Our research is realised on the one hand with state funding from TU Darmstadt and to a large extent in third-party funded research projects (BMBF, HMWK, DFG and BMEL).

Unsere Forschung wird zum einen aus Landesmitteln der TU Darmstadt sowie zu großen Teilen in drittmittelfinanzierten (BMBF, HMWK, DFG und BMEL) Forschungsprojekten realisiert.

Current Projects / Aktuelle Projekte

ATHENE-SecFOCI: Security of Fiber-Optic Critical Infrastructures (01.01.2024-31.12.2027, BMBF+HMWK)

Data-transmitting technologies have become a focus point for public security concerns since the NordStream sabotages, the BalticConnector incident, and various critical communication infrastructure outages in recent years. The project SecFOCI aims to assess, map, and counter emerging vulnerabilities in the material internet infrastructure, explicitly focusing on fiber-optic critical infrastructures (FOCI):

  1. Assessment: SecFOCI aims to systematize knowledge about the security of cables by conceptualizing fiber optics as critical infrastructures. It aims to understand current protection measures, their incorporation into security strategies, and their representation in research. The project also explores potential future developments that could impact the security of FOCI and maps the literature landscape to identify structural characteristics.
  2. Mapping: Next, it strengthens technical and empirical analysis of FOCI by identifying threat scenarios, mapping the material internet using graph theory and network analysis, applying scenarios to assess the consequences of physical infrastructure failures, and developing a visual simulation tool for stress testing.
  3. Countering: Lastly, the project aims to provide actionable recommendations for operators and authorities to enhance the resilience of global and regional transmission networks, create readable visualizations of vulnerabilities in the material internet backbone, and synthesize security and protection strategies.

SecFOCI acknowledges the multidisciplinary nature of the research subject, combining perspectives from cyber security, engineering, political science, geography, economics, and history. It emphasizes the need to bridge the gap between security-related internet research on the physical and logical layers of digital networks and aims to contribute to understanding the structural origins of fiber-optic data cable networks. The approach involves five work packages covering systematic literature analysis, design and analysis of network models, scenario analysis, user studies, surveys, and interviews.

ATHENE – Nationales Forschungszentrum für angewandte Cybersicherheit (seit 1.1.2019, BMBF+HMWK) – Website

Das Nationale Forschungs­zentrum für angewandte Cyber­sicher­heit ATHENE ist eine Forschungseinrichtung der Fraunhofer-Institute SIT und IGD sowie der Hochschulen TU Darmstadt und Hochschule Darmstadt. In einem bisher einzigartigen und innovativen Kooperations­modell von universitärer und außeruniversitärer Forschung betreibt ATHENE Spitzenforschung zum Wohl von Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Staat und setzt Impulse in der Wissenschaft. Das Forschungs­zentrum arbeitet agil und effizient und kann so auch kurzfristig auf neue He­raus­for­de­rung­en und veränderte Bedroh­ungs­lagen reagieren. ATHENE wird gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) und vom Hessischen Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst (HMWK) und hat seinen Standort in der Wissen­schafts­stadt Darmstadt, Deutschlands erster Adresse für Cyber­sicher­heits­for­schung.

ATHENE-PriVis: Visualization-based Technologies as Enablers for Privacy Sovereignty Online (01.01.2023-31.12.2026, BMBF+HMWK)

ATHENE-PriVis: Visualization-based Technologies as Enablers for Privacy Sovereignty Online
(01.01.2023-31.12.2026)

Current digital environments present a highly complex landscape regarding privacy. In online contexts such as social networks, mobile devices, or Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, privacy losses or violations are not always trivial to perceive and decide upon. This complicates the design of privacy regulations and leaves online providers with ample scope to design and implement their  products to collect, store, process and disclose end-users’ personal information, hence endangering end-users’ data and privacy sovereignty. While regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) aim to strengthen users’ rights to privacy sovereignty, current approaches that aim to make use of this regulation in order to promote the conscious handling of personal information online fall short of the desired effects in three important ways. (1) Privacy-enhancing regulations and technical solutions lack comprehensibility and usability for end-users. (2) The inherent connections among individuals and their personal data lead to the fact that a person’s privacy is not only affected by their own decisions, but also by those of other individuals or organizations. (3) In current research and practice, there is a lack of strategies for addressing privacy sovereignty needs that are tailored to individual circumstances, e.g., individual with little IT competence. Hence, the overarching goal of the research project “Visualization-based Technologies as Enablers for Privacy Sovereignty Online” (PriVis) is to develop prototypes of user interfaces employing personalized visualization-based Transparency-enhancing technologies (TETs) based on a detailed evaluation of user needs when interacting with the digital world. Personalized visualization-based TETs are defined as “transparency-enhancing technologies which incorporate information visualization techniques to increase the perceived transparency of personal data for users and are customizable for different user groups.”

ATHENE – Nationales Forschungszentrum für angewandte Cybersicherheit (seit 1.1.2019, BMBF+HMWK) – Website

Das Nationale Forschungs­zentrum für angewandte Cyber­sicher­heit ATHENE ist eine Forschungseinrichtung der Fraunhofer-Institute SIT und IGD sowie der Hochschulen TU Darmstadt und Hochschule Darmstadt. In einem bisher einzigartigen und innovativen Kooperations­modell von universitärer und außeruniversitärer Forschung betreibt ATHENE Spitzenforschung zum Wohl von Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Staat und setzt Impulse in der Wissenschaft. Das Forschungs­zentrum arbeitet agil und effizient und kann so auch kurzfristig auf neue He­raus­for­de­rung­en und veränderte Bedroh­ungs­lagen reagieren. ATHENE wird gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) und vom Hessischen Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst (HMWK) und hat seinen Standort in der Wissen­schafts­stadt Darmstadt, Deutschlands erster Adresse für Cyber­sicher­heits­for­schung.

2024

  • Katrin Hartwig, Tom Biselli, Franziska Schneider, Christian Reuter (2024)
    From Adolescents‘ Eyes: Assessing an Indicator-Based Intervention to Combat Misinformation on TikTok
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3613904.3642264
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Misinformation poses a recurrent challenge for video-sharing platforms (VSPs) like TikTok. Obtaining user perspectives on digital interventions addressing the need for transparency (e.g., through indicators) is essential. This article offers a thorough examination of the comprehensibility, usefulness, and limitations of an indicator-based intervention from an adolescents’ perspective. This study (𝑁 = 39; aged 13-16 years) comprised two qualitative steps: (1) focus group discussions and (2) think-aloud sessions, where participants engaged with a smartphone-app for TikTok. The results offer new insights into how video-based indicators can assist adolescents’ assessments. The intervention received positive feedback, especially for its transparency, and could be applicable to new content. This paper sheds light on how adolescents are expected to be experts while also being prone to video-based misinformation, with limited understanding of an intervention’s limitations. By adopting teenagers’ perspectives, we contribute to HCI research and provide new insights into the chances and limitations of interventions for VSPs.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_adolescents_2024,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CHI} '24},
    title = {From {Adolescents}' {Eyes}: {Assessing} an {Indicator}-{Based} {Intervention} to {Combat} {Misinformation} on {TikTok}},
    isbn = {9798400703300},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3613904.3642264},
    doi = {10.1145/3613904.3642264},
    abstract = {Misinformation poses a recurrent challenge for video-sharing platforms (VSPs) like TikTok. Obtaining user perspectives on digital interventions addressing the need for transparency (e.g., through indicators) is essential. This article offers a thorough examination of the comprehensibility, usefulness, and limitations of an indicator-based intervention from an adolescents’ perspective. This study (𝑁 = 39; aged 13-16 years) comprised two qualitative steps: (1) focus group discussions and (2) think-aloud sessions, where participants
    engaged with a smartphone-app for TikTok. The results offer new insights into how video-based indicators can assist adolescents’ assessments. The intervention received positive feedback, especially for its transparency, and could be applicable to new content. This paper sheds light on how adolescents are expected to be experts while also being prone to video-based misinformation, with limited understanding of an intervention’s limitations. By adopting
    teenagers’ perspectives, we contribute to HCI research and provide new insights into the chances and limitations of interventions for VSPs.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Biselli, Tom and Schneider, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Stefka Schmid, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Misleading Information in Crises: Exploring Content-specific Indicators for Misleading Information on Twitter from a User Perspective
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{hartwig_misleading_2024,
    title = {Misleading {Information} in {Crises}: {Exploring} {Content}-specific {Indicators} for {Misleading} {Information} on {Twitter} from a {User} {Perspective}},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Schmid, Stefka and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

  • Kilian Demuth, Sebastian Linsner, Tom Biselli, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Support Personas: A Concept for Tailored Support of Users of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In many applications and websites people use in their everyday life, their privacy and data is threatened, e.g., by script tracking during browsing. Although researchers and companies have developed privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), they are often difficult to use for lay users. In this paper, we conducted a literature review to classify users into different support personas based on their privacy competence and privacy concern. With developers of PETs in mind, support personas were envisioned to facilitate the customization of software according to the support needs of different users. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of support personas and based on workshop sessions with 15 participants, we designed a browser extension which supports users with the issue of script tracking by providing different user interfaces for different support personas. The following qualitative evaluation with 31 participants showed that the developed UI elements worked as intended for the different support personas. Therefore, we conclude the concept of support personas is useful in the development process of usable applications that enhance the privacy of the users while also educating them and thus potentially increasing their privacy literacy.

    @article{demuth_support_2024,
    title = {Support {Personas}: {A} {Concept} for {Tailored} {Support} of {Users} of {Privacy}-{Enhancing} {Technologies}},
    abstract = {In many applications and websites people use in their everyday life, their privacy and data is threatened, e.g., by script tracking during browsing. Although researchers and companies have developed privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), they are often difficult to use for lay users. In this paper, we conducted a literature review to classify users into different support personas based on their privacy competence and privacy concern. With developers of PETs in mind, support personas were envisioned to facilitate the customization of software according to the support needs of different users. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of support personas and based on workshop sessions with 15 participants, we designed a browser extension which supports users with the issue of script tracking by providing different user interfaces for different support personas. The following qualitative evaluation with 31 participants showed that the developed UI elements worked as intended for the different support personas. Therefore, we conclude the concept of support personas is useful in the development process of usable applications that enhance the privacy of the users while also educating them and thus potentially increasing their privacy literacy.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Demuth, Kilian and Linsner, Sebastian and Biselli, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Kilian Demuth, Marc Fischlin, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Decision-based Data Distribution (D³): Enabling Users to Minimize Data Propagation in Privacy-sensitive Scenarios
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In many scenarios users have to communicate sensitive data with third parties such as doctors, lawyers, insurance companies, social workers or online shops. Handing over personal data is necessary to use those services but the delegation of tasks to increase efficiency still poses the risk that personal data might be leaked. To minimize this risk and further enhance the privacy of users, we propose an interaction concept that uses layered encryption of messages to provide a trade-off between privacy and usability. Users can choose which data is additionally encrypted in an inner layer, say, for the eyes of their doctor only, and which data is available in an outer (encrypted or unencrypted) layer for all staff members. Another benefit is the hiding of sensitive data from package inspection or crawling algorithms over emails, while less critical parts can still be processed by these systems via the partial access. To investigate this concept, we derive relevant use cases for form-based communication over email from a quantitative pre-study with 1011 participants, showing that general practitioners are the most suitable use case. We developed demonstrators for this use case and evaluated them in a qualitative study with 42 participants. Our results show that the possibility of minimizing the propagation of sensitive data through additional encryption is highly appreciated and the usage of form-based communication is a promising approach for the digital transformation.

    @article{linsner_decision-based_2024,
    title = {Decision-based {Data} {Distribution} ({D}³): {Enabling} {Users} to {Minimize} {Data} {Propagation} in {Privacy}-sensitive {Scenarios}},
    abstract = {In many scenarios users have to communicate sensitive data with third parties such as doctors, lawyers, insurance companies, social workers or online shops. Handing over personal data is necessary to use those services but the delegation of tasks to increase efficiency still poses the risk that personal data might be leaked. To minimize this risk and further enhance the privacy of users, we propose an interaction concept that uses layered encryption of messages to provide a trade-off between privacy and usability. Users can choose which data is additionally encrypted in an inner layer, say, for the eyes of their doctor only, and which data is available in an outer (encrypted or unencrypted) layer for all staff members. Another benefit is the hiding of sensitive data from package inspection or crawling algorithms over emails, while less critical parts can still be processed by these systems via the partial access. To investigate this concept, we derive relevant use cases for form-based communication over email from a quantitative pre-study with 1011 participants, showing that general practitioners are the most suitable use case. We developed demonstrators for this use case and evaluated them in a qualitative study with 42 participants. Our results show that the possibility of minimizing the propagation of sensitive data through additional encryption is highly appreciated and the usage of form-based communication is a promising approach for the digital transformation.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Demuth, Kilian and Fischlin, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

    emergenCITY: Die Resiliente Digitale Stadt (1.1.2020-31.12.2026, HMWK)

    emergenCITY – Die Resiliente Digitale Stadt (1.1.2020-31.12.2026, HMWK)

    https://www.emergencity.de/

    Die TU Darmstadt kann im Rahmen des hessischen Forschungsförderungsprogramms LOEWE ein neues Zentrum etablieren – es trägt den Titel „Die Resiliente Digitale Stadt” und wird bis Ende 2023 mit insgesamt 17,4 Millionen Euro gefördert. Dies gab das Hessische Wissenschaftsministerium bekannt.

    Das LOEWE-Zentrum „emergenCITY“ („Resiliente Digitale Stadt“) wird Lösungen erarbeiten, die in Krisenfällen einen Notbetrieb für und mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien sicherstellen, schnelle Hilfe ermöglichen und eine effiziente Rückkehr zur Normalität unterstützen. Dazu muss sich die Technologie bereits im Normalbetrieb kontinuierlich „selbst-vorbereitend“ auf Krisensituationen einstellen und diese autonom detektieren, so Hollick. In Notlagen sollen überlebenswichtige Dienste beschleunigt bereitgestellt werden. Das gewonnene Erfahrungswissen soll helfen, bei künftigen kritischen Situationen besser vorbereitet zu sein.

    Das ist auch dringend erforderlich: Im Jahr 2050 werden zwei Drittel der Weltbevölkerung in Städten leben. Für das Wachstum von Städten sind anpassungsfähige und effiziente Infrastrukturen unerlässlich. Digitale Städte der Zukunft nutzen vermehrt Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien, um vernetzte Infrastrukturen etwa in den Bereichen Energie, Verkehr, Gesundheit, Staat und Verwaltung bereitzustellen. Die Abhängigkeit dieser Systeme aus Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien nimmt stetig zu – und sie werden durch Naturereignisse, menschliches und technisches Versagen sowie Gewalt und Terror verwundbar.

    PEASEC ist Teil von emergenCITY. Teams von 23 Professorinnen und Professoren aus Informatik, Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Maschinenbau, Gesellschafts- und Geschichtswissenschaften, Architektur, Wirtschaftswissenschaften sowie Rechtswissenschaften werden gemeinsam im universitären Verbund forschen – die Federführung hat die TU Darmstadt (Prof. Hollick), Partner sind die Universität Kassel und die Universität Marburg. Zusammen mit der Digitalstadt Darmstadt wird ein emergenCITY-Lab zur praxisnahen Erprobung von Lösungen etabliert. Das Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe bringt als weiterer Partner die gesamtheitliche Behörden- und Anwendungssicht ein.

    2024

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Burger, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Understanding Crisis Preparedness: Insights from Personal Values, Beliefs, Social Norms, and Personal Norms
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) ;21.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In disasters and crises, crisis preparation at the household level is crucial for societal resilience. However, motivating citizens to take personal responsibility and to implement preparedness measures remains challenging. This study investigates the impact of values, beliefs and norms on preparedness. Through a survey in Germany on resource-oriented crisis preparedness and participants’ values, a group of more prepared and less prepared individuals was differentiated. We quantitatively analyzed the correlation between values and crisis preparedness. A quantitative analysis revealed a significant association between the value of benevolence and higher preparedness. Follow-up interviews (N=30) explored participants&\#039; beliefs and norms, showing minimal group differences. Although crisis preparedness is generally viewed positively, strong negativity exists towards perceived “hoarders”. The study discusses implication for crisis communication and the design of nudges and persuasive systems, emphasizing intervention that can trigger benevolence to foster preparedness and appeal to the social benefits to counter the narrative of anti-social crisis preparedness.

    @article{haunschild_understanding_2024,
    title = {Understanding {Crisis} {Preparedness}: {Insights} from {Personal} {Values}, {Beliefs}, {Social} {Norms}, and {Personal} {Norms}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {https://ojs.iscram.org/index.php/Proceedings/article/view/19},
    abstract = {In disasters and crises, crisis preparation at the household level is crucial for societal resilience. However, motivating citizens to take personal responsibility and to implement preparedness measures remains challenging. This study investigates the impact of values, beliefs and norms on preparedness. Through a survey in Germany on resource-oriented crisis preparedness and participants’ values, a group of more prepared and less prepared individuals was differentiated. We quantitatively analyzed the correlation between values and crisis preparedness. A quantitative analysis revealed a significant association between the value of benevolence and higher preparedness. Follow-up interviews (N=30) explored participants\&\#039; beliefs and norms, showing minimal group differences. Although crisis preparedness is generally viewed positively, strong negativity exists towards perceived “hoarders”. The study discusses implication for crisis communication and the design of nudges and persuasive systems, emphasizing intervention that can trigger benevolence to foster preparedness and appeal to the social benefits to counter the narrative of anti-social crisis preparedness.},
    urldate = {2024-05-27},
    journal = {Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Burger, Felix and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2024},
    note = {Section: ISCRAM Proceedings},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Moderne Technologien und Resilienz
    In: Andreas H. Karsten, Stefan Voßschmidt, Uwe Becker: Resilienz und Schockereignisse. Kohlhammer.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{haesler_moderne_2024,
    title = {Moderne {Technologien} und {Resilienz}},
    booktitle = {Resilienz und {Schockereignisse}},
    publisher = {Kohlhammer},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Karsten, Andreas H. and Voßschmidt, Stefan and Becker, Uwe},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke (2024)
    Resilient Smart Farming: Crisis-Capable Information and Communication Technologies for Agriculture
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{kuntke_resilient_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Resilient {Smart} {Farming}: {Crisis}-{Capable} {Information} and {Communication} {Technologies} for {Agriculture}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-44156-2},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-658-44157-9},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz},
    year = {2024},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-44157-9},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Security, RSF, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild (2024)
    Enhancing Citizens’ Role in Public Safety: Interaction, Perception and Design of Mobile Warning Apps
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{haunschild_enhancing_2024,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Enhancing {Citizens}’ {Role} in {Public} {Safety}: {Interaction}, {Perception} and {Design} of {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild (2024)
    Enhancing Citizens’ Role in Public Safety: Interaction, Perception and Design of Mobile Warning Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{haunschild_enhancing_2024-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Enhancing {Citizens}’ {Role} in {Public} {Safety}: {Interaction}, {Perception} and {Design} of {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

  • Florentin Putz, Steffen Haesler, Matthias Hollick (2024)
    Sounds Good? Fast and Secure Contact Exchange in Groups
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;8(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Trustworthy digital communication requires the secure exchange of contact information, but current approaches lack usability and scalability for larger groups of users. We evaluate the usability of two secure contact exchange systems: the current state of the art, SafeSlinger, and our newly designed protocol, PairSonic, which extends trust from physical encounters to spontaneous online communication. Our lab study (N=45) demonstrates PairSonic’s superior usability, automating the tedious verification tasks from previous approaches via an acoustic out-of-band channel. Although participants significantly preferred our system, minimizing user effort surprisingly decreased the perceived security for some users, who associated security with complexity. We discuss user perceptions of the different protocol components and identify remaining usability barriers for CSCW application scenarios.

    @article{putz_sounds_2024,
    title = {Sounds {Good}? {Fast} and {Secure} {Contact} {Exchange} in {Groups}},
    volume = {8},
    abstract = {Trustworthy digital communication requires the secure exchange of contact information, but current approaches lack usability and scalability for larger groups of users. We evaluate the usability of two secure contact exchange systems: the current state of the art, SafeSlinger, and our newly designed protocol, PairSonic, which extends trust from physical encounters to spontaneous online communication. Our lab study (N=45) demonstrates PairSonic's superior usability, automating the tedious verification tasks from previous approaches via an acoustic out-of-band channel. Although participants significantly preferred our system, minimizing user effort surprisingly decreased the perceived security for some users, who associated security with complexity. We discuss user perceptions of the different protocol components and identify remaining usability barriers for CSCW application scenarios.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Putz, Florentin and Haesler, Steffen and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2024)
    Exploring the Evolving Landscape of Human-Centred Crisis Informatics: Current Challenges and Future Trends
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media . doi:10.1515/icom-2024-0002
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been used in safety-critical situations for over twenty years. Rooted in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and related disciplines, the field of crisis informatics made considerable efforts to investigate social media use and role patterns in crises, facilitate the collection, processing and refinement of social media data, design and evaluate supportive ICT, and provide cumulative and longitudinal research. This narrative review examines contemporary challenges of human-centred crisis informatics and envision trends for the following decade, including (I) a broadening scope of crisis informatics, (II) the professionalisation of cross-platform collaboration of citizen communities and emergency services, (III) expert interfaces for explainable and multimodal artificial intelligence for user-generated content assessment, (IV) internet of things and mobile apps for bidirectional communication and warnings in disruption-tolerant networks, as well as (V) digital twins and virtual reality for the effective training of multi-agency collaboration in hybrid hazards.

    @article{kaufhold_exploring_2024,
    title = {Exploring the {Evolving} {Landscape} of {Human}-{Centred} {Crisis} {Informatics}: {Current} {Challenges} and {Future} {Trends}},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2024-0002},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2024-0002},
    abstract = {Modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been used in safety-critical situations for over twenty years. Rooted in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and related disciplines, the field of crisis informatics made considerable efforts to investigate social media use and role patterns in crises, facilitate the collection, processing and refinement of social media data, design and evaluate supportive ICT, and provide cumulative and longitudinal research. This narrative review examines contemporary challenges of human-centred crisis informatics and envision trends for the following decade, including (I) a broadening scope of crisis informatics, (II) the professionalisation of cross-platform collaboration of citizen communities and emergency services, (III) expert interfaces for explainable and multimodal artificial intelligence for user-generated content assessment, (IV) internet of things and mobile apps for bidirectional communication and warnings in disruption-tolerant networks, as well as (V) digital twins and virtual reality for the effective training of multi-agency collaboration in hybrid hazards.},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

    2023

  • Stefka Schmid, Laura Guntrum, Steffen Haesler, Lisa Schultheiß, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Digital Volunteers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Care Work on Social Media for Socio-technical Resilience
    Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society ;3(1). doi:10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.

    @article{schmid_digital_2023,
    title = {Digital {Volunteers} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}: {Care} {Work} on {Social} {Media} for {Socio}-technical {Resilience}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2748-5625},
    url = {https://ojs.weizenbaum-institut.de/index.php/wjds/article/view/78},
    doi = {10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6},
    abstract = {Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Guntrum, Laura and Haesler, Steffen and Schultheiß, Lisa and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Selina Pauli, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Preparedness Nudging for Warning Apps? A Mixed-Method Study Investigating Popularity and Effects of Preparedness Alerts in Warning Apps
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;172:102995. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2023.102995
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Warning apps are used by many to receive warnings about imminent disasters. However, their potential for increasing awareness about general hazards and for increasing preparedness is currently underused. With a mixed-method design that includes a representative survey of the German population, a design workshop and an app evaluation experiment, this study investigates users’ preferences regarding non-acute preparedness alerts’ inclusion in crisis apps and the effectiveness of Nudging in this context. The experiment shows that while the social influence nudge had no significant effect compared to the control group without a nudging condition, the confrontational nudge increased the number of taken recommended preparedness measures. The evaluation indicates that the preparedness alerts increased users’ knowledge and their motivation to use a warning app. This motivation is, in contrast, decreased when the messages are perceived as a disruption. While many oppose push notifications, favor finding persuasively designed preparedness advice in a separate menu or as an optional notification.

    @article{haunschild_preparedness_2023,
    title = {Preparedness {Nudging} for {Warning} {Apps}? {A} {Mixed}-{Method} {Study} {Investigating} {Popularity} and {Effects} of {Preparedness} {Alerts} in {Warning} {Apps}},
    volume = {172},
    issn = {1071-5819},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_HaunschildPauliReuter_NudgingWarningApps_IJHCS.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2023.102995},
    abstract = {Warning apps are used by many to receive warnings about imminent disasters. However, their potential for increasing awareness about general hazards and for increasing preparedness is currently underused. With a mixed-method design that includes a representative survey of the German population, a design workshop and an app evaluation experiment, this study investigates users’ preferences regarding non-acute preparedness alerts’ inclusion in crisis apps and the effectiveness of Nudging in this context. The experiment shows that while the social influence nudge had no significant effect compared to the control group without a nudging condition, the confrontational nudge increased the number of taken recommended preparedness measures. The evaluation indicates that the preparedness alerts increased users’ knowledge and their motivation to use a warning app. This motivation is, in contrast, decreased when the messages are perceived as a disruption. While many oppose push notifications, favor finding persuasively designed preparedness advice in a separate menu or as an optional notification.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Pauli, Selina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, Selected, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {102995},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    A Survey on Data Augmentation for Text Classification
    ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) ;55(7):1–39. doi:10.1145/3544558
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing a model’s generalization capabilities, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data, to regularizing the objective, to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation and a taxonomy for existing works, this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to provide a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners. Derived from the taxonomy, we divide more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and give state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising by relating them to each other. Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are provided.

    @article{bayer_survey_2023,
    title = {A {Survey} on {Data} {Augmentation} for {Text} {Classification}},
    volume = {55},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3544558},
    doi = {10.1145/3544558},
    abstract = {Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing a model's generalization capabilities, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data, to regularizing the objective, to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation and a taxonomy for existing works, this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to provide a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners. Derived from the taxonomy, we divide more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and give state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising by relating them to each other. Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are provided.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {1--39},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Leon Jung, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Dual-use in volunteer operations? Attitudes of computer science students regarding the establishment of a cyber security volunteer force
    In: Gerber Nina, Verena Zimmermann: International Symposium on Technikpsychologie (TecPsy). Sciendo, , 66–81.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The digitalisation of critical infrastructure has increased the risk of large-scale cyber incidents. In contrast to the management of conventional emergencies by established civil protection organisations involving volunteers in Germany, few response capacities exist for these events. The concept of a volunteer force for cyber security could close this protection gap. However, such involvement also poses practical and ethical challenges. By conducting interviews with computer science students (N = 11), this paper analyses potential volunteers’ attitudes towards ethical implications of a cyber volunteer force, as well as practical aspects that might motivate or hinder their participation. A qualitative content analysis reveals that students are largely unaware of potential dilemmas connected to vulnerabilities handling and national cybersecurity interests. Ethical guidelines and means of motivating and encouraging potential volunteers are discussed.

    @incollection{haunschild_dual-use_2023,
    title = {Dual-use in volunteer operations? {Attitudes} of computer science students regarding the establishment of a cyber security volunteer force},
    isbn = {978-83-66675-89-6},
    url = {https://sciendo.com/chapter/9788366675896/10.2478/9788366675896-006},
    abstract = {The digitalisation of critical infrastructure has increased the risk of large-scale cyber incidents. In contrast to the management of conventional emergencies by established civil protection organisations involving volunteers in Germany, few response capacities exist for these events. The concept of a volunteer force for cyber security could close this protection gap. However, such involvement also poses practical and ethical challenges. By conducting interviews with computer science students (N = 11), this paper analyses potential volunteers’ attitudes towards ethical implications of a cyber volunteer force, as well as practical aspects that might motivate or hinder their participation. A qualitative
    content analysis reveals that students are largely unaware of potential dilemmas connected to vulnerabilities handling and national cybersecurity interests. Ethical guidelines and means of motivating and encouraging potential volunteers
    are discussed.},
    booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Technikpsychologie} ({TecPsy})},
    publisher = {Sciendo},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Jung, Leon and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Nina, Gerber and Zimmermann, Verena},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {66--81},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2023)
    Big Data and Multi-platform Social Media Services in Disaster Management
    In: Amita Singh: International Handbook of Disaster Research. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, , 1–21.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media today is not only ubiquitous and an integral part of everyday life but is also increasingly relevant before, during, or after emergencies. Data produced in these contexts, such as situational updates and multimedia content, is disseminated across different social media platforms and can be leveraged by various actors, including emergency services or volunteer communities. However, the dissemination of several thousand or even millions of messages during large-scale emergencies confronts analysts with challenges of information quality and overload. Hence, crisis informatics as a research domain seeks to explore and develop systems that support the collection, analysis, and dissemination of valuable social media information in emergencies. This chapter presents the social media API (SMA), which is a multi-platform service for gathering big social data across different social media channels and analyzing the credibility and relevance of collected data by the means of machine learning models. Based on the lessons learned from both the implementation process and user-centered evaluations in multiple emergency settings, this chapter discusses core challenges and potentials of the SMA and similar services, focusing on (1) the multi-platform gathering and management of data, (2) the mitigation of information overload by relevance assessment and message grouping, (3) the assessment of credibility and information quality, and (4) user-centered tailorability and adjustable data operations.

    @incollection{kaufhold_big_2023,
    address = {Singapore},
    title = {Big {Data} and {Multi}-platform {Social} {Media} {Services} in {Disaster} {Management}},
    isbn = {978-981-16-8800-3},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_KaufholdReuterLudwig_BigDataMultiPlatformSocialMediaDisaster_HandbookDisaster.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media today is not only ubiquitous and an integral part of everyday life but is also increasingly relevant before, during, or after emergencies. Data produced in these contexts, such as situational updates and multimedia content, is disseminated across different social media platforms and can be leveraged by various actors, including emergency services or volunteer communities. However, the dissemination of several thousand or even millions of messages during large-scale emergencies confronts analysts with challenges of information quality and overload. Hence, crisis informatics as a research domain seeks to explore and develop systems that support the collection, analysis, and dissemination of valuable social media information in emergencies. This chapter presents the social media API (SMA), which is a multi-platform service for gathering big social data across different social media channels and analyzing the credibility and relevance of collected data by the means of machine learning models. Based on the lessons learned from both the implementation process and user-centered evaluations in multiple emergency settings, this chapter discusses core challenges and potentials of the SMA and similar services, focusing on (1) the multi-platform gathering and management of data, (2) the mitigation of information overload by relevance assessment and message grouping, (3) the assessment of credibility and information quality, and (4) user-centered tailorability and adjustable data operations.},
    booktitle = {International {Handbook} of {Disaster} {Research}},
    publisher = {Springer Nature Singapore},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Singh, Amita},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-KOKOS, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--21},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2023)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2023,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    isbn = {978-1-00-905708-0},
    url = {https://www.cambridge.org/de/universitypress/subjects/psychology/applied-psychology/cambridge-handbook-cyber-behavior?format=WX&isbn=9781316616956},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Peace, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Lars Baumgärtner, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Rural Communication in Outage Scenarios: Disruption-Tolerant Networking via LoRaWAN Setups
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since communications infrastructure is subject to many impacts, e.g., destructive natural events, they can potentially collapse at any time. Especially in rural areas, the recovery of public network infrastructure can take some time, so a dedicated communication channel would be advantageous. We explore the possibility of transforming commodity LoRaWAN gateways into meshed network nodes for a digital emergency communication channel. In order to obtain the required parameters, we collected farm locations in Germany with OpenStreetMap. Based on the assumptions of LoRa communication range and considering our use case requirements, connecting farm communities seems theoretically feasible in many areas of our data set. To further analyze our idea, we ran simulations of two common DTN routing protocols with different scenarios. A proof-of-concept implementation allows smaller messages to be transmitted using real hardware and demonstrates that a decentralized communications infrastructure based on commodity hardware is possible.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_rural_2023,
    title = {Rural {Communication} in {Outage} {Scenarios}: {Disruption}-{Tolerant} {Networking} via {LoRaWAN} {Setups}},
    url = {https://idl.iscram.org/files/kuntke/2023/2581_Kuntke_etal2023.pdf},
    abstract = {Since communications infrastructure is subject to many impacts, e.g., destructive natural events, they can potentially collapse at any time. Especially in rural areas, the recovery of public network infrastructure can take some time, so a dedicated communication channel would be advantageous. We explore the possibility of transforming commodity LoRaWAN gateways into meshed network nodes for a digital emergency communication channel. In order to obtain the required parameters, we collected farm locations in Germany with OpenStreetMap. Based on the assumptions of LoRa communication range and considering our use case requirements, connecting farm communities seems theoretically feasible in many areas of our data set. To further analyze our idea, we ran simulations of two common DTN routing protocols with different scenarios. A proof-of-concept implementation allows smaller messages to be transmitted using real hardware and demonstrates that a decentralized communications infrastructure based on commodity hardware is possible.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Baumgärtner, Lars and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, RSF, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Leon Würsching, Florentin Putz, Steffen Haesler, Matthias Hollick (2023)
    FIDO2 the Rescue? Platform vs. Roaming Authentication on Smartphones
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (Best Paper Award) New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3544548.3580993
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Modern smartphones support FIDO2 passwordless authentication using either external security keys or internal biometric authentication, but it is unclear whether users appreciate and accept these new forms of web authentication for their own accounts. We present the first lab study (N=87) comparing platform and roaming authentication on smartphones, determining the practical strengths and weaknesses of FIDO2 as perceived by users in a mobile scenario. Most participants were willing to adopt passwordless authentication during our in-person user study, but closer analysis shows that participants prioritize usability, security, and availability differently depending on the account type. We identify remaining adoption barriers that prevent FIDO2 from succeeding password authentication, such as missing support for contemporary usage patterns, including account delegation and usage on multiple clients.

    @inproceedings{wursching_fido2_2023,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CHI} '23},
    title = {{FIDO2} the {Rescue}? {Platform} vs. {Roaming} {Authentication} on {Smartphones}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_WuerschingPutzHaeslerHollick_PlatformvsRoamingAuthenticationonSmartphones_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3544548.3580993},
    abstract = {Modern smartphones support FIDO2 passwordless authentication using either external security keys or internal biometric authentication, but it is unclear whether users appreciate and accept these new forms of web authentication for their own accounts. We present the first lab study (N=87) comparing platform and roaming authentication on smartphones, determining the practical strengths and weaknesses of FIDO2 as perceived by users in a mobile scenario. Most participants were willing to adopt passwordless authentication during our in-person user study, but closer analysis shows that participants prioritize usability, security, and availability differently depending on the account type. We identify remaining adoption barriers that prevent FIDO2 from succeeding password authentication, such as missing support for contemporary usage patterns, including account delegation and usage on multiple clients.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award})},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Würsching, Leon and Putz, Florentin and Haesler, Steffen and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2023},
    note = {event-place: Hamburg, HH, Germany},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jonas Höchst, Lars Baumgärtner, Franz Kuntke, Alvar Penning, Artur Sterz, Markus Sommer, Bernd Freisleben (2023)
    Mobile Device-to-Device Communication for Crisis Scenarios Using Low-Cost LoRa Modems
    In: Hans Jochen Scholl, Eric E. Holdeman, Kees F. Boersma: Disaster Management and Information Technology: Professional Response and Recovery Management in the Age of Disasters. Cham: Springer International Publishing, , 235–268. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-20939-0_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    We present an approach to enable long-range device-to-device communication between smartphones in crisis situations. Our approach is based on inexpensive and readily available microcontrollers with integrated LoRa hardware that we empower to receive and forward messages via Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or a serial connection by means of a dedicated firmware, called rf95modem. The developed firmware cannot only be used in crisis scenarios but also in a variety of other applications, such as providing a communication fallback during outdoor activities, geolocation-based games or broadcasting of local information. We present two applications to show the benefits of our approach. First, we introduce a novel device-to-device LoRa chat application that works on both Android and iOS as well as on traditional computers like notebooks using a console-based interface. Second, we demonstrate how other infrastructure-less technology can benefit from our approach by integrating it into the DTN7 delay-tolerant networking software. Furthermore, we present the results of an in-depth experimental evaluation of approach consisting of (i) real-world device-to-device LoRa transmissions in urban and rural areas and (ii) scalability tests based on simulations of LoRa device-to-device usage in a medium-sized city with up to 1000 active users. The firmware, our device-to-device chat application, our integration into DTN7, as well as our code fragments of the experimental evaluation and the experimental results are available under permissive open-source licenses.

    @incollection{hochst_mobile_2023,
    address = {Cham},
    title = {Mobile {Device}-to-{Device} {Communication} for {Crisis} {Scenarios} {Using} {Low}-{Cost} {LoRa} {Modems}},
    isbn = {978-3-031-20939-0},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_HoechstBaumgaertnerKuntkePenningSterzSommerFreisleben_MobileD2DCommunication_DMaIT.pdf},
    abstract = {We present an approach to enable long-range device-to-device communication between smartphones in crisis situations. Our approach is based on inexpensive and readily available microcontrollers with integrated LoRa hardware that we empower to receive and forward messages via Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or a serial connection by means of a dedicated firmware, called rf95modem. The developed firmware cannot only be used in crisis scenarios but also in a variety of other applications, such as providing a communication fallback during outdoor activities, geolocation-based games or broadcasting of local information. We present two applications to show the benefits of our approach. First, we introduce a novel device-to-device LoRa chat application that works on both Android and iOS as well as on traditional computers like notebooks using a console-based interface. Second, we demonstrate how other infrastructure-less technology can benefit from our approach by integrating it into the DTN7 delay-tolerant networking software. Furthermore, we present the results of an in-depth experimental evaluation of approach consisting of (i) real-world device-to-device LoRa transmissions in urban and rural areas and (ii) scalability tests based on simulations of LoRa device-to-device usage in a medium-sized city with up to 1000 active users. The firmware, our device-to-device chat application, our integration into DTN7, as well as our code fragments of the experimental evaluation and the experimental results are available under permissive open-source licenses.},
    booktitle = {Disaster {Management} and {Information} {Technology}: {Professional} {Response} and {Recovery} {Management} in the {Age} of {Disasters}},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    author = {Höchst, Jonas and Baumgärtner, Lars and Kuntke, Franz and Penning, Alvar and Sterz, Artur and Sommer, Markus and Freisleben, Bernd},
    editor = {Scholl, Hans Jochen and Holdeman, Eric E. and Boersma, F. Kees},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-031-20939-0_12},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, RSF, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-ATHENE},
    pages = {235--268},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Getting the Residents‘ Attention: The Perception of Warning Channels in Smart Home Warning Systems
    Proceedings of the ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference (DIS) New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3563657.3596076
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    About half a billion households are expected to use smart home systems by 2025. Although many IoT sensors, such as smoke detectors or security cameras, are available and governmental crisis warning systems are in place, little is known about how to warn appropriately in smart home environments. We created a Raspberry Pi based prototype with a speaker, a display, and a connected smart light bulb. Together with a focus group, we developed a taxonomy for warning messages in smart home environments, dividing them into five classes with different stimuli. We evaluated the taxonomy using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) in a field study at participants‘ (N = 13) homes testing 331 warnings. The results show that taxonomy-based warning stimuli are perceived to be appropriate and participants could imagine using such a warning system. We propose a deeper integration of warning capabilities into smart home environments to enhance the safety of citizens.

    @inproceedings{haesler_getting_2023,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{DIS} '23},
    title = {Getting the {Residents}' {Attention}: {The} {Perception} of {Warning} {Channels} in {Smart} {Home} {Warning} {Systems}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9893-0},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_HaeslerWendelbornReuter_SmartHomeWarningSystems_DIS},
    doi = {10.1145/3563657.3596076},
    abstract = {About half a billion households are expected to use smart home systems by 2025. Although many IoT sensors, such as smoke detectors or security cameras, are available and governmental crisis warning systems are in place, little is known about how to warn appropriately in smart home environments. We created a Raspberry Pi based prototype with a speaker, a display, and a connected smart light bulb. Together with a focus group, we developed a taxonomy for warning messages in smart home environments, dividing them into five classes with different stimuli. We evaluated the taxonomy using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) in a field study at participants' (N = 13) homes testing 331 warnings. The results show that taxonomy-based warning stimuli are perceived to be appropriate and participants could imagine using such a warning system. We propose a deeper integration of warning capabilities into smart home environments to enhance the safety of citizens.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {ACM} {Designing} {Interactive} {Systems} {Conference} ({DIS})},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    note = {event-place: Pittsburgh, PA, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1114--1127},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil (2023)
    Increasing Adoption Despite Perceived Limitations of Social Media in Emergencies: Representative Insights on German Citizens’ Perception and Trends from 2017 to 2021
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;96. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.

    @article{reuter_increasing_2023,
    title = {Increasing {Adoption} {Despite} {Perceived} {Limitations} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {Representative} {Insights} on {German} {Citizens}’ {Perception} and {Trends} from 2017 to 2021},
    volume = {96},
    issn = {2212-4209},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ReuterKaufholdBiselliPleil_SocialMediaEmergenciesSurvey_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

  • Marco Zivkovic, Jonas Franken, Nadja Thiessen, Jens Ivo Engels, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Infrastrukturen und historisches Wissen: Eine interdisziplinäre Analyse der Resilienz von Schienen- und Kabelnetzen
    Tagungsband Fachtagung Katastrophenforschung 2023 Leoben.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Forschungsprojekt “ Das Netz hat Geschichte: Netzwerk- und Vulnerabilitätsanalyse Kritischer Infrastrukturen am Beispiel IKT und Verkehr in Rhein/Main”“ wird das historische Wachstum von IKT- und Schieneninfrastrukturnetzen, sowie daraus erwachsene Konsequenzen für deren Vulnerabilitäten am Beispiel der Rhein-Main-Region interdisziplinär untersucht. Beide Infrastrukturnetze entstanden über Jahrzehnte hinweg und sind das Ergebnis verschiedener Interessen und technischer Entwicklungen aus unterschiedlichen Zeitschichten. Dies beeinflusst die Widerstandsfähigkeit der Netze und birgt potenzielle Risiken. Anhand von ca. 20 Expert:inneninterviews soll das Wissen von Praktiker:innen über das Alter, die Ausbreitung, technische Neuerungen und deren Auswirkungen analysiert werden. Die Forschung basiert auf dem Zeitschichtenmodell von Koselleck, das es ermöglicht, die verschiedenen zeitlichen Ebenen der Infrastrukturentwicklung zu analysieren. Die Ergebnisse der semi-strukturierten Interviewstudie zum impliziten Wissen der Befragten werden genutzt, um Hypothesen zu generieren, die später mittels Archivstudien und Netzwerkanalysen überprüft werden. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse können zur Stärkung der Resilienz von Infrastrukturen, insbesondere bei Katastrophenszenarien regionalen Ausmaßes, und zukünftigen Investitionsentscheidungen beitragen.

    @inproceedings{zivkovic_infrastrukturen_2023,
    address = {Leoben},
    title = {Infrastrukturen und historisches {Wissen}: {Eine} interdisziplinäre {Analyse} der {Resilienz} von {Schienen}- und {Kabelnetzen}},
    isbn = {978-3-900397-11-1},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ZivkovicFrankenThiessenEngelsReuter_InfrastrukturenHistorischesWissen_FKF23.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Forschungsprojekt " Das Netz hat Geschichte: Netzwerk- und Vulnerabilitätsanalyse Kritischer Infrastrukturen am Beispiel IKT und Verkehr in Rhein/Main”" wird das historische Wachstum von IKT- und Schieneninfrastrukturnetzen, sowie daraus erwachsene Konsequenzen für deren Vulnerabilitäten am Beispiel der Rhein-Main-Region interdisziplinär untersucht. Beide Infrastrukturnetze entstanden über Jahrzehnte hinweg und sind das Ergebnis verschiedener Interessen und technischer Entwicklungen aus unterschiedlichen Zeitschichten. Dies beeinflusst die Widerstandsfähigkeit der Netze und birgt potenzielle Risiken. Anhand von ca. 20 Expert:inneninterviews soll das Wissen von Praktiker:innen über das Alter, die Ausbreitung, technische Neuerungen und deren Auswirkungen analysiert werden. Die Forschung basiert auf dem Zeitschichtenmodell von Koselleck, das es ermöglicht, die verschiedenen zeitlichen Ebenen der Infrastrukturentwicklung zu analysieren. Die Ergebnisse der semi-strukturierten Interviewstudie zum impliziten Wissen der Befragten werden genutzt, um Hypothesen zu generieren, die später mittels Archivstudien und Netzwerkanalysen überprüft werden. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse können zur Stärkung der Resilienz von Infrastrukturen, insbesondere bei Katastrophenszenarien regionalen Ausmaßes, und zukünftigen Investitionsentscheidungen beitragen.},
    booktitle = {Tagungsband {Fachtagung} {Katastrophenforschung} 2023},
    publisher = {Disaster Competence Network Austria},
    author = {Zivkovic, Marco and Franken, Jonas and Thiessen, Nadja and Engels, Jens Ivo and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-NetzGeschichte},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Marco Zivkovic, Nadja Thiessen, Jens Ivo Engels, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Das Netz hat Geschichte: Historisch-technische Analyse der kritischen Infrastrukturen in der Region Rhein/Main
    In: : INFORMATIK 2023 – Designing Futures: Zukünfte gestalten. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V., , 1–6. doi:10.18420/inf2023_159
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kritische Infrastrukturen sind häufig über Jahrzehnte gewachsene, komplexe Netze. Dennoch fehlt derzeit die historische Perspektive auf die Aufschichtungstendenzen von Technologien in den Sektoren, die für die Gesellschaft essenzielle Dienste bereitstellen. Ein besseres Verständnis von Ausbreitungs-, Ausbau-, Ersatz- und Ausmusterungsprozessen kann Entscheidungshilfe und Orientierung für resilientere Versorgungsnetzarchitekturen in der Zukunft geben. Kompatibilitätsprobleme mit Legacy-Soft- und Hardware sind bekannte Phänomene in vielen KRITIS-Einrichtungen. Entsprechend gewinnen Wissens- und Erfahrungstransfers bei zunehmend komplexen, dennoch über Jahrzehnte verwendete Technologien in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben enorm an Bedeutung. Der Beitrag vollzieht die Konzeption und Fragestellungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts nach, in welchem die Verwundbarkeit der kritischen Infrastruktursektoren Verkehr und Kommunikation im Rhein-Main-Gebiet analysiert wird. Von den Leistungen beider Sektoren hängt die digitale Landwirtschaft stark ab. Insbesondere rurale, beim digitalen und Schienennetzausbau häufig vernachlässigte Gebiete werden dabei mittels explorativer Interviewstudie und anschließender archivbasierter, quantitativer Überprüfung der zuvor generierten Hypothesen aus einer raum-zeitlichen und technischen Perspektive untersucht.

    @incollection{franken_netz_2023,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Das {Netz} hat {Geschichte}: {Historisch}-technische {Analyse} der kritischen {Infrastrukturen} in der {Region} {Rhein}/{Main}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_FrankenZivkovicThiessenEngelsReuter_NetzGeschichte_GI.pdf},
    abstract = {Kritische Infrastrukturen sind häufig über Jahrzehnte gewachsene, komplexe Netze. Dennoch fehlt derzeit die historische Perspektive auf die Aufschichtungstendenzen von Technologien in den Sektoren, die für die Gesellschaft essenzielle Dienste bereitstellen. Ein besseres Verständnis von Ausbreitungs-, Ausbau-, Ersatz- und Ausmusterungsprozessen kann Entscheidungshilfe und Orientierung für resilientere Versorgungsnetzarchitekturen in der Zukunft geben. Kompatibilitätsprobleme mit Legacy-Soft- und Hardware sind bekannte Phänomene in vielen KRITIS-Einrichtungen. Entsprechend gewinnen Wissens- und Erfahrungstransfers bei zunehmend komplexen, dennoch über Jahrzehnte verwendete Technologien in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben enorm an Bedeutung. Der Beitrag vollzieht die Konzeption und Fragestellungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts nach, in welchem die Verwundbarkeit der kritischen Infrastruktursektoren Verkehr und Kommunikation im Rhein-Main-Gebiet analysiert wird. Von den Leistungen beider Sektoren hängt die digitale Landwirtschaft stark ab. Insbesondere rurale, beim digitalen und Schienennetzausbau häufig vernachlässigte Gebiete werden dabei mittels explorativer Interviewstudie und anschließender archivbasierter, quantitativer Überprüfung der zuvor generierten Hypothesen aus einer raum-zeitlichen und technischen Perspektive untersucht.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2023 - {Designing} {Futures}: {Zukünfte} gestalten},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Zivkovic, Marco and Thiessen, Nadja and Engels, Jens Ivo and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2023_159},
    keywords = {Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

    2022

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation. Routledge, , 48–63.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    isbn = {978-0-367-62674-7},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaAndFragmentation_Routledge.pdf},
    abstract = {Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Politics}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Transformations} and {Political} {Fragmentation}},
    publisher = {Routledge},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {48--63},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2022)
    A European Perspective on Crisis Informatics: Citizens‘ and Authorities‘ attitudes towards Social Media for Public Safety and Security
    1 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-39720-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.

    @book{reuter_european_2022,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {1},
    title = {A {European} {Perspective} on {Crisis} {Informatics}: {Citizens}' and {Authorities}' attitudes towards {Social} {Media} for {Public} {Safety} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-39719-7},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-658-39720-3},
    abstract = {Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.},
    language = {en},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-39720-3},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

  • Christian Bueger, Tobias Liebetrau, Jonas Franken (2022)
    Security threats to undersea communications cables and infrastructure – consequences for the EU
    Brussels: European Parliament.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The EU’s subsea data cable network is both vital for global connectivity and vulnerable. This study provides a systematic review of the current security threats, as well as the actors at the origin of these threats. Building on reports and expert input, the paper takes stock of current awareness, preparedness and response mechanisms, both at the EU and Member State level. A number of recommendations suggest how to improve the resilience of the cable network. Proposals build on the need to enhance EU-wide awareness, improve coordination and share information across EU institutions and Member States. In addition, surveillance capabilities must be advanced, response and repair mechanisms strengthened, and the topic mainstreamed across external action.

    @book{bueger_security_2022,
    address = {Brussels},
    title = {Security threats to undersea communications cables and infrastructure – consequences for the {EU}},
    url = {https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/EXPO_IDA(2022)702557},
    abstract = {The EU’s subsea data cable network is both vital for global connectivity and vulnerable. This study provides a systematic review of the current security threats, as well as the actors at the origin of these threats. Building on reports and expert input, the paper takes stock of current awareness, preparedness and response mechanisms, both at the EU and Member State level. A number of recommendations suggest how to improve the resilience of the cable network. Proposals build on the need to enhance EU-wide awareness, improve coordination and share information across EU institutions and Member States. In addition, surveillance capabilities must be advanced, response and repair mechanisms strengthened, and the topic mainstreamed across external action.},
    publisher = {European Parliament},
    author = {Bueger, Christian and Liebetrau, Tobias and Franken, Jonas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Infrastructure, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Denis Orlov, Simon Möller, Sven Düfler, Steffen Haesler, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Detecting a Crisis: Comparison of Self-Reported vs. Automated Internet Outage Measuring Methods
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-321
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Every day, there are internet disruptions or outages around the world that affect our daily lives. In this paper, we analyzed these events in Germany in recent years and found out how they can be detected, and what impact they have on citizens, especially in crisis situations. For this purpose, we take a look at two different approaches to recording internet outages, namely the self-reporting of citizens and automatic reporting by algorithmic examination of the availability of IP networks. We evaluate the data of six major events with regard to their meaningfulness in quality and quantity. We found that due to the amount of data and the inherent imprecision of the methods used, it is difficult to detect outages through algorithmic examination. But once an event is publicly known by self-reporting, they have advantages to capture the temporal and spatial dimensions of the outage due to its nature of objective measurements. As a result, we propose that users’ crowdsourcing can enhance the detection of outages and should be seen as an important starting point to even begin an analysis with algorithm-based techniques, but it is to ISPs and regulatory authorities to support that.

    @inproceedings{orlov_detecting_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {Detecting a {Crisis}: {Comparison} of {Self}-{Reported} vs. {Automated} {Internet} {Outage} {Measuring} {Methods}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39089},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-321},
    abstract = {Every day, there are internet disruptions or outages around the world that affect our daily lives. In this paper, we analyzed these events in Germany in recent years and found out how they can be detected, and what impact they have on citizens, especially in crisis situations. For this purpose, we take a look at two different approaches to recording internet outages, namely the self-reporting of citizens and automatic reporting by algorithmic examination of the availability of IP networks. We evaluate the data of six major events with regard to their meaningfulness in quality and quantity. We found that due to the amount of data and the inherent imprecision of the methods used, it is difficult to detect outages through algorithmic examination. But once an event is publicly known by self-reporting, they have advantages to capture the temporal and spatial dimensions of the outage due to its nature of objective measurements. As a result, we propose that users’ crowdsourcing can enhance the detection of outages and should be seen as an important starting point to even begin an analysis with algorithm-based techniques, but it is to ISPs and regulatory authorities to support that.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Orlov, Denis and Möller, Simon and Düfler, Sven and Haesler, Steffen and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2022)
    A European Perspective on Crisis Informatics: Citizens‘ and Authorities‘ attitudes towards Social Media for Public Safety and Security
    Nijmegen: The Radboud University Thesis Repository.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.

    @book{reuter_european_2022-1,
    address = {Nijmegen},
    title = {A {European} {Perspective} on {Crisis} {Informatics}: {Citizens}' and {Authorities}' attitudes towards {Social} {Media} for {Public} {Safety} and {Security}},
    url = {https://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/253000},
    abstract = {Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.},
    publisher = {The Radboud University Thesis Repository},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Björn Buchhold, Marcel Keller, Jörg Dallmeyer, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Data Augmentation in Natural Language Processing: A Novel Text Generation Approach for Long and Short Text Classifiers
    International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics (IJMLC) . doi:10.1007/s13042-022-01553-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. Especially with regard to small data analytics, additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% and 3.56\% are achieved within a constructed low data regime, compared to the no augmentation baseline and another data augmentation technique. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1-score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives (in total 11 datasets), we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.

    @article{bayer_data_2022,
    title = {Data {Augmentation} in {Natural} {Language} {Processing}: {A} {Novel} {Text} {Generation} {Approach} for {Long} and {Short} {Text} {Classifiers}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13042-022-01553-3},
    doi = {10.1007/s13042-022-01553-3},
    abstract = {In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. Especially with regard to small data analytics, additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% and 3.56\% are achieved within a constructed low data regime, compared to the no augmentation baseline and another data augmentation technique. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1-score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives (in total 11 datasets), we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.},
    journal = {International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics (IJMLC)},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Buchhold, Björn and Keller, Marcel and Dallmeyer, Jörg and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Perceptions and Use of Warning Apps – Did Recent Crises Lead to Changes in Germany?
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband New York. doi:10.1145/3543758.3543770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Warning and emergency apps are an integral part of crisis informatics and particularly relevant in countries that currently do not have cell broadcast, such as Germany. Previous studies have shown that such apps are regarded as relevant, but only around 16\% of German citizens used them in 2017 and 2019. With the COVID-19 pandemic and a devastating flash flood, Germany has recently experienced severe crisis-related losses. By comparing data from representative surveys from 2017, 2019 and 2021, this study investigates whether these events have changed the perceptions of warning apps and their usage patterns in Germany. The study shows that while multi-hazard emergency and warning apps have been easily surpassed in usage by COVID-19 contact tracing apps, the use of warning apps has also increased and the pandemic has added new desired features. While these have been little-used during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially non-users see smartphone messengers app channels as possible alternatives to warning apps. In addition, regional warning apps appear promising, possibly because they make choosing a warning app easier when there are several available on the market.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2022,
    address = {New York},
    title = {Perceptions and {Use} of {Warning} {Apps} – {Did} {Recent} {Crises} {Lead} to {Changes} in {Germany}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_WarningAppsChangesGermany_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3543758.3543770},
    abstract = {Warning and emergency apps are an integral part of crisis informatics and particularly relevant in countries that currently do not have cell broadcast, such as Germany. Previous studies have shown that such apps are regarded as relevant, but only around 16\% of German citizens used them in 2017 and 2019. With the COVID-19 pandemic and a devastating flash flood, Germany has recently experienced severe crisis-related losses. By comparing data from representative surveys from 2017, 2019 and 2021, this study investigates whether these events have changed the perceptions of warning apps and their usage patterns in Germany. The study shows that while multi-hazard emergency and warning apps have been easily surpassed in usage by COVID-19 contact tracing apps, the use of warning apps has also increased and the pandemic has added new desired features. While these have been little-used during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially non-users see smartphone messengers app channels as possible alternatives to warning apps. In addition, regional warning apps appear promising, possibly because they make choosing a warning app easier when there are several available on the market.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

    2021

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Perceptions of Police Technology Use and Attitudes Towards the Police – A Representative Survey of the German Population
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-255
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Perceptions of {Police} {Technology} {Use} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Police} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {German} {Population}},
    volume = {Mensch und Computer 2021 - Workshopband},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_PoliceTechnologyUseSurvey_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-255},
    abstract = {Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Selina Pauli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Citizens‘ Perceived Information Responsibilities and Information Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    GoodIT ’21: Proceedings of the Conference on Information Technology for Social Good . doi:10.1145/3462203.3475886
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens‘ perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens‘ needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens‘ desire to stay informed.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_citizens_2021,
    title = {Citizens' {Perceived} {Information} {Responsibilities} and {Information} {Challenges} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildPauliReuter_InformationResponsibilitiesCovid19_GoodIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462203.3475886},
    abstract = {In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens' perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens' needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens' desire to stay informed.},
    booktitle = {{GoodIT} '21: {Proceedings} of the {Conference} on {Information} {Technology} for {Social} {Good}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Pauli, Selina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Ragnark Mogk, Florentin Putz, Kevin T. Logan, Nadja Thiessen, Katharina Kleinschnitger, Lars Baumgärtner, JanPhilipp Stroscher, Christian Reuter, Michele Knodt, Matthias Hollick (2021)
    Connected Self-Organized Citizens in Crises: An Interdisciplinary Resilience Concept for Neighborhoods
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481749
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.

    @inproceedings{haesler_connected_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Connected {Self}-{Organized} {Citizens} in {Crises}: {An} {Interdisciplinary} {Resilience} {Concept} for {Neighborhoods}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Haesleretal_ConnectedSelfOrganizedCitizensinCrises_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481749},
    abstract = {When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Mogk, Ragnark and Putz, Florentin and Logan, Kevin T. and Thiessen, Nadja and Kleinschnitger, Katharina and Baumgärtner, Lars and Stroscher, Jan-Philipp and Reuter, Christian and Knodt, Michele and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Kilian Demuth, HenriJacques Geiß, Christian Richter, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nutzer, Sammler, Entscheidungsträger? Arten der Bürgerbeteiligung in Smart Cities
    HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik ;58. doi:10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.

    @article{haunschild_nutzer_2021,
    title = {Nutzer, {Sammler}, {Entscheidungsträger}? {Arten} der {Bürgerbeteiligung} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    volume = {58},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildDemuthGeissRichterReuter_NutzerSammlerEntscheidungstragerBuergerbeteiligungSmartCities_HMD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8},
    abstract = {Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.},
    journal = {HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Demuth, Kilian and Geiß, Henri-Jacques and Richter, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Bridging from Crisis to Everyday Life – An Analysis of User Reviews of the Warning App NINA and the COVID-19 Information Apps CoroBuddy and DarfIchDas
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481745
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we analyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_bridging_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Bridging from {Crisis} to {Everyday} {Life} – {An} {Analysis} of {User} {Reviews} of the {Warning} {App} {NINA} and the {COVID}-19 {Information} {Apps} {CoroBuddy} and {DarfIchDas}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_UserReviewsWarningCovidApps_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481745},
    abstract = {During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we analyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {72--78},
    }

  • Rolf Egert, Nina Gerber, Jasmin Haunschild, Philipp Kuehn, Verena Zimmermann (2021)
    Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;20(2):161–175. doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0021
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers – capable of producing and consuming electricity – who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

    @article{egert_towards_2021,
    series = {i-com},
    title = {Towards {Resilient} {Critical} {Infrastructures} - {Motivating} {Users} to {Contribute} to {Smart} {Grid} {Resilience}},
    volume = {20},
    url = {https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/icom-2021-0021/html},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2021-0021},
    abstract = {Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers - capable of producing and consuming electricity - who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Egert, Rolf and Gerber, Nina and Haunschild, Jasmin and Kuehn, Philipp and Zimmermann, Verena},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {161--175},
    }

    2020

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jasmin Haunschild, Matthias Hollick, Max Mühlhäuser, Joachim Vogt, Michael Kreutzer (2020)
    Towards Secure Urban Infrastructures: Cyber Security Challenges to Information and Communication Technology in Smart Cities
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.

    @inproceedings{reuter_towards_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Towards {Secure} {Urban} {Infrastructures}: {Cyber} {Security} {Challenges} to {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/33550/muc2020-ws-408.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408},
    abstract = {The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Haunschild, Jasmin and Hollick, Matthias and Mühlhäuser, Max and Vogt, Joachim and Kreutzer, Michael},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, UsableSec, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSpahrSpielhoferHahne_EmergencyServiceSocialMediaAttitude20142017_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management (IPM) ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management (IPM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

    ATHENE-CyAware: User-Centered Technology Design for Cyber Situational Awareness (1.1.2023-31.12.2026, BMBF+HMWK)

    ATHENE-CyAware: User-Centered Technology Design for Cyber Situational Awareness (01.01.2023-31.12.2026, BMBF+HMWK)

    Looking at the 2015 Ukraine power grid cyberattack, the 2017 WannaCry ransomware attack, or the 2020 University Hospital of Düsseldorf hack, amongst others, the vulnerability of critical infrastructures and thus also of society to cyberattacks becomes apparent. The growing interconnection of information and communication technology in combination with the increasing number, variety, and professionalism of cyber threats exacerbate the challenges for Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) and IT Security Officers (ITSOs) to maintain cyber situational awareness, i.e., to provide an accurate situation picture of the cyber threats and security vulnerabilities relevant to the organization and other target groups as a foundation for decision-making. Thus, the overarching goal of the project “User-Centered Technology Design for Cyber Situational Awareness” (CYAWARE) is to design and evaluate usable security technologies enhancing the cyber situational awareness of CERTs and ITSOs in businesses, industry, government, and society.
    More specifically, this includes (1) an artificial intelligence pipeline for the adjustable, fast, performant, and transparent detection of cyber threats and vulnerabilities as well as (2) a visual analytics dashboard for the customizable filtering for relevant information enhancing cyber situational awareness, with a special emphasis on external threat awareness. Embedded into the methodological framework of a design case study, the project comprises empirical pre-studies to understand organizational practices, the design of innovative ICT to tackle identified challenges, and the evaluation of their functionality, usability, and user experience. The findings of the participatory and user-centered design approach will be distilled into best practices, guidelines, and design implications to enhance our understanding of usable technologies contributing to cyber situational awareness and decision-making.

    CNTR: Cluster Natur- und Technikwissenschaftliche Rüstungskontrollforschung (1.1.2023-31.12.2026, AA)

    CNTR: Cluster Natur- und Technikwissenschaftliche Rüstungskontrollforschung (1.1.2023-31.12.2026, AA)

    https://www.cntrarmscontrol.org/

    Der russische Überfall auf die Ukraine hat die möglichen Gefahren, die von rüstungs­technischen Inno­vationen, Nuklear­waffen, chemischen und biologischen Kampf­stoffen sowie digitaler Kriegs­führung ausgehen, drastisch ins Bewusstsein zurück­gebracht. Auch wenn modernste Waffen­systeme in der Ukraine nur punktuell zum Einsatz kamen, zeigt der Einsatz von Drohnen, hoch­präzisen Flugabwehr­systemen oder Cyber­fähigkeiten exem­plarisch, wie sehr Technologie die Macht­verhältnisse auf dem Schlachtfeld beein­flussen kann. Neue Waffen­technologie kann im Extremfall Macht­verhältnisse disruptiv umkehren und für Unsicher­heit sorgen. Letzteres gilt auch für Chemie- und Biowaffen, sogar wenn sie lediglich rhetorisch für Propaganda- und Desinformations­zwecke benutzt werden.

    Ziel des Clusters Natur- und Technik­wissenschaftliche Rüstungs­kontrollforschung (CNTR) ist es, diese Gefahren zu untersuchen, wissen­schaftlich fundiert einzuordnen und auf dieser Grundlage Handlungs­empfehlungen zur Stärkung der Rüstungs­kontrolle zu entwickeln. Dazu integriert das Cluster technik- und natur­wissen­schaftliche Erkenntnisse und Expertise in den inter­disziplinären Diskurs der Friedens- und Konflikt­forschung. Eng verzahnt arbeiten Forschende der Natur- und Sozial­wissenschaften am Leibnitz-Institut für Friedens- und Konflikt­forschung (PRIF) mit den Universitäten Darmstadt und Gießen zusammen, ganz im Sinne der 2019 formulierten Empfehlungen des Wissenschafts­rats zur Weiter­entwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung. Das Projekt wird über eine Laufzeit von vier Jahren (Januar 2023 bis Dezember 2026) vom Auswärtigen Amt gefördert.

    Im Rahmen des Clusters wird u.a. folgende Forschungs­gruppe gegründet: Neue Technologien und Rüstungskontrolle (geleitet von Prof. Dr. Dr. Christian Reuter und Dr. Niklas Schörnig): Die Rüstungs­kontrolle ist in einer schweren Krise, mehr noch: der Einsatz neuster Technologien wie Hyperschall­raketen, Drohnen oder gar die militärische Nutzung künstlicher Intelligenz lassen einen neuen quali­tativen Rüstungs­wettlauf und die umfang­reiche Verbreitung modernster Waffen­technologie wahr­scheinlich erscheinen. Um in dieser Situation zur Analyse von militärischen Potenzialen, zur Ein­schätzung von Risiken und zur Entwicklung neuer Optionen für Rüstungs­kontrolle, aber auch zur Abrüstung und Nicht­verbreitung von Nuklear­waffen beizutragen, ist natur­wissen­schaftliche Expertise notwendig. Verschärft wird das Problem durch den zunehmenden Einsatz von Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) und (semi)­autonomen Waffen. Gleichzeitig können neue Technologien aber auch dazu beitragen, wirksame Gegen­strategien und zuverlässigere Instrumente für Rüstungs­kontrolle und Verifikation zu entwickeln.

    CYLENCE: Strategien und Werkzeuge gegen Cybermobbing und Hassbotschaften (1.8.2023-31.07.2026, BMBF)

    CYLENCE: Strategien und Werkzeuge gegen Cybermobbing und Hassbotschaften (1.8.2023-31.7.2026, BMBF)

    https://peasec.de/cylence

    Laut einer vergleichenden Studie des Bündnis gegen Cybermobbing e.V. (Beitzinger & Leest, 2021) waren 2021 rund 11,5% der Menschen in Deutschland von Cybermobbing betroffen. Während etwas mehr als 53% der Cybermobbingvorfälle im privaten Umfeld geschehen, entfallen noch 38% auf das Arbeitsumfeld. Neben Depressionen, Suchtgefahr oder körperlichen Beschwerden stuften sich rund 15% der Betroffenen von Mobbing und Cybermobbing als suizidgefährdet ein. Aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht ist dabei die Kündigungsbereitschaft von Mobbingopfern um 40% höher, Betroffene weisen fast doppelt so viele Krankheitstage wie der Durchschnitt auf und die jährlichen Kosten durch den Produktionsausfall in der deutschen Wirtschaft werden auf rund 8 Mrd. Euro geschätzt. Eine regelmäßige Befragung der Landesanstalt für Medien NRW (Landesanstalt für Medien NRW, 2021) verdeutlicht zudem, dass die Anzahl der Internetnutzer*innen in Deutschland, die häufig mit Hassbotschaften konfrontiert sind, in den letzten Jahren von 27% (2017) auf 39% (2021) angestiegen ist. Obwohl im Jahr 2021 über zwei Drittel der Befragten schon einmal Hasskommentare wahrgenommen haben, haben nur 28% von diesen einen Hasskommentar beim jeweiligen Portal gemeldet.

    Das Ziel von CYLENCE ist die Entwicklung von Strategien und Werkzeugen zur medienübergreifenden Meldung, Erkennung und Behandlung von Cybermobbing und Hassbotschaften. Dazu sollen organisationale Strategien und Werkzeuge zur Erfassung und Analyse (teil-)öffentlicher, sozialer Datenquellen (z.B. Facebook, Telegram, Twitter) auf Basis eines partizipativen Entwicklungsprozesses Ermittlungs- und Strafverfolgungsbehörden (ESBs) zur verbesserten Früherkennung und Behandlung von Cyber-Missbrauchsfällen befähigen. Eine darauf ausgerichtete Schulungsstrategie wird durch ein interaktives Tutorial für die Aneignung der entwickelten Werkzeuge ergänzt, die mithilfe von Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) und Visual Analytics (VA) die anpassbare, faire und nachvollziehbare KI-Detektion und echtzeitbasierte Dashboard-Aufbereitung von Cyber-Missbrauchsinhalten unterstützen. Zur Erhöhung der zivilen Sicherheit sollen weiter die Erkennung und Meldung von Cybermobbing und Hassbotschaften durch die Bevölkerung gestärkt werden. Dies umfasst eine Strategie zur Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Bürger*innen, Betroffenen und ESBs, welche durch empirische Feldforschung (z.B. repräsentative Befragungen) unterstützt und im Rahmen einer Kampagne erprobt wird. Dazu werden Werkzeuge zur Erkennung und Meldung von Cyber-Missbrauch für Bürger*innen durch ein Browser-Plugin und eine Smartphone-App zur Verfügung gestellt und evaluiert.

    2024

  • Markus Bayer, Markus Neiczer, Maximilian Samsinger, Björn Buchhold, Christian Reuter (2024)
    XAI-Attack: Utilizing Explainable AI to Find Incorrectly Learned Patterns for Black-Box Adversarial Example Creation
    Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING) Torino, Italia.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Adversarial examples, capable of misleading machine learning models into making erroneous predictions, pose significant risks in safety-critical domains such as crisis informatics, medicine, and autonomous driving. To counter this, we introduce a novel textual adversarial example method that identifies falsely learned word indicators by leveraging explainable AI methods as importance functions on incorrectly predicted instances, thus revealing and understanding the weaknesses of a model. Coupled with adversarial training, this approach guides models to adopt complex decision rules when necessary and simpler ones otherwise, enhancing their robustness. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we conduct a human and a transfer evaluation and propose a novel adversarial training evaluation setting for better robustness assessment. While outperforming current adversarial example and training methods, the results also show our method’s potential in facilitating the development of more resilient transformer models by detecting and rectifying biases and patterns in training data, showing baseline improvements of up to 23 percentage points in accuracy on adversarial tasks. The code of our approach is freely available for further exploration and use.

    @inproceedings{bayer_xai-attack_2024,
    address = {Torino, Italia},
    title = {{XAI}-{Attack}: {Utilizing} {Explainable} {AI} to {Find} {Incorrectly} {Learned} {Patterns} for {Black}-{Box} {Adversarial} {Example} {Creation}},
    url = {https://aclanthology.org/2024.lrec-main.1542},
    abstract = {Adversarial examples, capable of misleading machine learning models into making erroneous predictions, pose significant risks in safety-critical domains such as crisis informatics, medicine, and autonomous driving. To counter this, we introduce a novel textual adversarial example method that identifies falsely learned word indicators by leveraging explainable AI methods as importance functions on incorrectly predicted instances, thus revealing and understanding the weaknesses of a model. Coupled with adversarial training, this approach guides models to adopt complex decision rules when necessary and simpler ones otherwise, enhancing their robustness. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, we conduct a human and a transfer evaluation and propose a novel adversarial training evaluation setting for better robustness assessment. While outperforming current adversarial example and training methods, the results also show our method's potential in facilitating the development of more resilient transformer models by detecting and rectifying biases and patterns in training data, showing baseline improvements of up to 23 percentage points in accuracy on adversarial tasks. The code of our approach is freely available for further exploration and use.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2024 {Joint} {International} {Conference} on {Computational} {Linguistics}, {Language} {Resources} and {Evaluation} ({LREC}-{COLING})},
    publisher = {ELRA and ICCL},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Neiczer, Markus and Samsinger, Maximilian and Buchhold, Björn and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    pages = {17725--17738},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Ramin Shanehsaz, Christian Reuter (2024)
    CySecBERT: A Domain-Adapted Language Model for the Cybersecurity Domain
    ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security (TOPS) ;27(2). doi:10.1145/3652594
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The field of cybersecurity is evolving fast. Security professionals are in need of intelligence on past, current and – ideally – on upcoming threats, because attacks are becoming more advanced and are increasingly targeting larger and more complex systems. Since the processing and analysis of such large amounts of information cannot be addressed manually, cybersecurity experts rely on machine learning techniques. In the textual domain, pre-trained language models like BERT have proven to be helpful as they provide a good baseline for further fine-tuning. However, due to the domain-knowledge and the many technical terms in cybersecurity, general language models might miss the gist of textual information. For this reason, we create a high-quality dataset and present a language model specifically tailored to the cybersecurity domain which can serve as a basic building block for cybersecurity systems. The model is compared on 15 tasks: Domain-dependent extrinsic tasks for measuring the performance on specific problems, intrinsic tasks for measuring the performance of the internal representations of the model as well as general tasks from the SuperGLUE benchmark. The results of the intrinsic tasks show that our model improves the internal representation space of domain words compared to the other models. The extrinsic, domain-dependent tasks, consisting of sequence tagging and classification, show that the model performs best in cybersecurity scenarios. In addition, we pay special attention to the choice of hyperparameters against catastrophic forgetting, as pre-trained models tend to forget the original knowledge during further training.

    @article{bayer_cysecbert_2024,
    title = {{CySecBERT}: {A} {Domain}-{Adapted} {Language} {Model} for the {Cybersecurity} {Domain}},
    volume = {27},
    issn = {2471-2566},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3652594},
    doi = {10.1145/3652594},
    abstract = {The field of cybersecurity is evolving fast. Security professionals are in need of intelligence on past, current and - ideally - on upcoming threats, because attacks are becoming more advanced and are increasingly targeting larger and more complex systems. Since the processing and analysis of such large amounts of information cannot be addressed manually, cybersecurity experts rely on machine learning techniques. In the textual domain, pre-trained language models like BERT have proven to be helpful as they provide a good baseline for further fine-tuning. However, due to the domain-knowledge and the many technical terms in cybersecurity, general language models might miss the gist of textual information. For this reason, we create a high-quality dataset and present a language model specifically tailored to the cybersecurity domain which can serve as a basic building block for cybersecurity systems. The model is compared on 15 tasks: Domain-dependent extrinsic tasks for measuring the performance on specific problems, intrinsic tasks for measuring the performance of the internal representations of the model as well as general tasks from the SuperGLUE benchmark. The results of the intrinsic tasks show that our model improves the internal representation space of domain words compared to the other models. The extrinsic, domain-dependent tasks, consisting of sequence tagging and classification, show that the model performs best in cybersecurity scenarios. In addition, we pay special attention to the choice of hyperparameters against catastrophic forgetting, as pre-trained models tend to forget the original knowledge during further training.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security (TOPS)},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Shanehsaz, Ramin and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2024},
    note = {Place: New York, NY, USA
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Christian Reuter (2024)
    11. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Karlsruhe, Germany.
    [BibTeX]

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_11_2024,
    address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
    title = {11. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Cultural Violence and Peace Interventions in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} {Interventions} in {Social} {Media}},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2024)
    ‚We Do Not Have the Capacity to Monitor All Media‘: A Design Case Study on Cyber Situational Awareness in Computer Emergency Response Teams
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (Best Paper Award) New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3613904.3642368
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) have been established in the public sector globally to provide advisory, preventive and reactive cybersecurity services for government agencies, citizens, and businesses. Nevertheless, their responsibility of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating cyber threats and security vulnerabilities have become increasingly challenging due to the growing volume and varying quality of information disseminated through public and social channels. Based on a design case study conducted from 2021 to 2023, this paper combines three iterations of expert interviews (N=25), design workshops (N=4) and cognitive walkthroughs (N=25) to design an automated, cross-platform and real-time cybersecurity dashboard. By adopting the notion of cyber situational awareness, the study further extracts user requirements and design heuristics for enhanced threat intelligence and mission awareness in CERTs, discussing the aspects of source integration, data management, customizable visualization, relationship awareness, information assessment, software integration, (inter-)organizational collaboration, and communication of stakeholder warnings.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_we_2024,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CHI} '24},
    title = {'{We} {Do} {Not} {Have} the {Capacity} to {Monitor} {All} {Media}': {A} {Design} {Case} {Study} on {Cyber} {Situational} {Awareness} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}},
    isbn = {9798400703300},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2024/2024_KaufholdRiebeBayerReuter_CertDesignCaseStudy_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3613904.3642368},
    abstract = {Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) have been established in the public sector globally to provide advisory, preventive and reactive cybersecurity services for government agencies, citizens, and businesses. Nevertheless, their responsibility of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating cyber threats and security vulnerabilities have become increasingly challenging due to the growing volume and varying quality of information disseminated through public and social channels. Based on a design case study conducted from 2021 to 2023, this paper combines three iterations of expert interviews (N=25), design workshops (N=4) and cognitive walkthroughs (N=25) to design an automated, cross-platform and real-time cybersecurity dashboard. By adopting the notion of cyber situational awareness, the study further extracts user requirements and design heuristics for enhanced threat intelligence and mission awareness in CERTs, discussing the aspects of source integration, data management, customizable visualization, relationship awareness, information assessment, software integration, (inter-)organizational collaboration, and communication of stakeholder warnings.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award})},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Projekt-CYWARN, AuswahlUsableSec, AuswahlKaufhold, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Ruslan Sandler, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Navigating Misinformation in Voice Messages: Identification of User-Centered Features for Digital Interventions
    Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP) . doi:10.1002/rhc3.12296
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Misinformation presents a challenge to democracies, particularly in times of crisis. One way in which misinformation is spread is through voice messages sent via messenger groups, which enable members to share information on a larger scale. Gaining user perspectives on digital misinformation interventions as countermeasure after detection is crucial. In this paper, we extract potential features of misinformation in voice messages from literature, implement them within a program that automatically processes voice messages, and evaluate their perceived usefulness and comprehensibility as user-centered indicators.We propose 35 features extracted from audio files at the character, word, sentence, audio and creator levels to assist (1) private individuals in conducting credibility assessments, (2) government agencies faced with data overload during crises, and (3) researchers seeking to gather features for automatic detection approaches. We conducted a think-aloud study with laypersons (N = 20) to provide initial insight into how individuals autonomously assess the credibility of voice messages, as well as which automatically extracted features they find to be clear and convincing indicators of misinformation. Our study provides qualitative and quantitative insights into valuable indicators, particularly when they relate directly to the content or its creator, and uncovers challenges in user interface design.

    @article{hartwig_navigating_2024,
    title = {Navigating {Misinformation} in {Voice} {Messages}: {Identification} of {User}-{Centered} {Features} for {Digital} {Interventions}},
    issn = {1944-4079},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2024/2024_HartwigSandlerReuter_NavigatingMisinfoVoiceMessages_RiskHazards.pdf},
    doi = {10.1002/rhc3.12296},
    abstract = {Misinformation presents a challenge to democracies, particularly in times of crisis. One way in which misinformation is spread is through voice messages sent via messenger groups, which enable members to share information on a larger scale. Gaining user perspectives on digital misinformation interventions as countermeasure after detection is crucial. In this paper, we extract potential features of misinformation in voice messages from literature, implement them within a program that automatically processes voice messages, and evaluate their perceived usefulness and comprehensibility as user-centered indicators.We propose 35 features extracted from audio files at the character, word, sentence, audio and creator levels to assist (1) private individuals in conducting credibility assessments, (2) government agencies faced with data overload during crises, and (3) researchers seeking to gather features for automatic detection approaches. We conducted a think-aloud study with laypersons (N = 20) to provide initial insight into how individuals autonomously assess the credibility of voice messages, as well as which automatically extracted features they find to be clear and convincing indicators of misinformation. Our study provides qualitative and quantitative insights into valuable indicators, particularly when they relate directly to the content or its creator, and uncovers challenges in user interface design.},
    journal = {Risk, Hazards, \& Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Sandler, Ruslan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    note = {Publisher: John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Cyberwar, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2024)
    Exploring the Evolving Landscape of Human-Centred Crisis Informatics: Current Challenges and Future Trends
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media . doi:10.1515/icom-2024-0002
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been used in safety-critical situations for over twenty years. Rooted in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and related disciplines, the field of crisis informatics made considerable efforts to investigate social media use and role patterns in crises, facilitate the collection, processing and refinement of social media data, design and evaluate supportive ICT, and provide cumulative and longitudinal research. This narrative review examines contemporary challenges of human-centred crisis informatics and envision trends for the following decade, including (I) a broadening scope of crisis informatics, (II) the professionalisation of cross-platform collaboration of citizen communities and emergency services, (III) expert interfaces for explainable and multimodal artificial intelligence for user-generated content assessment, (IV) internet of things and mobile apps for bidirectional communication and warnings in disruption-tolerant networks, as well as (V) digital twins and virtual reality for the effective training of multi-agency collaboration in hybrid hazards.

    @article{kaufhold_exploring_2024,
    title = {Exploring the {Evolving} {Landscape} of {Human}-{Centred} {Crisis} {Informatics}: {Current} {Challenges} and {Future} {Trends}},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2024-0002},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2024-0002},
    abstract = {Modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been used in safety-critical situations for over twenty years. Rooted in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and related disciplines, the field of crisis informatics made considerable efforts to investigate social media use and role patterns in crises, facilitate the collection, processing and refinement of social media data, design and evaluate supportive ICT, and provide cumulative and longitudinal research. This narrative review examines contemporary challenges of human-centred crisis informatics and envision trends for the following decade, including (I) a broadening scope of crisis informatics, (II) the professionalisation of cross-platform collaboration of citizen communities and emergency services, (III) expert interfaces for explainable and multimodal artificial intelligence for user-generated content assessment, (IV) internet of things and mobile apps for bidirectional communication and warnings in disruption-tolerant networks, as well as (V) digital twins and virtual reality for the effective training of multi-agency collaboration in hybrid hazards.},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2024)
    ActiveLLM: Large Language Model-based Active Learning for Textual Few-Shot Scenarios
    arXiv .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Active learning is designed to minimize annotation efforts by prioritizing instances that most enhance learning. However, many active learning strategies struggle with a ‚cold start‘ problem, needing substantial initial data to be effective. This limitation often reduces their utility for pre-trained models, which already perform well in few-shot scenarios. To address this, we introduce ActiveLLM, a novel active learning approach that leverages large language models such as GPT-4, Llama 3, and Mistral Large for selecting instances. We demonstrate that ActiveLLM significantly enhances the classification performance of BERT classifiers in few-shot scenarios, outperforming both traditional active learning methods and the few-shot learning method SetFit. Additionally, ActiveLLM can be extended to non-few-shot scenarios, allowing for iterative selections. In this way, ActiveLLM can even help other active learning strategies to overcome their cold start problem. Our results suggest that ActiveLLM offers a promising solution for improving model performance across various learning setups.

    @article{bayer_activellm_2024,
    title = {{ActiveLLM}: {Large} {Language} {Model}-based {Active} {Learning} for {Textual} {Few}-{Shot} {Scenarios}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2405.10808},
    abstract = {Active learning is designed to minimize annotation efforts by prioritizing instances that most enhance learning. However, many active learning strategies struggle with a 'cold start' problem, needing substantial initial data to be effective. This limitation often reduces their utility for pre-trained models, which already perform well in few-shot scenarios. To address this, we introduce ActiveLLM, a novel active learning approach that leverages large language models such as GPT-4, Llama 3, and Mistral Large for selecting instances. We demonstrate that ActiveLLM significantly enhances the classification performance of BERT classifiers in few-shot scenarios, outperforming both traditional active learning methods and the few-shot learning method SetFit. Additionally, ActiveLLM can be extended to non-few-shot scenarios, allowing for iterative selections. In this way, ActiveLLM can even help other active learning strategies to overcome their cold start problem. Our results suggest that ActiveLLM offers a promising solution for improving model performance across various learning setups.},
    journal = {arXiv},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    }

    2023

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil (2023)
    Increasing Adoption Despite Perceived Limitations of Social Media in Emergencies: Representative Insights on German Citizens’ Perception and Trends from 2017 to 2021
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;96. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.

    @article{reuter_increasing_2023,
    title = {Increasing {Adoption} {Despite} {Perceived} {Limitations} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {Representative} {Insights} on {German} {Citizens}’ {Perception} and {Trends} from 2017 to 2021},
    volume = {96},
    issn = {2212-4209},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ReuterKaufholdBiselliPleil_SocialMediaEmergenciesSurvey_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Julian Bäumler, Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Milad Mirabaie, Christoph Fuchß, Kaan Eyilmez (2023)
    CYLENCE: Strategies and Tools for Cross-Media Reporting, Detection, and Treatment of Cyberbullying and Hatespeech in Law Enforcement Agencies
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Rapperswil, Switzerland. doi:10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Despite the merits of public and social media in private and professional spaces, citizens and professionals are increasingly exposed to cyberabuse, such as cyberbullying and hate speech. Thus, Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberabuse. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information disseminated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYLENCE project, which seeks to design strategies and tools for cross-media reporting, detection, and treatment of cyberbullying and hatespeech in investigative and law enforcement agencies. Second, it identifies and elaborates seven research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyberabuse in LEAs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_cylence_2023,
    address = {Rapperswil, Switzerland},
    title = {{CYLENCE}: {Strategies} and {Tools} for {Cross}-{Media} {Reporting}, {Detection}, and {Treatment} of {Cyberbullying} and {Hatespeech} in {Law} {Enforcement} {Agencies}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/items/0e0efe8f-64bf-400c-85f7-02b65f83189d},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-211},
    abstract = {Despite the merits of public and social media in private and professional spaces, citizens and professionals are increasingly exposed to cyberabuse, such as cyberbullying and hate speech. Thus, Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberabuse. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information disseminated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYLENCE project, which seeks to design strategies and tools for cross-media reporting, detection, and treatment of cyberbullying and hatespeech in investigative and law enforcement agencies. Second, it identifies and elaborates seven research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyberabuse in LEAs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Bäumler, Julian and Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Mirabaie, Milad and Fuchß, Christoph and Eyilmez, Kaan},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

    SFB1119 CROSSING: Kryptographiebasierte Sicherheitslösungen als Grundlage für Vertrauen in heutigen und zukünftigen IT-Systemen (1.8.2018-30.06.2026, DFG)

    SFB CROSSING – Kryptografiebasierte Sicherheitslösungen als Grundlage für Vertrauen in heutigen und zukünftigen IT-Systemen (01.08.2018-30.06.2026, DFG)

    https://www.crossing.tu-darmstadt.de/

    Kryptographie ist ein unverzichtbares Instrument für die sichere Gestaltung digitaler Prozesse, in dem sie Vertraulichkeit, Integrität, Authentisierung und Unabstreitbarkeit gewährleistet. Auf diese Weise können viele Dienste sicher über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Dennoch lassen sich nicht alle in der Praxis auftretenden Probleme mit den bereits existierenden kryptographischen Verfahren lösen. Diese Problemstellung motivierte CROSSING schon vor dessen Start im Jahre 2014, und ist auch heute noch aktuell. Dementsprechend war und ist das übergeordnete Ziel des Sonderforschungsbereichs CROSSING: Kryptographie-basierte Sicherheitslösungen zu entwickeln, die Vertrauen in heutigen und zukünftigen IT-Systemen ermöglichen. Die Lösungen werden die Effizienz- und Sicherheitsanforderungen dieser IT-Umgebungen erfüllen und werden sicher implementiert sein. Entwickler, Administratoren und Endanwender von IT werden diese Lösungen leicht nutzen können, auch wenn sie keine Kryptographie-Experten sind.

