Stefka Schmid, M.A.

Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin / Doktorandin

Kontakt: +49 (0) 6151 / 1620946 | schmid(at)peasec.tu-darmstadt.de

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachbereich Informatik, Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt, Raum 116

DE

Stefka Schmid ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) am Fachbereich Informatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Ihre Forschungsinteressen sind Innovationspolitiken als Gegenstand kritischer Sicherheitsstudien, die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedens- und Konfliktforschung sowie Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in Krisenszenarien. In ihrer Promotion setzt sie sich mit der Nutzung von Technologien seitens kollektiver Akteure im Kontext globaler Sicherheitspolitiken auseinander.
Sie studierte Politische Wissenschaft und Anglistik an der Universität Heidelberg (B.A.) und Internationale Studien/Friedens- und Konfliktforschung an der TU Darmstadt und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt sowie der Aberystwyth University (M.A.). Neben dem Studium arbeitete sie als studentische Hilfskraft sowie Tutorin am Lehrstuhl für Internationale Beziehungen, Moderne Politische Theorie und bei PEASEC. In ihrer Masterarbeit analysierte sie die Diffusion von Künstlicher Intelligenz in zivilen und rüstungsindustriellen Wissensnetzwerken in der EU.

EN

Stefka Schmid is a research associate at the Chair of Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) at the Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt. Her research interests include innovation policies as a subject of critical security studies, science and technology in peace and conflict research, and human-computer interaction in crisis scenarios. Her doctoral research focuses on the use of technology by collective actors in the context of global security politics.
She studied Political Science and English at the University of Heidelberg (B.A.) and International Studies/Peace and Conflict Research at the TU Darmstadt and Goethe University Frankfurt as well as Aberystwyth University (M.A.). Besides her studies, she worked as a student assistant as well as a tutor at the Chair of International Relations, Modern Political Theory and at PEASEC. In her master thesis, she analyzed the diffusion of Artificial Intelligence in civilian and defense industrial knowledge networks in the EU.

Publikationen

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Creative Uses of Technology: Dual Use Governance, Assessment and Design
    In: Amy Hagopian, Marion Birch: Conflict & Health Handbook. De Gruyter.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{riebe_creative_2024,
    title = {Creative {Uses} of {Technology}: {Dual} {Use} {Governance}, {Assessment} and {Design}},
    booktitle = {Conflict \& {Health} {Handbook}},
    publisher = {De Gruyter},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Hagopian, Amy and Birch, Marion},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Thomas Reinhold, Stefka Schmid (2024)
    Interdisciplinary Teaching Experiences in Peace Informatics
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{reuter_interdisciplinary_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Interdisciplinary {Teaching} {Experiences} in {Peace} {Informatics}},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reinhold, Thomas and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, Peace, Infrastructure},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Dual-Use Technology: Research, Development and Governance of Security-relevant IT
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{riebe_dual-use_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Dual-{Use} {Technology}: {Research}, {Development} and {Governance} of {Security}-relevant {IT}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Laura Guntrum, Steffen Haesler, Lisa Schultheiß, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Digital Volunteers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Care Work on Social Media for Socio-technical Resilience
    Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society ;3(1). doi:10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.

    @article{schmid_digital_2023,
    title = {Digital {Volunteers} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}: {Care} {Work} on {Social} {Media} for {Socio}-technical {Resilience}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2748-5625},
    url = {https://ojs.weizenbaum-institut.de/index.php/wjds/article/view/78},
    doi = {10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6},
    abstract = {Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Guntrum, Laura and Haesler, Steffen and Schultheiß, Lisa and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Anja-Liisa Gonsior, Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Friedensinformatik: heute und morgen
    FIfF-Kommunikation: Zeitschrift für Informatik und Gesellschaft ;2023(4):34–37.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{gonsior_friedensinformatik_2023,
    title = {Friedensinformatik: heute und morgen},
    volume = {2023},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_GonsiorRiebeSchmidReinholdReuter_FriedensinformatikHeuteMorgen_WundF.pdf},
    number = {4},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation: Zeitschrift für Informatik und Gesellschaft},
    author = {Gonsior, Anja-Liisa and Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace},
    pages = {34--37},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid (2023)
    Safe and Secure? Visions of Military Human-Computer Interaction
    Mensch und Computer 2023 – Workshopband Rapperswil, Switzerland. doi:10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-365
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Safety-critical human-computer interaction has focused on technology use in life-critical situations, including military operations. Due to the practical relevance of HCI and disciplinary debates about human-centered design, this literature review studies HCI scholarships’ visions of military human-computer interaction. Through text analysis and categorization of publications, it is found that interaction is envisioned to take place in the context of both missionoriented operational (e.g., target detection) as well as organizational tasks (e.g., military training). While artificial intelligence, virtual/augmented reality, and robots are most frequently defined as technological environments, goals, such as situation awareness, enjoyment, and trust are predominantly associated with them. Considering scholarly references to application contexts and different factors of the context of use allows to systematically approach how military human-computer interaction is imagined. Offering insight into research trends in HCI, this first overview of research endeavors also contributes to interdisciplinary debates, such as Security Studies and technology assessment.

    @inproceedings{schmid_safe_2023,
    address = {Rapperswil, Switzerland},
    title = {Safe and {Secure}? {Visions} of {Military} {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/items/841cc5bd-8e25-40de-804f-8fb4fedddf11},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-365},
    abstract = {Safety-critical human-computer interaction has focused on technology use in life-critical situations, including military operations. Due to the practical relevance of HCI and disciplinary debates about human-centered design, this literature review studies HCI scholarships’ visions of military human-computer interaction. Through text analysis and categorization of publications, it is found that interaction is envisioned to take place in the context of both missionoriented operational (e.g., target detection) as well as organizational tasks (e.g., military training). While artificial intelligence, virtual/augmented reality, and robots are most frequently defined as technological environments, goals, such as situation awareness, enjoyment, and trust are predominantly associated with them. Considering scholarly references to application contexts and different factors of the context of use allows to systematically approach how military human-computer interaction is imagined. Offering insight into research trends in HCI, this first overview of research endeavors also contributes to interdisciplinary debates, such as Security Studies and technology assessment.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2023 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Thomas Reinhold, Stefka Schmid (2022)
    Zur Schnittmenge von Informatik mit Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung: Erfahrungen aus der interdisziplinären Lehre in der Friedensinformatik
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;11(2):129–140. doi:10.1007/s42597-022-00078-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Lehre zwischen Informatik sowie Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung ist vor dem Hintergrund, dass Konflikte im Cyberspace nicht mehr eine in der Zukunft liegende Fiktion, sondern eine realitätsnahe Möglichkeit darstellen, unabdingbar. Auch wenn zahlreiche etablierte Lehrveranstaltungen und Lehrbücher in der einen oder anderen Disziplin existieren, gilt dies nicht für deren Schnittmenge. Dieser Beitrag reflektiert die Einführung der in Bezug auf Thematik und Hörer*innenschaft interdisziplinären Lehrveranstaltung „Informationstechnologie für Frieden und Sicherheit“ für Studierende der Informatik, IT-Sicherheit und Wirtschaftsinformatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt, sowie Friedens- und Konfliktforschung der TU Darmstadt in Kooperation mit der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Hierbei werden Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze der interdisziplinären Lehre dargestellt und die Bedeutung dieser Lehre hervorgehoben.

    @article{reuter_zur_2022,
    title = {Zur {Schnittmenge} von {Informatik} mit {Friedens}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}: {Erfahrungen} aus der interdisziplinären {Lehre} in der {Friedensinformatik}},
    volume = {11},
    issn = {2524-6976},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-022-00078-4.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-022-00078-4},
    abstract = {Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Lehre zwischen Informatik sowie Friedens- und Sicherheitsforschung ist vor dem Hintergrund, dass Konflikte im Cyberspace nicht mehr eine in der Zukunft liegende Fiktion, sondern eine realitätsnahe Möglichkeit darstellen, unabdingbar. Auch wenn zahlreiche etablierte Lehrveranstaltungen und Lehrbücher in der einen oder anderen Disziplin existieren, gilt dies nicht für deren Schnittmenge. Dieser Beitrag reflektiert die Einführung der in Bezug auf Thematik und Hörer*innenschaft interdisziplinären Lehrveranstaltung „Informationstechnologie für Frieden und Sicherheit“ für Studierende der Informatik, IT-Sicherheit und Wirtschaftsinformatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt, sowie Friedens- und Konfliktforschung der TU Darmstadt in Kooperation mit der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt. Hierbei werden Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze der interdisziplinären Lehre dargestellt und die Bedeutung dieser Lehre hervorgehoben.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reinhold, Thomas and Schmid, Stefka},
    month = oct,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    pages = {129--140},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Dual-Use and Trustworthy? A Mixed Methods Analysis of AI Diffusion between Civilian and Defense R&D
    Science and Engineering Ethics ;28(12):1–23. doi:10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R&D.

    @article{schmid_dual-use_2022,
    title = {Dual-{Use} and {Trustworthy}? {A} {Mixed} {Methods} {Analysis} of {AI} {Diffusion} between {Civilian} and {Defense} {R}\&{D}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchmidRiebeReuter_DualUseandTrustworthy_ScienceEngineeringEthics.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7},
    abstract = {Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R\&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R\&D.},
    number = {12},
    journal = {Science and Engineering Ethics},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {1--23},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Katrin Hartwig, Robert Cieslinski, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Digital Resilience in Dealing with Misinformation on Social Media during COVID-19: A Web Application to Assist Users in Crises
    Information Systems Frontiers (ISF) . doi:10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to support users when dealing with social media content. Considering digital resilience, we propose a web app based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) to provide an overview of potentially misleading vs. non-misleading content on Twitter, which can be explored by users and enable foundational learning. The latter aims at systematically identifying thematic patterns which may be associated with misleading information. Additionally, it entails reflecting on indicators of misleading tweets which are proposed to approach classification of tweets. Paying special attention to non-expert users of social media, we conducted a two-step Think Aloud study for evaluation. While participants valued the opportunity to generate new knowledge and the diversity of the application, qualities such as equality and rapidity may be further improved. However, learning effects outweighed individual costs as all users were able to shift focus onto relevant features, such as hashtags, while readily pointing out content characteristics. Our design artifact connects to learning-oriented interventions regarding the spread of misleading information and tackles information overload by a SNA-based plug-in.

    @article{schmid_digital_2022,
    title = {Digital {Resilience} in {Dealing} with {Misinformation} on {Social} {Media} during {COVID}-19: {A} {Web} {Application} to {Assist} {Users} in {Crises}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5},
    doi = {10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5},
    abstract = {In crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to support users when dealing with social media content. Considering digital resilience, we propose a web app based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) to provide an overview of potentially misleading vs. non-misleading content on Twitter, which can be explored by users and enable foundational learning. The latter aims at systematically identifying thematic patterns which may be associated with misleading information. Additionally, it entails reflecting on indicators of misleading tweets which are proposed to approach classification of tweets. Paying special attention to non-expert users of social media, we conducted a two-step Think Aloud study for evaluation. While participants valued the opportunity to generate new knowledge and the diversity of the application, qualities such as equality and rapidity may be further improved. However, learning effects outweighed individual costs as all users were able to shift focus onto relevant features, such as hashtags, while readily pointing out content characteristics. Our design artifact connects to learning-oriented interventions regarding the spread of misleading information and tackles information overload by a SNA-based plug-in.},
    journal = {Information Systems Frontiers (ISF)},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Hartwig, Katrin and Cieslinski, Robert and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, A-Paper, Projekt-TraCe, Projekt-NEBULA},
    }

  • Oliver Meier, Michael Brzoska, Anna-Katharina Ferl, Sascha Hach, Markus Bayer (2), Max Mutschler, Berenike Prem, Thomas Reinhold, Stefka Schmid, Matthias Schwarz (2022)
    Für eine umfassende, globale und aktive Abrüstungs- und Rüstungskontrollpolitik
    2022.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Eine vorausschauende und global ausgerichtete deutsche Rüstungskontrollpolitik hat enorme sicherheitspolitische Potenziale. Denn: Eine aktive Rüstungskontrollpolitik Deutschlands kann helfen, die Gefahren der weltweiten Aufrüstung und regionaler Rüstungs- und Eskalationsdynamiken zu mindern. Rüstungskontrollpolitische Instrumente müssen jede Vereinbarung über das Ende des Kriegs gegen die Ukraine stützen. Vereinbarungen über die Nichtverbreitung von Massenvernichtungswaffen bestimmen Regeln, die den militärischen Missbrauch von dual use-Technologien verhindern können. Abrüstung und Rüstungskontrolle mindern schon jetzt menschliches Leid in anderen Weltregionen. Abrüstung kann dazu beitragen, das vorherrschende und im Krieg gegen die Ukraine zunehmend unberechenbare Abschreckungsparadigma zu überwinden. Eine engagierte Rüstungskontrollpolitik fügt sich dann in die feministische Außenpolitik der Bundesregierung, wenn sie partizipativ und restriktiv angelegt ist und negative Folgen von Aufrüstung und Krieg besonders für Frauen und marginalisierte Gruppen reduziert. Um diese sicherheitspolitischen Potenziale auszuschöpfen, sollte die Nationale Sicherheitsstrategie Eckpunkte einer eigenständigen deutschen Rüstungskontrollpolitik beschreiben. Drei Prinzipien können eine solche Politik anleiten.

    @techreport{meier_fur_2022,
    title = {Für eine umfassende, globale und aktive {Abrüstungs}- und {Rüstungskontrollpolitik}},
    url = {https://fourninesecurity.de/2022/11/10/fuer-eine-umfassende-globale-und-aktive-abruestungs-und-ruestungskontrollpolitik},
    abstract = {Eine vorausschauende und global ausgerichtete deutsche Rüstungskontrollpolitik hat enorme sicherheitspolitische Potenziale. Denn: Eine aktive Rüstungskontrollpolitik Deutschlands kann helfen, die Gefahren der weltweiten Aufrüstung und regionaler Rüstungs- und Eskalationsdynamiken zu mindern. Rüstungskontrollpolitische Instrumente müssen jede Vereinbarung über das Ende des Kriegs gegen die Ukraine stützen. Vereinbarungen über die Nichtverbreitung von Massenvernichtungswaffen bestimmen Regeln, die den militärischen Missbrauch von dual use-Technologien verhindern können. Abrüstung und Rüstungskontrolle mindern schon jetzt menschliches Leid in anderen Weltregionen. Abrüstung kann dazu beitragen, das vorherrschende und im Krieg gegen die Ukraine zunehmend unberechenbare Abschreckungsparadigma zu überwinden. Eine engagierte Rüstungskontrollpolitik fügt sich dann in die feministische Außenpolitik der Bundesregierung, wenn sie partizipativ und restriktiv angelegt ist und negative Folgen von Aufrüstung und Krieg besonders für Frauen und marginalisierte Gruppen reduziert.
    Um diese sicherheitspolitischen Potenziale auszuschöpfen, sollte die Nationale Sicherheitsstrategie Eckpunkte einer eigenständigen deutschen Rüstungskontrollpolitik beschreiben. Drei Prinzipien können eine solche Politik anleiten.},
    language = {de},
    author = {Meier, Oliver and Brzoska, Michael and Ferl, Anna-Katharina and Hach, Sascha and Bayer (2), Markus and Mutschler, Max and Prem, Berenike and Reinhold, Thomas and Schmid, Stefka and Schwarz, Matthias},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid (2022)
    Trustworthy and Explainable: A European Vision of (Weaponised) Artificial Intelligence
    Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO) ;95(3-4):290–315. doi:10.35998/fw-2022-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The European Union (EU) has undertaken policies which address the research and development of artificial intelligence (AI). In light of debates of technology assessment which focus on risks for humans and questions of control of AI, the EU has propagated an ethical, human-centred approach of the application of AI. It is important to identify how the EU envisions AI as this may guide emerging norms in AI governance and today’s research and development of (weaponised) AI. Building on works of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), this work derives the actor’s understanding of human-AI interaction, including conceptualisations of explainability, interpretability, and risks. Analysis of EU documents on the implementation of AI as a general-purpose technology and for military application reveals that explainability and risk identification are crucial elements for trust, which itself is a necessary component in the uptake of AI. Interdisciplinary approaches allow for a more detailed understanding of actors’ fundamental views on human control of AI, which further contributes to debates on technology assessment in professionalised political contexts.

    @article{schmid_trustworthy_2022,
    title = {Trustworthy and {Explainable}: {A} {European} {Vision} of ({Weaponised}) {Artificial} {Intelligence}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://elibrary.bwv-verlag.de/article/10.35998/fw-2022-0013},
    doi = {10.35998/fw-2022-0013},
    abstract = {The European Union (EU) has undertaken policies which address the research and development of artificial intelligence (AI). In light of debates of technology assessment which focus on risks for humans and questions of control of AI, the EU has propagated an ethical, human-centred approach of the application of AI. It is important to identify how the EU envisions AI as this may guide emerging norms in AI governance and today’s research and development of (weaponised) AI. Building on works of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), this work derives the actor’s understanding of human-AI interaction, including conceptualisations of explainability, interpretability, and risks. Analysis of EU documents on the implementation of AI as a general-purpose technology and for military application reveals that explainability and risk identification are crucial elements for trust, which itself is a necessary component in the uptake of AI. Interdisciplinary approaches allow for a more detailed understanding of actors’ fundamental views on human control of AI, which further contributes to debates on technology assessment in professionalised political contexts.},
    number = {3-4},
    journal = {Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO)},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {290--315},
    }

  • Maike Wäscher, Siemer Denise, Stefka Schmid, Julia Karl (2021)
    Polizei, Protest und Pandemie in Frankfurt am Main
    In: Redaktion Corona-Monitor: Corona und Gesellschaft: Soziale Kämpfe in der Pandemie. Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag, , 165–186.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Unser Beitrag beleuchtet das Polizieren von Protesten seit Beginn der COVID-19-Pandemie in Frankfurt am Main. Aus der Perspektive materialistischer Staatskritik argumentieren wir erstens, dass die Auflösung der Seebrücken-Demonstration durch die Frankfurter Polizei im April 2020 als ein kurzes Aufblitzen und Einüben des Ausnahmestaats im Normalstaat zu verstehen ist, bei dem die Polizei ihren erweiterten Ermessenspielraum ausreizte. Zweitens ließ sich in den darauffolgenden Wochen beobachten, dass die rechten sogenannten „Hygienedemos“ weniger repressiv als progressive Versammlungen poliziert wurden. Dies führen wir auf die extremismusideologische behördliche Deutung der Proteste zurück, die nicht nur blind ist für Autoritarismus durch Staatsapparate, sondern damit einhergehend systematisch die extreme Rechte verharmlost.

    @incollection{wascher_polizei_2021,
    address = {Wien},
    title = {Polizei, {Protest} und {Pandemie} in {Frankfurt} am {Main}},
    isbn = {978-3-85476-911-8},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_WäscherSiemerSchmidKarl_PolizeiProtestPandemieFrankfurt_CoronaGesellschaft_Mandelbaum.pdf},
    abstract = {Unser Beitrag beleuchtet das Polizieren von Protesten seit Beginn der COVID-19-Pandemie in Frankfurt am Main. Aus der Perspektive materialistischer Staatskritik argumentieren wir erstens, dass die Auflösung der Seebrücken-Demonstration durch die Frankfurter Polizei im April 2020 als ein kurzes Aufblitzen und Einüben des Ausnahmestaats im Normalstaat zu verstehen ist, bei dem die Polizei ihren erweiterten Ermessenspielraum ausreizte. Zweitens ließ sich in den darauffolgenden Wochen beobachten, dass die rechten sogenannten „Hygienedemos“ weniger repressiv als progressive Versammlungen poliziert wurden. Dies führen wir auf die extremismusideologische behördliche Deutung der Proteste zurück, die nicht nur blind ist für Autoritarismus durch Staatsapparate, sondern damit einhergehend systematisch die extreme Rechte verharmlost.},
    booktitle = {Corona und {Gesellschaft}: {Soziale} {Kämpfe} in der {Pandemie}},
    publisher = {Mandelbaum Verlag},
    author = {Wäscher, Maike and Siemer, Denise, and Schmid, Stefka and Karl, Julia},
    editor = {Redaktion Corona-Monitor},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    pages = {165--186},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics ;32(7):773–785. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2021,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    volume = {32},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {773--785},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    LinkedIn als Barometer: Austausch zwischen ziviler und militärischer F&E
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.

    @techreport{riebe_linkedin_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {{LinkedIn} als {Barometer}: {Austausch} zwischen ziviler und militärischer {F}\&{E}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_LinkedInalsBarometer_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F\&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F\&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_MHC_IEEETechScieMag.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 196–200.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.

    @incollection{schmid_meaningful_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {Systems}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {196--200},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_SpielhoferHahneReuterKaufholdSchmid_SocialMediaCrisesUK_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }