Stefka Schmid, M.A.

Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin / Doktorandin

Kontakt: +49 (0) 6151 / 1620946 | schmid(at)peasec.tu-darmstadt.de

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachbereich Informatik, Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt, Raum 116

Stefka Schmid ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) am Fachbereich Informatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Ihre Forschungsinteressen sind Dual-Use-Technologien, (naturwissenschaftlich-technische) Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Risikokulturen, kritische Sicherheitsstudien sowie interdisziplinäre Ansätze zur Untersuchung von soziotechnischen Systemen im Kontext verantwortungsvoller Digitalisierung.

Sie studierte Politische Wissenschaft und Anglistik an der Universität Heidelberg (B.A.) und Internationale Studien/Friedens- und Konfliktforschung an der TU Darmstadt und Goethe-Universität Frankfurt sowie der Aberystwyth University (M.A.). Neben dem Studium arbeitete sie als studentische Hilfskraft sowie Tutorin am Lehrstuhl für Internationale Beziehungen, Moderne Politische Theorie und bei PEASEC. In ihrer Masterarbeit setzte sie sich mit der Diffusion von Künstlicher Intelligenz in der EU auseinander.

Publikationen

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9288988},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    LinkedIn als Barometer: Austausch zwischen zivlier und militärischer F&E
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.

    @techreport{riebe_linkedin_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {{LinkedIn} als {Barometer}: {Austausch} zwischen zivlier und militärischer {F}\&{E}},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_LinkedInalsBarometer_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F\&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F\&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems
    In: Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel: SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 196–200.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.

    @incollection{schmid_meaningful_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {Systems}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {In the discussion of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in the expert forum of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW), the interpretation of crucial concepts such as autonomy and human control is decisive for the future direction of international hu- manitarian law. Starting from the perspective of a synthesis of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and Value-Sensitive-Design (VSD), we aim to analyse the discourse of LAWS and ask for pos- sibilities to implement Meaningful Human Control.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {196--200},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Spielhoferetal_SocialMediaCrisesUKSurvey_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }