this may lack overall situation awareness. This paper presents a study on how emergent ‘collaboration needs' in current work of response teams, who are located on-site and in the control center, could be supported by mobile geo-collaboration systems. First, we present the results of an empirical study about informal work and mobile collaboration practices of emergency services. Then we describe the concept of a mobile geo-collaboration system that addresses the aspects detected in the empirical study and that was implemented as an Android application using web sockets, a technology enabling full-duplex ad hoc communication. Finally we outline the findings of its evaluation in practice and its implications.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    month = nov,
    year = {2014},
    note = {Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2014)
    Communication between Power Blackout and Mobile Network Overload
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;6(2):38–53. doi:10.4018/ijiscram.2014040103
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In cases of power outages the communication of organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public poses several challenges, primarily the breakdowns of many communication infrastructures and therefore the limitations of the use of classical communication media. This paper surveys technical concepts to support crisis communication during blackouts. Therefore it first investigates the perception and information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Furthermore, it analyzes communication infrastructures and their availability in different scenarios. Finally it proposes ‘BlaCom‘, an ICT-based concept for blackout communication, which addresses the time span between the occurrence of the energy blackout and the possible overload of the mobile phone network. It combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information, was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users.

    @article{reuter_communication_2014,
    title = {Communication between {Power} {Blackout} and {Mobile} {Network} {Overload}},
    volume = {6},
    url = {http://www.cscw.uni-siegen.de/publikationen/dokumente/2014/2014_reuter_blackoutcommunication_ijiscram.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/ijiscram.2014040103},
    abstract = {In cases of power outages the communication of organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public poses several challenges, primarily the breakdowns of many communication infrastructures and therefore the limitations of the use of classical communication media. This paper surveys technical concepts to support crisis communication during blackouts. Therefore it first investigates the perception and information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Furthermore, it analyzes communication infrastructures and their availability in different scenarios. Finally it proposes ‘BlaCom', an ICT-based concept for blackout communication, which addresses the time span between the occurrence of the energy blackout and the possible overload of the mobile phone network. It combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information, was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, RSF},
    pages = {38--53},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Michael Herczeg, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2014)
    Editorial: Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen wird auch in Zukunft eine große Rolle spielen. Mit diesem Workshop möchten wir einen kleinen Beitrag leisten, diese Entwicklung in sinnvoller Weise mitzugestalten.

    @inproceedings{reuter_editorial_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Editorial: {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in {Krisensituationen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2014/2014_reuteretal_mci-krisen-editorial_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen wird auch in Zukunft eine große Rolle spielen. Mit diesem Workshop möchten wir einen kleinen Beitrag leisten, diese Entwicklung in sinnvoller Weise mitzugestalten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Herczeg, Michael and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {101--104},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Simon Scholl (2014)
    Technical Limitations for Designing Applications for Social Media
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media content is used in various applications for businesses, organizations and citizens. However, there are technical limitations for analyzing content from social media; these include the way how data can be gained and which safety regulations as well as query limitations have to be considered. They are of specific importance when designing applications for time critical scenarios, such as crisis management. This paper analyzes these limitations (in June 2014) for the most important social media. The selection of social media is based on the Monthly Active Users (MAU), which counts unique users over 30 days. Besides the identification of various limitations, this paper outlines ap proaches to access the data and summarizes design considerations.

    @inproceedings{reuter_technical_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Technical {Limitations} for {Designing} {Applications} for {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterscholl_technicallimitationssocialmedia_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media content is used in various applications for businesses, organizations and citizens. However, there are technical limitations for analyzing content from social media; these include the way how data can be gained and which safety regulations as well as query limitations have to be considered. They are of specific importance when designing applications for time critical scenarios, such as crisis management. This paper analyzes these limitations (in June 2014) for the most important social media. The selection of social media is based on the Monthly Active Users (MAU), which counts unique users over 30 days. Besides the identification of various limitations, this paper outlines ap proaches to access the data and summarizes design considerations.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Koch, M. and Butz, A. and Schlichter, J.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Student, Infrastructure, SocialMedia},
    pages = {131--140},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Michael Herczeg, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2014)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen“
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing spielen auch in Krisensituationen eine große Rolle. Durch die größere Verbreitung mobiler und ubiquitärer Technologien sowie die zunehmende Durchdringung sozialer und kooperativer Medien im Alltag haben sich auch im Bereich des Krisenmanagements und der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung neue Möglichkeiten und Potenziale, aber auch Problembereiche entwickelt, die besonderer Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Neue Ansätze und Prototypen adressieren Interaktionen und Kooperationen innerhalb und zwischen klassischen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), aber zunehmend auch die Einbeziehung der von der Krise betroffenen Akteure aus den Bereichen der Industrie und der Bürger, die eine Rolle als aktive Krisenmanager wahrnehmen und BOS unterstützen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_proceedings_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in {Krisensituationen}"},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_proc-mci-in-krisen_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing spielen auch in Krisensituationen eine große Rolle. Durch die größere Verbreitung mobiler und ubiquitärer Technologien sowie die zunehmende Durchdringung sozialer und kooperativer Medien im Alltag haben sich auch im Bereich des Krisenmanagements und der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung neue Möglichkeiten und Potenziale, aber auch Problembereiche entwickelt, die besonderer Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Neue Ansätze und Prototypen adressieren Interaktionen und Kooperationen innerhalb und zwischen klassischen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), aber zunehmend auch die Einbeziehung der von der Krise betroffenen Akteure aus den Bereichen der Industrie und der Bürger, die eine Rolle als aktive Krisenmanager wahrnehmen und BOS unterstützen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Herczeg, Michael and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {99--140},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis (2014)
    Adaptierbare Bewertung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Interaktiv unterwegs – Freiräume gestalten München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zwei Drittel aller Internetnutzer in Deutschland nutzen soziale Medien. Neben der Kommunikation mit eigenen Kontakten werden dort auch vermehrt Fotos, Filme und Inhalte ganz bewusst öffentlich geteilt. Vergangene Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa im Juni 2013, haben gezeigt, dass diese alltäglichen Verhaltensweisen ebenso in Ausnahmesituationen fortgeführt werden und bürgergenierte Inhalte auch dann beispielsweise über Facebook und Twitter verbreitet werden. Diese werden in Teilen von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie der Polizei und Feuerwehr, ausgewertet und für die Lagebeurteilung genutzt. Dieser Beitrag stellt, basierend auf einer Analyse verwandter Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte und die Bedingungen für deren Integration in die Lagebeurteilung durch BOS dar. Die hieraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in Anforderungen an einen adaptierbaren Bewertungsmechanismus für bürgergenerierte Inhalte aus sozialen Medien.

    @inproceedings{reuter_adaptierbare_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Adaptierbare {Bewertung} bürgergenerierter {Inhalte} aus sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/7536/Reuter_Ritzkatis_2014.pdf},
    abstract = {Zwei Drittel aller Internetnutzer in Deutschland nutzen soziale Medien. Neben der Kommunikation mit eigenen Kontakten werden dort auch vermehrt Fotos, Filme und Inhalte ganz bewusst öffentlich geteilt. Vergangene Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa im Juni 2013, haben gezeigt, dass diese alltäglichen Verhaltensweisen ebenso in Ausnahmesituationen fortgeführt werden und bürgergenierte Inhalte auch dann beispielsweise über Facebook und Twitter verbreitet werden. Diese werden in Teilen von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie der Polizei und Feuerwehr, ausgewertet und für die Lagebeurteilung genutzt. Dieser Beitrag stellt, basierend auf einer Analyse verwandter Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte und die Bedingungen für deren Integration in die Lagebeurteilung durch BOS dar. Die hieraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in Anforderungen an einen adaptierbaren Bewertungsmechanismus für bürgergenerierte Inhalte aus sozialen Medien.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Interaktiv} unterwegs – {Freiräume} gestalten},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {115--124},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis, Thomas Ludwig (2014)
    Entwicklung eines SOA-basierten und anpassbaren Bewertungsdienstes für Inhalte aus sozialen Medien
    Informatik 2014 – Big Data – Komplexität meistern Stuttgart, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Beitrag soll aufzeigen, wie ein anpassbarer Bewertungsdienst die Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien unterstützen kann. Dabei soll insbesondere geklärt werden, wie dieser gestaltet werden kann und wie Nutzer die Qualitätskriterien angemessen artikulieren können. Nach einer Darstellung von Grundlagen und verwandten Arbeiten wird anhand einer empirischen Vorstudie der Umgang von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit bürgergenerierten Informationen betrachtet. Basierend auf den dort gewonnen Erkenntnissen wurde ein service-orientierter Bewertungsdienst entwickelt und in eine Anwendung integriert, welche so den Zugang zu bürgergenerierten Informationen aus verschiedenen sozialen Medien inklusive einer anpassbaren Qualitätsbewertung ermöglicht. Eine abschließende Evaluation illustriert deren mögliche Anwendung in der Praxis.

    @inproceedings{reuter_entwicklung_2014,
    address = {Stuttgart, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung eines {SOA}-basierten und anpassbaren {Bewertungsdienstes} für {Inhalte} aus sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterritzkatisludwig-soabewertungsozialemedien_inf.pdf},
    abstract = {Dieser Beitrag soll aufzeigen, wie ein anpassbarer Bewertungsdienst die Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien unterstützen kann. Dabei soll insbesondere geklärt werden, wie dieser gestaltet werden kann und wie Nutzer die Qualitätskriterien angemessen artikulieren können. Nach einer Darstellung von Grundlagen und verwandten Arbeiten wird anhand einer empirischen Vorstudie der Umgang von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit bürgergenerierten Informationen betrachtet. Basierend auf den dort gewonnen Erkenntnissen wurde ein service-orientierter Bewertungsdienst entwickelt und in eine Anwendung integriert, welche so den Zugang zu bürgergenerierten Informationen aus verschiedenen sozialen Medien inklusive einer anpassbaren Qualitätsbewertung ermöglicht. Eine abschließende Evaluation illustriert deren mögliche Anwendung in der Praxis.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2014 - {Big} {Data} - {Komplexität} meistern},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Plöderereder, E. and Grunske, L. and Schneider, E. and Ull, D.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {977--988},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2014)
    Emergent Collaboration Infrastructures: Technology Design for Inter-Organizational Crisis Management (Ph.D. Thesis)
    Siegen, Germany: Springer Gabler. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-08586-5
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Using the domain of crisis management, Christian Reuter explores challenges and opportunities for technology design in emergent environments. He therefore empirically analyzes collaborative work in inter-organizational crisis – such as the police, fire departments, energy network operators and citizens – in order to identify collaboration practices that reveal work infrastructure limitations. He also designs, implements and evaluates novel concepts and ICT artifacts towards the support of emergent collaboration. Besides the discovery of potential organizational effects on the ability to deal with emergence he presents methodological implications for technology design.

    @book{reuter_emergent_2014,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Emergent {Collaboration} {Infrastructures}: {Technology} {Design} for {Inter}-{Organizational} {Crisis} {Management} ({Ph}.{D}. {Thesis})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-08585-8},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/springer+gabler/bwl/wirtschaftsinformatik/book/978-3-658-08585-8},
    abstract = {Using the domain of crisis management, Christian Reuter explores challenges and opportunities for technology design in emergent environments. He therefore empirically analyzes collaborative work in inter-organizational crisis – such as the police, fire departments, energy network operators and citizens – in order to identify collaboration practices that reveal work infrastructure limitations. He also designs, implements and evaluates novel concepts and ICT artifacts towards the support of emergent collaboration. Besides the discovery of potential organizational effects on the ability to deal with emergence he presents methodological implications for technology design.},
    publisher = {Springer Gabler},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-08586-5},
    note = {Backup Publisher: University of Siegen},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, RSF, Selected, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

    2013

  • Désirée Christofzik, Christian Reuter (2013)
    The Aggregation of Information Qualities in Collaborative Software
    International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing (IJEV) ;5(3):257–271.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Collaborative software supports teams involved in a common task in generating and sharing information over geographic distances. Such software is used in the cooperation between organisations, companies or individuals. The overall quality of the resulting information product depends on the quality of the individual contributions as well as on an underlying consolidation process. We therefore present different ‘composition functions‘ indicating how the qualities of the contributions by single actors (qi) influence the quality of the aggregated information product (Q). Based upon a qualitative empirical study of inter-organizational crisis management in Germany we match use cases with those composition functions and derive implications for the design of collaborative software.

    @article{christofzik_aggregation_2013,
    title = {The {Aggregation} of {Information} {Qualities} in {Collaborative} {Software}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ChristofzikReuter_InformationQualities_IJEV.pdf},
    abstract = {Collaborative software supports teams involved in a common task in generating and sharing information over geographic distances. Such software is used in the cooperation between organisations, companies or individuals. The overall quality of the resulting information product depends on the quality of the individual contributions as well as on an underlying consolidation process. We therefore present different ‘composition functions' indicating how the qualities of the contributions by single actors (qi) influence the quality of the aggregated information product (Q). Based upon a qualitative empirical study of inter-organizational crisis management in Germany we match use cases with those composition functions and derive implications for the design of collaborative software.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing (IJEV)},
    author = {Christofzik, Désirée and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B},
    pages = {257--271},
    }

  • Oliver Heger, Christian Reuter (2013)
    IT-basierte Unterstützung virtueller und realer Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Leipzig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social Media wird zunehmend von Betroffenen und Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen genutzt. In diesem Beitrag werden Studien zu ‚virtuellen‘ und ‚realen‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten dargestellt. Untersucht wurden zum einen ‚virtuelle‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten in Twitter während der Tornadokatastrophe in den USA am 27./28.4.2011 mit besonderem Fokus auf die zeitlichen Verläufe und Nutzergruppen; zum anderen ‚reale‘ Selbsthilfe anhand Interviews mit Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS). Hierauf aufbauend werden Gestaltungsaspekte und Anforderungen für Social Media zur Unterstützung von Krisenhelfern bzw. Selbst- und Nachbarschafts- hilfe und zur Kombination von virtuellen und realen Aktivitäten im Katastrophenmanagement diskutiert.

    @inproceedings{heger_it-basierte_2013,
    address = {Leipzig, Germany},
    title = {{IT}-basierte {Unterstützung} virtueller und realer {Selbsthilfegemeinschaften} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_HegerReuter_IT-Selbsthilfegemeinschaften_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Social Media wird zunehmend von Betroffenen und Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen genutzt. In diesem Beitrag werden Studien zu ‚virtuellen‘ und ‚realen‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten dargestellt. Untersucht wurden zum einen ‚virtuelle‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten in Twitter während der Tornadokatastrophe in den USA am 27./28.4.2011 mit besonderem Fokus auf die zeitlichen Verläufe und Nutzergruppen; zum anderen ‚reale‘ Selbsthilfe anhand Interviews mit Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS). Hierauf aufbauend werden Gestaltungsaspekte und Anforderungen für Social Media zur Unterstützung von Krisenhelfern bzw. Selbst- und Nachbarschafts- hilfe und zur Kombination von virtuellen und realen Aktivitäten im Katastrophenmanagement diskutiert.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Heger, Oliver and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Rainer and Franczyk, Bogdan},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1861--1875},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    What You See Is What I Need: Mobile Reporting Practices in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW) Paphos, Cyrus. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Decisions of emergency response organisations (police, fire fighters, infrastructure providers, etc.) rely on accurate and timely information. Some necessary information is integrated into control centre’s IT (weather, availability of electricity, gauge information, etc.), but almost every decision needs to be based on very specific information of the current crisis situation. Due to the unpredictable nature of a crisis, gathering this kind of information requires much improvisation and articulation work which we aim to support. We present a study on how different emergency response organisations communicate with teams on-site to generate necessary information for the coordinating instances, and we described, implemented and evaluated an interaction concept as well as a prototype to support this communication by a semi-structured request-and-report system based on Android devices. We learned that (1) the accuracy of request and reports can be improved by using an appropriate metadata structure in addition to creating multimedia-based information content, (2) requirements of trusted and fast information need to be respected in support concepts although they may even be contradictory, and (3) the coordination strategy of the emergency response organisation also shapes the way this interaction needs to be designed.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_what_2013,
    address = {Paphos, Cyrus},
    title = {What {You} {See} {Is} {What} {I} {Need}: {Mobile} {Reporting} {Practices} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10},
    doi = {10.1007/978-1-4471-5346-7_10},
    abstract = {Decisions of emergency response organisations (police, fire fighters, infrastructure providers, etc.) rely on accurate and timely information. Some necessary information is integrated into control centre's IT (weather, availability of electricity, gauge information, etc.), but almost every decision needs to be based on very specific information of the current crisis situation. Due to the unpredictable nature of a crisis, gathering this kind of information requires much improvisation and articulation work which we aim to support. We present a study on how different emergency response organisations communicate with teams on-site to generate necessary information for the coordinating instances, and we described, implemented and evaluated an interaction concept as well as a prototype to support this communication by a semi-structured request-and-report system based on Android devices. We learned that (1) the accuracy of request and reports can be improved by using an appropriate metadata structure in addition to creating multimedia-based information content, (2) requirements of trusted and fast information need to be respected in support concepts although they may even be contradictory, and (3) the coordination strategy of the emergency response organisation also shapes the way this interaction needs to be designed.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} ({ECSCW})},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Bertelsen, Olav W. and Ciolfi, Luigina and Grasso, Antonietta and Papadopoulos, George Angelos},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-C, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {181--206},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Mobiler Reporting-Mechanismus für örtlich verteilte Einsatzkräfte
    Mensch & Computer 2013: Interaktive Vielfalt Bremen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen eine aktuelle und akkurate Informationsbasis. Einige dieser Informationen, z.B. Wetterinformationen, können über externe Dienste in Leitstellensystemen visualisiert werden. Andere müssen seitens der zuständigen Einheiten vor Ort via Funk gemeldet werden. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie wurden die Kommunikationspraktiken von Polizei und Feuerwehr untersucht. Darauf aufbauend wurde ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen erstellt, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag illustriert, wie zielgerichtete Informationsanfragen unter Berück-sichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Reporting örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_mobiler_2013,
    address = {Bremen, Germany},
    title = {Mobiler {Reporting}-{Mechanismus} für örtlich verteilte {Einsatzkräfte}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_LudwigReuterPipek_MobileReporting_MenschComputer.pdf},
    abstract = {Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen eine aktuelle und akkurate Informationsbasis. Einige dieser Informationen, z.B. Wetterinformationen, können über externe Dienste in Leitstellensystemen visualisiert werden. Andere müssen seitens der zuständigen Einheiten vor Ort via Funk gemeldet werden. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie wurden die Kommunikationspraktiken von Polizei und Feuerwehr untersucht. Darauf aufbauend wurde ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen erstellt, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag illustriert, wie zielgerichtete Informationsanfragen unter Berück-sichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Reporting örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2013: {Interaktive} {Vielfalt}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Boll, Susanne and Maaß, Susanne and Malaka, Rainer},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation},
    pages = {317--320},
    }

  • Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter, Benedikt Ley, Thomas Ludwig, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2013)
    Sicherheitsarena – Ein Ansatz zur Verbesserung des Krisenmanagements durch Kooperation und Vernetzung
    2013.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{pipek_sicherheitsarena_2013,
    title = {Sicherheitsarena – {Ein} {Ansatz} zur {Verbesserung} des {Krisenmanagements} durch {Kooperation} und {Vernetzung}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_PipekReuterLeyLudwigWiedenhoefer_Sicherheitsarena_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    number = {3},
    author = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian and Ley, Benedikt and Ludwig, Thomas and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    year = {2013},
    note = {Place: Bonn, Germany},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation},
    pages = {58--59},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2013)
    Anforderungen und technische Konzepte der Krisenkommunikation bei Stromausfall
    Informatik 2013 – Informatik angepasst an Mensch, Organisation und Umwelt Koblenz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Falle von Stromausfällen kommt der Kommunikation von Stromnetzbetreibern bzw. Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit der Bevölkerung eine besondere Bedeutung zu, da durch strombezogene Ausfälle vieler Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen die klassischen Kommunikationsmedien oftmals nicht in ihrer Gänze genutzt werden können. In diesem Beitrag werden technische Alternativkonzepte zur Unterstützung der Krisenkommunikation bei Ausfall der Stromversorgung untersucht. Hierzu werden zuerst die Wahrnehmung von Stromausfällen durch Bürger und deren Informationsbedarfe dargestellt und anschließend Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen sowie deren Verfügbarkeit in verschiedenen Stromausfallszenarien analysiert. Hierauf aufbauend wird das Konzept einer Smartphone-Applikation vorgestellt, welches die Zeit zwischen Eintreten des Stromausfalls und einer möglichen oder zeitweisen Überlastung des Mobilfunknetzes adressiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Ziel war es, Erkenntnisse über mögliche mobilfunkbasierte Unterstützungskonzepte zu gewinnen und Design-Vorschläge zur Umsetzung solcher Konzepte zu geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_anforderungen_2013,
    address = {Koblenz, Germany},
    title = {Anforderungen und technische {Konzepte} der {Krisenkommunikation} bei {Stromausfall}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterLudwig_KrisenkommunikationStromausfall_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Falle von Stromausfällen kommt der Kommunikation von Stromnetzbetreibern bzw. Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit der Bevölkerung eine besondere Bedeutung zu, da durch strombezogene Ausfälle vieler Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen die klassischen Kommunikationsmedien oftmals nicht in ihrer Gänze genutzt werden können. In diesem Beitrag werden technische Alternativkonzepte zur Unterstützung der Krisenkommunikation bei Ausfall der Stromversorgung untersucht. Hierzu werden zuerst die Wahrnehmung von Stromausfällen durch Bürger und deren Informationsbedarfe dargestellt und anschließend Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen sowie deren Verfügbarkeit in verschiedenen Stromausfallszenarien analysiert. Hierauf aufbauend wird das Konzept einer Smartphone-Applikation vorgestellt, welches die Zeit zwischen Eintreten des Stromausfalls und einer möglichen oder zeitweisen Überlastung des Mobilfunknetzes adressiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Ziel war es, Erkenntnisse über mögliche mobilfunkbasierte Unterstützungskonzepte zu gewinnen und Design-Vorschläge zur Umsetzung solcher Konzepte zu geben.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2013 - {Informatik} angepasst an {Mensch}, {Organisation} und {Umwelt}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Hornbach, Matthias},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1604--1618},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis (2013)
    Unterstützung mobiler Geo-Kollaboration zur Lageeinschätzung von Feuerwehr und Polizei
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Leipzig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aufgrund komplexer und dringlicher Aufgaben steht die Zusammenarbeit über örtliche und organisationale Grenzen hinweg bei Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie Feuerwehr und Polizei, an der Tagesordnung. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu untersuchen, wie die Kollaboration von Einsatzkräften vor Ort und jenen in der Leitstelle durch mobile Geokollaborationssysteme unterstützt werden kann. Nach einer Darstellung verwandter Arbeiten werden anhand einer qualitativen empirischen Studie die Informations- und Kommunikationspraktiken mobiler Einsatzkräfte vorgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend folgt die Konzeptionierung und Umsetzung eines mobilen Geokolla- borationssystems, welches an ein bestehendes Krisenmanagementsystem und Geoinformationssystem (GIS) angebunden ist und als Android-App realisiert wurde. Abschließend werden die Evaluationsergebnisse dieses Systems im Anwendungsfeld vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_unterstutzung_2013,
    address = {Leipzig, Germany},
    title = {Unterstützung mobiler {Geo}-{Kollaboration} zur {Lageeinschätzung} von {Feuerwehr} und {Polizei}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterRitzkatis_MobileGeoKollaboration_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Aufgrund komplexer und dringlicher Aufgaben steht die Zusammenarbeit über örtliche und organisationale Grenzen hinweg bei Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie Feuerwehr und Polizei, an der Tagesordnung. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu untersuchen, wie die Kollaboration von Einsatzkräften vor Ort und jenen in der Leitstelle durch mobile Geokollaborationssysteme unterstützt werden kann. Nach einer Darstellung verwandter Arbeiten werden anhand einer qualitativen empirischen Studie die Informations- und Kommunikationspraktiken mobiler Einsatzkräfte vorgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend folgt die Konzeptionierung und Umsetzung eines mobilen Geokolla- borationssystems, welches an ein bestehendes Krisenmanagementsystem und Geoinformationssystem (GIS) angebunden ist und als Android-App realisiert wurde. Abschließend werden die Evaluationsergebnisse dieses Systems im Anwendungsfeld vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael},
    editor = {Alt, Rainer and Franczyk, Bogdan},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1877--1891},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Combining Real and Virtual Volunteers through Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.

    @inproceedings{reuter_combining_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Combining {Real} and {Virtual} {Volunteers} through {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterHegerPipek_RealVirtualVolunteersSocialMedia_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {780--790},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2013)
    Power Outage Communications: Survey of Needs, Infrastructures and Concepts
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis communication during power outages poses several challenges. Frist, the causes of power outages are often events such as severe weather, which also lead to complications. Second, power outages themselves lead to limitations in everyday life. Third, communication infrastructures, that are necessary for crisis communication, are often affected. This work focuses on the communication of the organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public affected by the power outage. Therefore this paper investigates the perception and the information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Taking the users‘ needs into consideration, an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based concept for crisis communication, which combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users. ICT-based concepts can gain acceptance, however they should be understood as supplemental for some target groups and in some scenarios.

    @inproceedings{reuter_power_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Power {Outage} {Communications}: {Survey} of {Needs}, {Infrastructures} and {Concepts}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_Reuter_PowerOutageCommunication_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis communication during power outages poses several challenges. Frist, the causes of power outages are often events such as severe weather, which also lead to complications. Second, power outages themselves lead to limitations in everyday life. Third, communication infrastructures, that are necessary for crisis communication, are often affected. This work focuses on the communication of the organizations responsible for recovery work (emergency services, public administration, energy network operators) to the public affected by the power outage. Therefore this paper investigates the perception and the information demands of citizens and communication infrastructures in different scenarios. Taking the users' needs into consideration, an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based concept for crisis communication, which combines general information with location-specific and setting-specific information was implemented as a prototype smartphone application and evaluated with 12 potential end users. ICT-based concepts can gain acceptance, however they should be understood as supplemental for some target groups and in some scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, RSF},
    pages = {884--889},
    }

  • Hans-Peter Thamm, Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter (2013)
    Design of a Process Modell for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The electricity network is one of the most important infrastructures in modern industrialized societies. In the case of power outages, the society becomes aware of their dependence on electricity and organizations responsible for recovery work need precise information about the location and the type of the damage, which are usually not available. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), commonly known as drones, are aircrafts without a human pilot on board and may help to collect this information. While many technical approaches for UAS exist, a systematic process model for using UAS in emergencies based on the organizations needs is still missing. Based on the presentation of current types of UAS, approaches of using UAS and workshops with organizations responsible for recovery work (police and fire department, public administration, power supplier) this paper presents a process model for UAS in emergencies, especially power outages, which takes both theoretical findings and human experiences into consideration.

    @inproceedings{thamm_design_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Design of a {Process} {Modell} for {Unmanned} {Aerial} {Systems} ({UAS}) in {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ThammLudwigReuter_UASEmergency_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The electricity network is one of the most important infrastructures in modern industrialized societies. In the case of power outages, the society becomes aware of their dependence on electricity and organizations responsible for recovery work need precise information about the location and the type of the damage, which are usually not available. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), commonly known as drones, are aircrafts without a human pilot on board and may help to collect this information. While many technical approaches for UAS exist, a systematic process model for using UAS in emergencies based on the organizations needs is still missing. Based on the presentation of current types of UAS, approaches of using UAS and workshops with organizations responsible for recovery work (police and fire department, public administration, power supplier) this paper presents a process model for UAS in emergencies, especially power outages, which takes both theoretical findings and human experiences into consideration.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Thamm, Hans-Peter and Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom},
    pages = {478--487},
    }

  • Torben Wiedenhoefer, Christian Reuter, Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Entwicklung IT-basierter interorganisationaler Krisenmanagement-Infrastrukturen für Stromausfälle
    Informatik 2013 – Informatik angepasst an Mensch, Organisation und Umwelt Koblenz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Große Stromausfälle, wie beispielsweise der Ausfall der Stromversorgung im Nordosten der USA (2003) oder der Ausfall in weiten Teilen von West-Europa (2005), machen die fundamentale Bedeutung von Strom in unserem täglichen Leben deutlich. Sie zeigen auch, welche wichtige Rolle die Kooperation und Zusammenarbeit zwischen allen Beteiligten der Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit spielt. Die Erfahrungen aus diesen Ausfällen legen nahe, dass Stromnetzbetreiber, Feuerwehr, Polizei, Behörden und Bürger einer Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Herausforderungen in der interorganisationalen Kommunikation und innerhalb von Informations- und Koordinierungsprozessen gegenüberstehen. Ziel des Forschungsprojekts „InfoStrom“, welches vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung seit 2010 und bis Ende 2013 gefördert wird, ist die Entwicklung von Konzepten, um diese Zusammenarbeit zu unterstützten und letztlich zu verbessern. In diesem Beitrag werden potentielle Fragen und zukünftige Themen und erzielte Ergebnisse dargestellt, die sich auf die benutzerzentrierte Technologieentwicklung im Krisenmanagement und auf domain-spezifische Probleme, wie die Verbesserung der Integration von Bürgern in das Krisenmanagement, den Umgang mit Informationsunsicherheiten oder die Unterstützung des interorganisationalen Lernens, beziehen.

    @inproceedings{wiedenhoefer_entwicklung_2013,
    address = {Koblenz, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung {IT}-basierter interorganisationaler {Krisenmanagement}-{Infrastrukturen} für {Stromausfälle}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_WiedenhoeferReuterLeyPipek_KrisenmanagementInfrastrukturen_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Große Stromausfälle, wie beispielsweise der Ausfall der Stromversorgung im Nordosten der USA (2003) oder der Ausfall in weiten Teilen von West-Europa (2005), machen die fundamentale Bedeutung von Strom in unserem täglichen Leben deutlich. Sie zeigen auch, welche wichtige Rolle die Kooperation und Zusammenarbeit zwischen allen Beteiligten der Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit spielt. Die Erfahrungen aus diesen Ausfällen legen nahe, dass Stromnetzbetreiber, Feuerwehr, Polizei, Behörden und Bürger einer Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Herausforderungen in der interorganisationalen Kommunikation und innerhalb von Informations- und Koordinierungsprozessen gegenüberstehen. Ziel des Forschungsprojekts „InfoStrom“, welches vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung seit 2010 und bis Ende 2013 gefördert wird, ist die Entwicklung von Konzepten, um diese Zusammenarbeit zu unterstützten und letztlich zu verbessern. In diesem Beitrag werden potentielle Fragen und zukünftige Themen und erzielte Ergebnisse dargestellt, die sich auf die benutzerzentrierte Technologieentwicklung im Krisenmanagement und auf domain-spezifische Probleme, wie die Verbesserung der Integration von Bürgern in das Krisenmanagement, den Umgang mit Informationsunsicherheiten oder die Unterstützung des interorganisationalen Lernens, beziehen.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2013 - {Informatik} angepasst an {Mensch}, {Organisation} und {Umwelt}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Reuter, Christian and Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Hornbach, Matthias},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Crisis, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {1649--1658},
    }

    2012

  • Désirée Christofzik, Christian Reuter (2012)
    Einfluss der Qualitätsermittlung kollaborativ erstellter Informationen auf die Gestaltung interorganisationaler Krisenmanagementsysteme
    Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik (MKWI) Braunschweig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In dieser Arbeit analysieren wir die Gesamtqualität kollaborativ erstellter Informationen als Aggregation der Qualität von Einzelinformationen indem wir die Angemessenheit verschiedener Funktionen in Abhängigkeit von der jeweiligen Fragestellung betrachten. Ziel ist die Herausstellung von Implikationen für das Design kollaborativer Systeme. Die Untersuchung findet am Beispiel des interorganisationalen Krisenmanagements statt. Nach einer Darstellung möglicher Aggregationsfunktionen zeigen wir auf Basis qualitativ-empirischer Untersuchungen exemplarische Anwendungsfälle aus dem interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement auf. Anhand dieser werden Implikationen für das Design und die Implementierung von Softwarekomponenten für die Vernetzung der beteiligten Akteure gezogen und gezeigt, dass die jeweilige Fragestellung hierbei von besonderer Bedeutung ist.

    @inproceedings{christofzik_einfluss_2012,
    address = {Braunschweig, Germany},
    title = {Einfluss der {Qualitätsermittlung} kollaborativ erstellter {Informationen} auf die {Gestaltung} interorganisationaler {Krisenmanagementsysteme}},
    isbn = {978-3-942183-63-5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ChristofzikReuter_QualitaetsermittlungKollaborativerInformationen_MKWI.pdf},
    abstract = {In dieser Arbeit analysieren wir die Gesamtqualität kollaborativ erstellter Informationen als Aggregation der Qualität von Einzelinformationen indem wir die Angemessenheit verschiedener Funktionen in Abhängigkeit von der jeweiligen Fragestellung betrachten. Ziel ist die Herausstellung von Implikationen für das Design kollaborativer Systeme. Die Untersuchung findet am Beispiel des interorganisationalen Krisenmanagements statt. Nach einer Darstellung möglicher Aggregationsfunktionen zeigen wir auf Basis qualitativ-empirischer Untersuchungen exemplarische Anwendungsfälle aus dem interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement auf. Anhand dieser werden Implikationen für das Design und die Implementierung von Softwarekomponenten für die Vernetzung der beteiligten Akteure gezogen und gezeigt, dass die jeweilige Fragestellung hierbei von besonderer Bedeutung ist.},
    booktitle = {Multikonferenz {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({MKWI})},
    publisher = {GITO-Verlag},
    author = {Christofzik, Désirée and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Mattfeld, Dirk Christian and Robra-Bissantz, Susanne},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, Ranking-WKWI-C},
    pages = {2049--2060},
    }

  • Jan Hess, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2012)
    Supporting End-User Articulations in Evolving Business Processes: A Case Study to explore Intuitive Notations and Interaction Designs
    International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems (IJCIS) ;21(4):263–296. doi:10.1142/S0218843012500049
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Adaptations of business processes are important in work environments, specifically when process-support needs to be tailored according to changing needs. The creation, management, and adaptation of the process models require typically modeling-experts. While these actors are knowledgeable in formalizing and operationalizing processes end-users who do not necessarily possess sophisticated modeling skills know typically local practices and framing conditions best. In this paper, we present an approach to support users in articulating their needs and to involve them into the (re-)design of process specifications. We explore how end-users reflect upon and articulate about business processes. Based on results of a qualitative study, we present a new, paper-based interaction technique, which enables users with little skills to model processes. The resulting process specifications can be transferred either in paper or in digital form into traditional modeling systems for further elaboration.

    @article{hess_supporting_2012,
    title = {Supporting {End}-{User} {Articulations} in {Evolving} {Business} {Processes}: {A} {Case} {Study} to explore {Intuitive} {Notations} and {Interaction} {Designs}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterMarxPipek_CrisisManagement20-SystematizationSocialSoftware_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S0218843012500049},
    abstract = {Adaptations of business processes are important in work environments, specifically when process-support needs to be tailored according to changing needs. The creation, management, and adaptation of the process models require typically modeling-experts. While these actors are knowledgeable in formalizing and operationalizing processes end-users who do not necessarily possess sophisticated modeling skills know typically local practices and framing conditions best. In this paper, we present an approach to support users in articulating their needs and to involve them into the (re-)design of process specifications. We explore how end-users reflect upon and articulate about business processes. Based on results of a qualitative study, we present a new, paper-based interaction technique, which enables users with little skills to model processes. The resulting process specifications can be transferred either in paper or in digital form into traditional modeling systems for further elaboration.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems (IJCIS)},
    author = {Hess, Jan and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Ranking-CORE-C, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B},
    pages = {263--296},
    }

  • Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2012)
    Supporting improvisation work in inter-organizational crisis management
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) New York, USA. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208617
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Improvisation is necessary when planned decision-making as the main managerial activity does not fit the conditions the practice provides. In these cases, information technology should not just automate planned and structured decisions, but support improvisational practice. In this contribution we present an empirical study about the improvisation work in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Our focus is on inter-organizational cooperation practices, thus we examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material allows to describe reasons and conditions for improvisation. Our resulting recommendations address the support of aggregation and visualization of information, a necessary individualization of information compositions, options for collaborative situation assessment, requirements for informal and formal communication, and accessibility of information resources.

    @inproceedings{ley_supporting_2012,
    address = {New York, USA},
    title = {Supporting improvisation work in inter-organizational crisis management},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-1015-4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_LeyPipekReuterWiedenhoefer_ImprovisationWork_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2207676.2208617},
    abstract = {Improvisation is necessary when planned decision-making as the main managerial activity does not fit the conditions the practice provides. In these cases, information technology should not just automate planned and structured decisions, but support improvisational practice. In this contribution we present an empirical study about the improvisation work in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. Our focus is on inter-organizational cooperation practices, thus we examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material allows to describe reasons and conditions for improvisation. Our resulting recommendations address the support of aggregation and visualization of information, a necessary individualization of information compositions, options for collaborative situation assessment, requirements for informal and formal communication, and accessibility of information resources.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-RSBE, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {1529},
    }

  • Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter, Torben Wiedenhoefer (2012)
    Supporting Inter-organizational Situation Assessment in Crisis Management
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Vancouver, Canada.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    To assess current situation properly is crucial for effective decision-making in crisis management. However, gathering accurate information from incidence sites and providing appropriate support for assessment practices faces several challenges. The unique information demands of each crisis situation, the information availability or inter-organizational problems and obstacles to information exchange are important factors that need to be considered in designing ICT. In this contribution we present results from an empirical study about decision-making practices in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. We focused on the needs and practices on information exchange at the level of inter-organizational cooperation. We examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material reflects particularly conditions and challenges in current situation assessment practices, and we were able to derive some design requirements for an inter-organizational situation assessment client (ISAC) as a complementary tool for the crisis management infrastructures the individual organizations have already build for their own areas of responsibility: Support for the aggregation and visualization of information, for the individualization of information compositions, for a collaborative situation assessment and for appropriate structures for sharing and accessing information resources.

    @inproceedings{ley_supporting_2012-1,
    address = {Vancouver, Canada},
    title = {Supporting {Inter}-organizational {Situation} {Assessment} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_LeyPipekReuterWiedenhoefer_SituationAssessment_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {To assess current situation properly is crucial for effective decision-making in crisis management. However, gathering accurate information from incidence sites and providing appropriate support for assessment practices faces several challenges. The unique information demands of each crisis situation, the information availability or inter-organizational problems and obstacles to information exchange are important factors that need to be considered in designing ICT. In this contribution we present results from an empirical study about decision-making practices in scenarios of medium to large power outages in Germany. We focused on the needs and practices on information exchange at the level of inter-organizational cooperation. We examined the cooperation of fire departments, police, public administration, electricity infrastructure operators and citizens. Our empirical material reflects particularly conditions and challenges in current situation assessment practices, and we were able to derive some design requirements for an inter-organizational situation assessment client (ISAC) as a complementary tool for the crisis management infrastructures the individual organizations have already build for their own areas of responsibility: Support for the aggregation and visualization of information, for the individualization of information compositions, for a collaborative situation assessment and for appropriate structures for sharing and accessing information resources.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian and Wiedenhoefer, Torben},
    editor = {Rothkrantz, L. and Ristvey, J. and Franco, Z.},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Social Media for Supporting Emergent Groups in Crisis Management
    Proceedings of the CSCW Workshop on Collaboration and Crisis Informatics, International Reports on Socio Informatics Bonn, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The great importance of Social Media for our today’s life causes an increasing use of internet-based platforms in crisis situations. Our work intends to show how so-called Emergent Groups, which arise as a result of crises, consist of private citizens and are not yet institutionalized organizations, can be supported by Social Media. At first, our literature review’s objective is to define the term ‘Emergent Group‘ and to outline their usage of Social Media as well as software-based requirements and suitable concepts to support such groups. A following quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis of a tornado crisis in the USA enables a closer look at especially virtual working Emergent Groups. Building on our literature review and empirical analysis, we discuss implications, derive further requirements and present a concept for the design of appropriate Social Software. We finally conclude by giving some potential research issues.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2012,
    address = {Bonn, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} for {Supporting} {Emergent} {Groups} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterHegerPipek_SocialMediaEmergentGroups_CSCW-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {The great importance of Social Media for our today's life causes an increasing use of internet-based platforms in crisis situations. Our work intends to show how so-called Emergent Groups, which arise as a result of crises, consist of private citizens and are not yet institutionalized organizations, can be supported by Social Media. At first, our literature review's objective is to define the term ‘Emergent Group' and to outline their usage of Social Media as well as software-based requirements and suitable concepts to support such groups. A following quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis of a tornado crisis in the USA enables a closer look at especially virtual working Emergent Groups. Building on our literature review and empirical analysis, we discuss implications, derive further requirements and present a concept for the design of appropriate Social Software. We finally conclude by giving some potential research issues.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {CSCW} {Workshop} on {Collaboration} and {Crisis} {Informatics}, {International} {Reports} on {Socio} {Informatics}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Palen, Leysia and Landgren, Jonas},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation},
    pages = {84--92},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Torben Wiedenhoefer, Benedikt Ley (2012)
    Dealing with terminologies in collaborative systems for crisis management
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Vancouver, Canada.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper presents approaches on how to deal with terminological ambiguities (different understandings of terms in heterogeneous groups of actors) in collaborative systems. First we will give some insight on the conceptual and theoretical foundation surrounding the ‘triangle of reference‘, a model of how linguistic symbols are related to the objects they represent. Then we will describe the results of our exploratory empirical study, which was conducted in Germany, and dealt with inter-organisational crisis communication. Based on this, we will then deduce requirements necessary for supporting and dealing with terminologies, and propose technical approaches for collaborative systems.

    @inproceedings{reuter_dealing_2012,
    address = {Vancouver, Canada},
    title = {Dealing with terminologies in collaborative systems for crisis management},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterPipekWiedenhoeferLey_TerminologiesCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {This paper presents approaches on how to deal with terminological ambiguities (different understandings of terms in heterogeneous groups of actors) in collaborative systems. First we will give some insight on the conceptual and theoretical foundation surrounding the ‘triangle of reference', a model of how linguistic symbols are related to the objects they represent. Then we will describe the results of our exploratory empirical study, which was conducted in Germany, and dealt with inter-organisational crisis communication. Based on this, we will then deduce requirements necessary for supporting and dealing with terminologies, and propose technical approaches for collaborative systems.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Ley, Benedikt},
    editor = {Rothkrantz, L. and Ristvey, J. and Franco, Z.},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation},
    pages = {1--5},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Crisis Management 2.0: Towards a Systematization of Social Software Use in Crisis Situations
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;4(1):1–16. doi:10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software‘ we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.

    @article{reuter_crisis_2012,
    title = {Crisis {Management} 2.0: {Towards} a {Systematization} of {Social} {Software} {Use} in {Crisis} {Situations}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterMarxPipek_CrisisManagement20-SystematizationSocialSoftware_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101},
    abstract = {The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software' we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

    2011

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Desaster 2.0: Einbeziehung von Bürgern in das Krisenmanagement
    Mensch & Computer 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In dieser Arbeit soll untersucht werden, wie die im Krisenmanagement beteiligten Akteure (wie Polizei, Feuerwehr, Hilfsorganisationen, Infrastrukturbetreiber) und die betroffenen Bürger mittels Social Software kommunizieren und kollaborieren können. Anhand unserer Literaturstudie stellen wir einen Überblick über vergangene Forschung in diesem Bereich dar. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere beiden Fallstudien zur Nutzung von Social Software in Krisen: Zum einen während der Flugausfälle im Zuge des Vulkanausbruchs auf Island im April 2010, zum anderen im Zuge des Loveparade-Unglücks am 24.07.2010. Anschließend stellen wir identifizierte Stärken und Schwächen dar und fassen identifizierte Potentiale in einer Klassifikationsmatrix für Social Software im Krisenmanagement zusammen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_desaster_2011,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Desaster 2.0: {Einbeziehung} von {Bürgern} in das {Krisenmanagement}},
    isbn = {978-3-486-71235-3},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterMarxPipek_Desaster20-EinbeziehungBuergerKrisenmanagement_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {In dieser Arbeit soll untersucht werden, wie die im Krisenmanagement beteiligten Akteure (wie Polizei, Feuerwehr, Hilfsorganisationen, Infrastrukturbetreiber) und die betroffenen Bürger mittels Social Software kommunizieren und kollaborieren können. Anhand unserer Literaturstudie stellen wir einen Überblick über vergangene Forschung in diesem Bereich dar. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere beiden Fallstudien zur Nutzung von Social Software in Krisen: Zum einen während der Flugausfälle im Zuge des Vulkanausbruchs auf Island im April 2010, zum anderen im Zuge des Loveparade-Unglücks am 24.07.2010. Anschließend stellen wir identifizierte Stärken und Schwächen dar und fassen identifizierte Potentiale in einer Klassifikationsmatrix für Social Software im Krisenmanagement zusammen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {141--150},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2011)
    IT-basierte Kooperationsunterstützung im interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement
    In: Michael Koch: Doktoranden-Kolloquium der Tagung Mensch & Computer 2011. .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Die Dezentralität einer Organisation hat maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die Ausgestaltung von Kooperationsprozessen und deren Unterstützung durch IT-basierte Kooperationssysteme. Mein Dissertationsvorhaben untersucht momentane und potentielle Kooperationsprozesse im Spannungsfeld von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen, Organisationen und Bürgern im interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement bei Großschadenslagen. Ziel ist die Beantwortung der Frage, wie IT-basierte Kooperationsunterstützung dezentraler Organisationen am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements erfolgen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_it-basierte_2011,
    title = {{IT}-basierte {Kooperationsunterstützung} im interorganisationalen {Krisenmanagement}},
    abstract = {Die Dezentralität einer Organisation hat maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die Ausgestaltung von Kooperationsprozessen und deren Unterstützung durch IT-basierte Kooperationssysteme. Mein Dissertationsvorhaben untersucht momentane und potentielle Kooperationsprozesse im Spannungsfeld von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen, Organisationen und Bürgern im interorganisationalen Krisenmanagement bei Großschadenslagen. Ziel ist die Beantwortung der Frage, wie IT-basierte Kooperationsunterstützung dezentraler Organisationen am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements erfolgen kann.},
    booktitle = {Doktoranden-{Kolloquium} der {Tagung} {Mensch} \& {Computer} 2011},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Koch, Michael},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2011)
    Motive und Barrieren für Social Software in Organisationen und im Krisenmanagement
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Chemnitz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Es existieren zahlreiche Motive und Barrieren zur Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen und Organisationen. Ein mögliches Anwendungsszenario ist das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen und Bürgern bei Großschadenslagen. In diesem Beitrag werden Motive und Barrieren der Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen herausgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend werden diese auf das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement übertragen und Besonderheiten herausgearbeitet. Ziel ist die Darstellung möglicher Motive zur Nutzung von Social Software in der interorganisationalen Krisenkooperation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_motive_2011,
    address = {Chemnitz, Germany},
    title = {Motive und {Barrieren} für {Social} {Software} in {Organisationen} und im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_Reuter_MotiveBarrierenSocialSoftware_MuC-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {Es existieren zahlreiche Motive und Barrieren zur Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen und Organisationen. Ein mögliches Anwendungsszenario ist das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen und Bürgern bei Großschadenslagen. In diesem Beitrag werden Motive und Barrieren der Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen herausgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend werden diese auf das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement übertragen und Besonderheiten herausgearbeitet. Ziel ist die Darstellung möglicher Motive zur Nutzung von Social Software in der interorganisationalen Krisenkooperation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Universitätsverlag Chemnitz},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Ritter, Marc},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {87--90},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Patrik Pohl, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Umgang mit Terminologien in inter- organisationaler Krisenkooperation – eine explorative Empirie
    Mensch & Computer 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Auswirkungen terminologischer Mehrdeutigkeiten, d.h. unterschiedlicher Begriffs-Verständnisse heterogener Akteursgruppen, auf die Gestaltung organisationsübergreifender Kooperationssysteme herauszustellen. Nach einer Darstellung theoretischer Ansätze des Umgangs mit Terminologien stellen wir unsere explorative empirische Studie, die wir am Beispiel des organisationsübergreifenden Krisenmanagements durchgeführt haben, vor. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere Befunde, leiten Anforderungen ab und schlagen technische Lösungen vor. Auch diskutieren wir Ansätze des Terminologiemanagements bezüglich ihrer Anwendbarkeit und stellen kooperative Ansätze zum Umgang mit Terminologien in interorganisationalen Kooperationssystemen vor.

    @inproceedings{reuter_umgang_2011,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Umgang mit {Terminologien} in inter- organisationaler {Krisenkooperation} - eine explorative {Empirie}},
    isbn = {978-3-486-71235-3},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterPohlPipek_UmgangTerminologienKrisenkooperation_MenschComputer.pdf},
    abstract = {Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Auswirkungen terminologischer Mehrdeutigkeiten, d.h. unterschiedlicher Begriffs-Verständnisse heterogener Akteursgruppen, auf die Gestaltung organisationsübergreifender Kooperationssysteme herauszustellen. Nach einer Darstellung theoretischer Ansätze des Umgangs mit Terminologien stellen wir unsere explorative empirische Studie, die wir am Beispiel des organisationsübergreifenden Krisenmanagements durchgeführt haben, vor. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere Befunde, leiten Anforderungen ab und schlagen technische Lösungen vor. Auch diskutieren wir Ansätze des Terminologiemanagements bezüglich ihrer Anwendbarkeit und stellen kooperative Ansätze zum Umgang mit Terminologien in interorganisationalen Kooperationssystemen vor.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pohl, Patrik and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {171--180},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Social Software as an Infrastructure for Crisis Management – a Case Study about Current Practice and Potential Usage
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Lisbon, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper we will be discussing how the (semi-)professional actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, etc.) and the affected citizens can communicate and collaborate by the use of social software. After the definition of the term ‘social software‘ we will provide the state-of-the-art on current social software use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we examined the social software use in 2010: First during the disruption of air travel due to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, second during the crisis at a stampede at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. We identified weak points and further potentials and tested the validity of the American case study findings from literature for Europe. We will conclude with a concept for using citizens in inter-organizational crisis management with a social software infrastructure and a communication matrix for crisis management.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2011,
    address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
    title = {Social {Software} as an {Infrastructure} for {Crisis} {Management} – a {Case} {Study} about {Current} {Practice} and {Potential} {Usage}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterMarxPipek_SocialSoftwareInfrastructure_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In this paper we will be discussing how the (semi-)professional actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, etc.) and the affected citizens can communicate and collaborate by the use of social software. After the definition of the term ‘social software' we will provide the state-of-the-art on current social software use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we examined the social software use in 2010: First during the disruption of air travel due to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, second during the crisis at a stampede at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. We identified weak points and further potentials and tested the validity of the American case study findings from literature for Europe. We will conclude with a concept for using citizens in inter-organizational crisis management with a social software infrastructure and a communication matrix for crisis management.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Torben Wiedenhoefer, Christian Reuter, Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Inter-organizational crisis management infrastructures for electrical power breakdowns
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Lisbon, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Major electricity breakdowns like the Northeast Blackout (USA) in 2003 or the blackout in most parts of Western Europe in 2005, have shown the fundamental role of electricity in our everyday life. The experiences of these accidents show that power suppliers, firefighters, police, county administration and citizens face multifarious challenges in inter-organizational communication, information and coordination processes during coping and recovery work. In this work-in-progress paper we describe early research dealing with inter-organizational issues in emergency management (EM). We are mainly focusing on supporting social practices in inter-organizational EM, for example collaborative interpretation of emergency situations, ad-hoc coordination or supporting citizen communication and helping routines. Identified from our experiences from related projects, discussions and literature studies, we suggest potential questions and future topics in user-driven software engineering processes for EM and domain specific problems, such as supporting citizen participation, coping with information uncertainties and quality variations or enhancing inter-organizational learning.

    @inproceedings{wiedenhoefer_inter-organizational_2011,
    address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
    title = {Inter-organizational crisis management infrastructures for electrical power breakdowns},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_WiedenhoeferReuterLeyPipek_CrisisManagementInfrastructures_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Major electricity breakdowns like the Northeast Blackout (USA) in 2003 or the blackout in most parts of Western Europe in 2005, have shown the fundamental role of electricity in our everyday life. The experiences of these accidents show that power suppliers, firefighters, police, county administration and citizens face multifarious challenges in inter-organizational communication, information and coordination processes during coping and recovery work. In this work-in-progress paper we describe early research dealing with inter-organizational issues in emergency management (EM). We are mainly focusing on supporting social practices in inter-organizational EM, for example collaborative interpretation of emergency situations, ad-hoc coordination or supporting citizen communication and helping routines. Identified from our experiences from related projects, discussions and literature studies, we suggest potential questions and future topics in user-driven software engineering processes for EM and domain specific problems, such as supporting citizen participation, coping with information uncertainties and quality variations or enhancing inter-organizational learning.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Reuter, Christian and Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

    2010

  • Norbert Balduin, Georg Becker, Jürgen Brand, Michael Görgen, Mario Hannappel, Patrick Hasenfuß, Benedikt Ley, Volkmar Pipek, Florian Probst, Christian Reuter, Thomas Rose, Gebhard Rusch, Torben Wiedenhoefer, Andreas Zinnen (2010)
    InfoStrom: Learning information infrastructures for crisis management in case of medium to large electrical power breakdowns.
    Future Security – Proceedings of the Security Research Conference Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    One of the most important infrastructures in modern industrialized societies is the electricity network. Due to its fundamental role for many aspects of our everyday life, power infrastructures manifest a strong dependence between power suppliers and customers. Customers take the infrastructure for granted; it appears mostly invisible to them as long as it works, but in the case of breakdowns in power supply customers become aware of the dependence on electricity. They join professional actors in the recovery and coping work with regard to the electricity breakdown: Maintenance workers of the power provider, police, firefighters, red cross, etc. These institutions are professionalized for dealing with such situations, but the people affected by a power outage also need to be considered as actors.

    @inproceedings{balduin_infostrom_2010,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {{InfoStrom}: {Learning} information infrastructures for crisis management in case of medium to large electrical power breakdowns.},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2010/2010_Balduinetal_LearningInfrastructuresCrisisManagement_FutureSecurity.pdf},
    abstract = {One of the most important infrastructures in modern industrialized societies is the electricity network. Due to its fundamental role for many aspects of our everyday life, power infrastructures manifest a strong dependence between power suppliers and customers. Customers take the infrastructure for granted; it appears mostly invisible to them as long as it works, but in the case of breakdowns in power supply customers become aware of the dependence on electricity. They join professional actors in the recovery and coping work with regard to the electricity breakdown: Maintenance workers of the power provider, police, firefighters, red cross, etc. These institutions are professionalized for dealing with such situations, but the people affected by a power outage also need to be considered as actors.},
    booktitle = {Future {Security} - {Proceedings} of the {Security} {Research} {Conference}},
    publisher = {Fraunhofer VVS},
    author = {Balduin, Norbert and Becker, Georg and Brand, Jürgen and Görgen, Michael and Hannappel, Mario and Hasenfuß, Patrick and Ley, Benedikt and Pipek, Volkmar and Probst, Florian and Reuter, Christian and Rose, Thomas and Rusch, Gebhard and Wiedenhoefer, Torben and Zinnen, Andreas},
    year = {2010},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE},
    }

  • Claudia Mueller, Volkmar Pipek, Christian Reuter (2010)
    Globale Infrastruktur – lokales Arbeiten: Praxis IT-gestützter Wartung bei einem Energieversorger
    Mensch & Computer 2010: Interaktive Kulturen Duisburg, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Lokale Praxis und globale Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik (IT) gehen immer dann eine sichtbare Verbindung ein, wenn IT eingesetzt wird, um Echtzeit-Informationen an einen anderen Ort zu übertragen, so wie dies z.B. durch Mobiltelefone/ MMS, ferngesteuerte Sensoren oder Live-Webcams geschieht. Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine Feldstudie zu IT-unterstützter Wartungsarbeit innerhalb der Infrastruktur eines Energieversorgers. Die Studie möchte insbesondere die Relationen zwischen lokalen Praxen und der Gestaltung einer IT-Infrastruktur als „Location Based System“ hervorheben, die nicht auf den ersten Blick sichtbar sind. Besonders richten wir den Blick sowohl auf „das Globale“ als auch auf „das Lokale“ von Strom- und IT-Infrastruktur. Wir orientieren uns am Infrastruktur-Konzept von Star & Ruhleder (1996) für eine Beschreibung und Analyse zweier unterschiedlicher Wartungsteams vor dem Hintergrund sozio-räumlicher sowie sozio-technischer Aspekte der Energieversorgungsinfrastruktur, der Informations- und Kommunikations-Infrastruktur und der jeweilig resultierenden Arbeitspraxis und diskutieren Konsequenzen für eine infrastrukturorientierte Technikgestaltung.

    @inproceedings{mueller_globale_2010,
    address = {Duisburg, Germany},
    title = {Globale {Infrastruktur} - lokales {Arbeiten}: {Praxis} {IT}-gestützter {Wartung} bei einem {Energieversorger}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2010/2010_MuellerPipekReuter_GlobaleInfrastruktur-ITWartungEnergieversorger_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Lokale Praxis und globale Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik (IT) gehen immer dann eine sichtbare Verbindung ein, wenn IT eingesetzt wird, um Echtzeit-Informationen an einen anderen Ort zu übertragen, so wie dies z.B. durch Mobiltelefone/ MMS, ferngesteuerte Sensoren oder Live-Webcams geschieht. Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine Feldstudie zu IT-unterstützter Wartungsarbeit innerhalb der Infrastruktur eines Energieversorgers. Die Studie möchte insbesondere die Relationen zwischen lokalen Praxen und der Gestaltung einer IT-Infrastruktur als „Location Based System“ hervorheben, die nicht auf den ersten Blick sichtbar sind. Besonders richten wir den Blick sowohl auf „das Globale“ als auch auf „das Lokale“ von Strom- und IT-Infrastruktur. Wir orientieren uns am Infrastruktur-Konzept von Star \& Ruhleder (1996) für eine Beschreibung und Analyse zweier unterschiedlicher Wartungsteams vor dem Hintergrund sozio-räumlicher sowie sozio-technischer Aspekte der Energieversorgungsinfrastruktur, der Informations- und Kommunikations-Infrastruktur und der jeweilig resultierenden Arbeitspraxis und diskutieren Konsequenzen für eine infrastrukturorientierte Technikgestaltung.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2010: {Interaktive} {Kulturen}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Mueller, Claudia and Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ziegler, Jürgen and Schmidt, Albrecht},
    year = {2010},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, Projekt-InfoStrom, Cooperation, Projekt-RSBE, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {37--46},
    }

    2009

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2009)
    Krisenkommunikation trainieren: Ein webgestützter Ansatz
    Mensch & Computer 2009: Grenzenlos frei? Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Krisenmanagement fordert neben strategischer und organisationaler Vorbereitung auf die Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit, auch Fähigkeiten, mit unvorhersehbaren Ereignissen und anderen Stakeholdern, die in die gleiche Krise involviert sind, umzugehen. Hier kann man sich nicht ausschließlich auf etablierte Informationsflüsse und Verhaltensmuster verlassen, sondern muss sich auch spontan-situativen Einflüssen stellen. Die für die Kommunikationsarbeit in und zwischen den involvierten Organisationen notwendigen Fähigkeiten müssen trainiert werden. Wir beschreiben die aktuelle Praxis des Krisenkommunikations-Trainings eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (EVU) sowie den Prototypen zu dessen Unterstützung, den wir entwickelt, implementiert und evaluiert haben. Unser Trainingswerkzeug zielt nicht nur auf die lokale Praxis, sondern auch interorganisationale Trainings, was die Verbesserung eines gemeinsamen Verständnisses sowie der Informationsbedarfe anderer beinhaltet.

    @inproceedings{reuter_krisenkommunikation_2009,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Krisenkommunikation trainieren: {Ein} webgestützter {Ansatz}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_ReuterPipek_KrisenkommunikationTrainieren_MenschComputer.pdf},
    abstract = {Krisenmanagement fordert neben strategischer und organisationaler Vorbereitung auf die Bewältigungs- und Wiederherstellungsarbeit, auch Fähigkeiten, mit unvorhersehbaren Ereignissen und anderen Stakeholdern, die in die gleiche Krise involviert sind, umzugehen. Hier kann man sich nicht ausschließlich auf etablierte Informationsflüsse und Verhaltensmuster verlassen, sondern muss sich auch spontan-situativen Einflüssen stellen. Die für die Kommunikationsarbeit in und zwischen den involvierten Organisationen notwendigen Fähigkeiten müssen trainiert werden. Wir beschreiben die aktuelle Praxis des Krisenkommunikations-Trainings eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (EVU) sowie den Prototypen zu dessen Unterstützung, den wir entwickelt, implementiert und evaluiert haben. Unser Trainingswerkzeug zielt nicht nur auf die lokale Praxis, sondern auch interorganisationale Trainings, was die Verbesserung eines gemeinsamen Verständnisses sowie der Informationsbedarfe anderer beinhaltet.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2009: {Grenzenlos} frei?},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Wandke, Hartmut and Kain, Saskia and Struve, Doreen},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {93--102},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2009)
    Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Web 2.0 Anwendungen haben in einigen Anwendungsfeldern zur Unterstützung von Kommunikation und Zusammenarbeit in Unternehmen Einzug gehalten. Dieser Beitrag stellt auch mithilfe von Beispielen dar, warum Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur (KII) betrachtet werden kann. Es wird gezeigt, dass das „kritisch“ im Bezug auf die „Infrastruktur“ Fallbezogen verschieden gedeutet werden kann: zum einen kann deren Ausfall betriebliche Prozesse lähmen, zum anderen kann durch dessen Verfügbarkeit eine explizite und ungewünschte Darstellung kritischer Sachverhalte erfolgen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2009,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Software} als kritische {Informations}-{Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_Reuter_SocialSoftwarealsKritischeInfrastruktur_MenschComputer-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {Web 2.0 Anwendungen haben in einigen Anwendungsfeldern zur Unterstützung von Kommunikation und Zusammenarbeit in Unternehmen Einzug gehalten. Dieser Beitrag stellt auch mithilfe von Beispielen dar, warum Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur (KII) betrachtet werden kann. Es wird gezeigt, dass das „kritisch“ im Bezug auf die „Infrastruktur“ Fallbezogen verschieden gedeutet werden kann: zum einen kann deren Ausfall betriebliche Prozesse lähmen, zum anderen kann durch dessen Verfügbarkeit eine explizite und ungewünschte Darstellung kritischer Sachverhalte erfolgen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Logos-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Kain, Saskia and Struve, Doreen and Wandke, Hartmut},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {140--144},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Claudia Mueller (2009)
    Avoiding crisis in communication: a computer-supported training approach for emergency management
    International Journal of Emergency Management (IJEM) ;6(3-4):356–368.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis management requires stakeholders not only to show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g., by systematising and professionalising coping with work), but also to develop skills in dealing with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but also be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German Electricity Provider (GEP) and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but also interorganisational training that will allow improving the mutual understanding of communication practices and meeting the information needs of other stakeholders.

    @article{reuter_avoiding_2009,
    title = {Avoiding crisis in communication: a computer-supported training approach for emergency management},
    volume = {6},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_ReuterPipekMueller_AvoidingCrisisinCommunication_IJEM.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis management requires stakeholders not only to show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g., by systematising and professionalising coping with work), but also to develop skills in dealing with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but also be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German Electricity Provider (GEP) and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but also interorganisational training that will allow improving the mutual understanding of communication practices and meeting the information needs of other stakeholders.},
    number = {3-4},
    journal = {International Journal of Emergency Management (IJEM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Mueller, Claudia},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {356--368},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek, Claudia Mueller (2009)
    Computer Supported Collaborative Training in Crisis Communication Management
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Gothenburg, Sweden.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis management requires stakeholders to not only show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g. by systematising and professionalizing coping work), but also to develop skills to deal with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but should be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German electricity provider and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but aims at inter-organisational trainings that would also allow improving the mutual understanding for communication practices and information needs of other stakeholders.

    @inproceedings{reuter_computer_2009,
    address = {Gothenburg, Sweden},
    title = {Computer {Supported} {Collaborative} {Training} in {Crisis} {Communication} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_ReuterPipekMueller_ComputerSupportedCollaborativeTraining_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis management requires stakeholders to not only show strategic, organisational preparedness for crisis events (e.g. by systematising and professionalizing coping work), but also to develop skills to deal with unanticipated events and other stakeholders involved in the same crisis. They should not only rely on established information flows and behaviour patterns, but should be able to deal with situational aspects. This usually involves communication work within and between organisations involved in crisis management. We describe the practice of the crisis communication training of a German electricity provider and the prototype we developed, implemented and evaluated. The collaborative training tool targets not only the local practice, but aims at inter-organisational trainings that would also allow improving the mutual understanding for communication practices and information needs of other stakeholders.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar and Mueller, Claudia},
    editor = {Landgren, Jonas and Jul, S},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-RWE},
    }

    2008

  • Christian Reuter, Christopher Georg (2008)
    Entwicklung eines webbasierten Dokumentenmanagement-Systems für eine Fluggesellschaft
    Journal WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK ;50(2):142–145. doi:10.1365/s11576-008-0026-0
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_entwicklung_2008,
    title = {Entwicklung eines webbasierten {Dokumentenmanagement}-{Systems} für eine {Fluggesellschaft}},
    volume = {50},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2008/2008_ReuterGeorg_EntwicklungWebbasiertesDMSFluggesellschaft_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1365/s11576-008-0026-0},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Journal WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Georg, Christopher},
    year = {2008},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {142--145},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2008)
    Computerunterstütztes kollaboratives Training im Krisenkommunikations-Management am Beispiel eines Energieversorgungsunternehmens (Diplomarbeit)
    Siegen: .
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_computerunterstutztes_2008,
    address = {Siegen},
    title = {Computerunterstütztes kollaboratives {Training} im {Krisenkommunikations}-{Management} am {Beispiel} eines {Energieversorgungsunternehmens} ({Diplomarbeit})},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2008},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Cooperation, Projekt-RWE},
    }

    nach Typ

    Begutachtete Zeitschriften / Peer-reviewed Journals

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nudging Users Towards Better Security Decisions in Password Creation Using Whitebox-based Multidimensional Visualizations
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) . doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users‘ perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.

    @article{hartwig_nudging_2021,
    title = {Nudging {Users} {Towards} {Better} {Security} {Decisions} in {Password} {Creation} {Using} {Whitebox}-based {Multidimensional} {Visualizations}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_WhiteboxMultidimensionalNudges_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167},
    abstract = {Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users' perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Transparenz im technischen Umgang mit Fake News
    Zeitschrift Technik & Mensch .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].

    @article{hartwig_transparenz_2021,
    title = {Transparenz im technischen {Umgang} mit {Fake} {News}},
    abstract = {In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].},
    journal = {Zeitschrift Technik \& Mensch},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Sohaib S. Hassan, Christian Reuter, Levan Bzhalava (2020)
    Perception or capability? – An empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in German SMEs
    International Journal of Innovation Management ;2150002:1–26. doi:10.1142/S136391962150002X
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and public cloud computing (SM&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker’s perception-related and SME’s capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.

    @article{s_hassan_perception_2020,
    title = {Perception or capability? – {An} empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in {German} {SMEs}},
    volume = {2150002},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HassanReuterBzhalava_AdoptionSocialMediaSME_IJIM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S136391962150002X},
    abstract = {Social media and public cloud computing (SM\&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM\&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM\&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker's perception-related and SME's capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM\&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM\&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.},
    journal = {International Journal of Innovation Management},
    author = {S. Hassan, Sohaib and Reuter, Christian and Bzhalava, Levan},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Editorial: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural-Science/Technical Peace Research
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):III–IV. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2020,
    title = {Editorial: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural}-{Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterAltmannGoettscheHimmel_Editorial_NaturalScienceTechnicalPeaceResarch_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I},
    abstract = {This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY '19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace},
    pages = {III--IV},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://www.fiff.de/publikationen/fiff-kommunikation/fk-2020/fk-2020-1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on hand