    Teilprojekt: Transparenz als nutzerzentrierte Intervention für Privatsphäre und Sicherheit

    Das Projekt zielt darauf ab, Nutzer angemessen zu informieren und aufzuklären, um eine bessere Entscheidungsfindung in Bezug auf das persönliche Sicherheits- und Privatheitsverhalten zu fördern. Das Projekt untersucht insbesondere, in welchen Kontexten und für welche Nutzer transparente, nachvollziehbare Indikatoren als Intervention zu solch verbesserten Ergebnissen führen. Ganz allgemein untersucht das Projekt, ob und wie nutzerzentrierte Sicherheits- und Privatheits-Interventionen von der Personalisierung und Kontrolle durch die Benutzer selbst profitieren können.

    2024

  • Tom Biselli, Laura Utz, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Supporting Informed Choices about Browser Cookies: The Impact of Personalised Cookie Banners
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (1):171–191. doi:https://doi.org/10.56553/popets-2024-0011
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Browser cookies, especially those from third parties, pose a threat to individual privacy. While it is possible in principle to control the number of cookies accepted, this choice is often neither usable nor truly informed. To address this issue, this study used semi-structured interviews (N=19) to identify attitudes and user requirements to develop an alternative personalised cookie banner, which was evaluated in an online experiment (N=157). The cookie banner explanations were tailored to the privacy knowledge of three groups of users: low, medium and high. The online experiment measured cookie choices and perceived usability of the cookie banner across three groups: an experimental group that viewed the novel cookie banner with personalisation (personalised privacy assistant), a control group that viewed the novel cookie banner without personalisation (privacy assistant) and a control group that viewed the standard cookie banner provided by the website. The results indicate that the novel cookie banner (with or without personalisation) generally resulted in significantly fewer accepted cookies and increased usability compared to the standard cookie window. In addition, the personalised cookie banner resulted in significantly fewer accepted cookies and higher usability than the non-personalised cookie banner. These results suggest that tailoring cookie banners to users‘ privacy knowledge can be an effective approach to empowering users to make informed choices and better protect their privacy.

    @article{biselli_supporting_2024,
    title = {Supporting {Informed} {Choices} about {Browser} {Cookies}: {The} {Impact} of {Personalised} {Cookie} {Banners}},
    url = {https://petsymposium.org/popets/2024/popets-2024-0011.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.56553/popets-2024-0011},
    abstract = {Browser cookies, especially those from third parties, pose a threat to individual privacy. While it is possible in principle to control the number of cookies accepted, this choice is often neither usable nor truly informed. To address this issue, this study used semi-structured interviews (N=19) to identify attitudes and user requirements to develop an alternative personalised cookie banner, which was evaluated in an online experiment (N=157). The cookie banner explanations were tailored to the privacy knowledge of three groups of users: low, medium and high. The online experiment measured cookie choices and perceived usability of the cookie banner across three groups: an experimental group that viewed the novel cookie banner with personalisation (personalised privacy assistant), a control group that viewed the novel cookie banner without personalisation (privacy assistant) and a control group that viewed the standard cookie banner provided by the website. The results indicate that the novel cookie banner (with or without personalisation) generally resulted in significantly fewer accepted cookies and increased usability compared to the standard cookie window. In addition, the personalised cookie banner resulted in significantly fewer accepted cookies and higher usability than the non-personalised cookie banner. These results suggest that tailoring cookie banners to users' privacy knowledge can be an effective approach to empowering users to make informed choices and better protect their privacy.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Utz, Laura and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlUsableSec},
    pages = {171--191},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2024)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_information_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Selected, Security, Peace, Infrastructure, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Jürgen Altmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Jonas Franken, Anja-Liisa Gonsior, Laura Guntrum, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Ingo Ruhmann, KlausPeter Saalbach, Lisa Schirch, Stefka Schmid, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2024)
    Outlook: The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_outlook_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Outlook: {The} {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Altmann, Jürgen and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Franken, Jonas and Gonsior, Anja-Liisa and Guntrum, Laura and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schirch, Lisa and Schmid, Stefka and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jonas Franken, Anja-Liisa Gonsior, Laura Guntrum, Stefka Schmid (2024)
    An Overview and Introduction to Information Technology for Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_overview_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {An {Overview} and {Introduction} to {Information} {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security}},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Franken, Jonas and Gonsior, Anja-Liisa and Guntrum, Laura and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2024)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Cyberwar, Projekt-CNTR},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2024)
    Towards a Peaceful Development of Cyberspace: Challenges and Technical Measures for the De-Escalation of State-Led Cyberconflicts and Arms Control of Cyberweapons
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Cyberspace, already a few decades old, has become a matter of course for most of us, part of our everyday life. At the same time, this space and the global infrastructure behind it are essential for our civilizations, the economy and administration, and thus an essential expression and lifeline of a globalized world. However, these developments also create vulnerabilities and thus, cyberspace is increasingly developing into an intelligence and military operational area – for the defense and security of states but also as a component of offensive military planning, visible in the creation of military cyber-departments and the integration of cyberspace into states‘ security and defense strategies. In order to contain and regulate the conflict and escalation potential of technology used by military forces, over the last decades, a complex tool set of transparency, de-escalation and arms control measures has been developed and proof-tested. Unfortunately, many of these established measures do not work for cyberspace due to its specific technical characteristics. Even more, the concept of what constitutes a weapon – an essential requirement for regulation – starts to blur for this domain. Against this background, this thesis aims to answer how measures for the de-escalation of state-led conflicts in cyberspace and arms control of cyberweapons can be developed. In order to answer this question, the dissertation takes a specifically technical perspective on these problems and the underlying political challenges of state behavior and international humanitarian law in cyberspace to identify starting points for technical measures of transparency, arms control and verification. Based on this approach of adopting already existing technical measures from other fields of computer science, the thesis will provide proof of concepts approaches for some mentioned challenges like a classification system for cyberweapons that is based on technical measurable features, an approach for the mutual reduction of vulnerability stockpiles and an approach to plausibly assure the non-involvement in a cyberconflict as a measure for de-escalation. All these initial approaches and the questions of how and by which measures arms control and conflict reduction can work for cyberspace are still quite new and subject to not too many debates. Indeed, the approach of deliberately self-restricting the capabilities of technology in order to serve a bigger goal, like the reduction of its destructive usage, is yet not very common for the engineering thinking of computer science. Therefore, this dissertation also aims to provide some impulses regarding the responsibility and creative options of computer science with a view to the peaceful development and use of cyberspace.

    @book{reinhold_towards_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Towards a {Peaceful} {Development} of {Cyberspace}: {Challenges} and {Technical} {Measures} for the {De}-{Escalation} of {State}-{Led} {Cyberconflicts} and {Arms} {Control} of {Cyberweapons}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-43950-7},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-658-43951-4},
    abstract = {Cyberspace, already a few decades old, has become a matter of course for most of us, part of our everyday life. At the same time, this space and the global infrastructure behind it are essential for our civilizations, the economy and administration, and thus an essential expression and lifeline of a globalized world. However, these developments also create vulnerabilities and thus, cyberspace is increasingly developing into an intelligence and military operational area – for the defense and security of states but also as a component of offensive military planning, visible in the creation of military cyber-departments and the integration of cyberspace into states' security and defense strategies. In order to contain and regulate the conflict and escalation potential of technology used by military forces, over the last decades, a complex tool set of transparency, de-escalation and arms control measures has been developed and proof-tested. Unfortunately, many of these established measures do not work for cyberspace due to its specific technical characteristics. Even more, the concept of what constitutes a weapon – an essential requirement for regulation – starts to blur for this domain. Against this background, this thesis aims to answer how measures for the de-escalation of state-led conflicts in cyberspace and arms control of cyberweapons can be developed. In order to answer this question, the dissertation takes a specifically technical perspective on these problems and the underlying political challenges of state behavior and international humanitarian law in cyberspace to identify starting points for technical measures of transparency, arms control and verification. Based on this approach of adopting already existing technical measures from other fields of computer science, the thesis will provide proof of concepts approaches for some mentioned challenges like a classification system for cyberweapons that is based on technical measurable features, an approach for the mutual reduction of vulnerability stockpiles and an approach to plausibly assure the non-involvement in a cyberconflict as a measure for de-escalation. All these initial approaches and the questions of how and by which measures arms control and conflict reduction can work for cyberspace are still quite new and subject to not too many debates. Indeed, the approach of deliberately self-restricting the capabilities of technology in order to serve a bigger goal, like the reduction of its destructive usage, is yet not very common for the engineering thinking of computer science. Therefore, this dissertation also aims to provide some impulses regarding the responsibility and creative options of computer science with a view to the peaceful development and use of cyberspace.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2024},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-43951-4},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE, Dissertation},
    }

  • Kilian Demuth, Sebastian Linsner, Tom Biselli, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Support Personas: A Concept for Tailored Support of Users of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In many applications and websites people use in their everyday life, their privacy and data is threatened, e.g., by script tracking during browsing. Although researchers and companies have developed privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), they are often difficult to use for lay users. In this paper, we conducted a literature review to classify users into different support personas based on their privacy competence and privacy concern. With developers of PETs in mind, support personas were envisioned to facilitate the customization of software according to the support needs of different users. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of support personas and based on workshop sessions with 15 participants, we designed a browser extension which supports users with the issue of script tracking by providing different user interfaces for different support personas. The following qualitative evaluation with 31 participants showed that the developed UI elements worked as intended for the different support personas. Therefore, we conclude the concept of support personas is useful in the development process of usable applications that enhance the privacy of the users while also educating them and thus potentially increasing their privacy literacy.

    @article{demuth_support_2024,
    title = {Support {Personas}: {A} {Concept} for {Tailored} {Support} of {Users} of {Privacy}-{Enhancing} {Technologies}},
    abstract = {In many applications and websites people use in their everyday life, their privacy and data is threatened, e.g., by script tracking during browsing. Although researchers and companies have developed privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), they are often difficult to use for lay users. In this paper, we conducted a literature review to classify users into different support personas based on their privacy competence and privacy concern. With developers of PETs in mind, support personas were envisioned to facilitate the customization of software according to the support needs of different users. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of support personas and based on workshop sessions with 15 participants, we designed a browser extension which supports users with the issue of script tracking by providing different user interfaces for different support personas. The following qualitative evaluation with 31 participants showed that the developed UI elements worked as intended for the different support personas. Therefore, we conclude the concept of support personas is useful in the development process of usable applications that enhance the privacy of the users while also educating them and thus potentially increasing their privacy literacy.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Demuth, Kilian and Linsner, Sebastian and Biselli, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Kilian Demuth, Marc Fischlin, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Decision-based Data Distribution (D³): Enabling Users to Minimize Data Propagation in Privacy-sensitive Scenarios
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In many scenarios users have to communicate sensitive data with third parties such as doctors, lawyers, insurance companies, social workers or online shops. Handing over personal data is necessary to use those services but the delegation of tasks to increase efficiency still poses the risk that personal data might be leaked. To minimize this risk and further enhance the privacy of users, we propose an interaction concept that uses layered encryption of messages to provide a trade-off between privacy and usability. Users can choose which data is additionally encrypted in an inner layer, say, for the eyes of their doctor only, and which data is available in an outer (encrypted or unencrypted) layer for all staff members. Another benefit is the hiding of sensitive data from package inspection or crawling algorithms over emails, while less critical parts can still be processed by these systems via the partial access. To investigate this concept, we derive relevant use cases for form-based communication over email from a quantitative pre-study with 1011 participants, showing that general practitioners are the most suitable use case. We developed demonstrators for this use case and evaluated them in a qualitative study with 42 participants. Our results show that the possibility of minimizing the propagation of sensitive data through additional encryption is highly appreciated and the usage of form-based communication is a promising approach for the digital transformation.

    @article{linsner_decision-based_2024,
    title = {Decision-based {Data} {Distribution} ({D}³): {Enabling} {Users} to {Minimize} {Data} {Propagation} in {Privacy}-sensitive {Scenarios}},
    abstract = {In many scenarios users have to communicate sensitive data with third parties such as doctors, lawyers, insurance companies, social workers or online shops. Handing over personal data is necessary to use those services but the delegation of tasks to increase efficiency still poses the risk that personal data might be leaked. To minimize this risk and further enhance the privacy of users, we propose an interaction concept that uses layered encryption of messages to provide a trade-off between privacy and usability. Users can choose which data is additionally encrypted in an inner layer, say, for the eyes of their doctor only, and which data is available in an outer (encrypted or unencrypted) layer for all staff members. Another benefit is the hiding of sensitive data from package inspection or crawling algorithms over emails, while less critical parts can still be processed by these systems via the partial access. To investigate this concept, we derive relevant use cases for form-based communication over email from a quantitative pre-study with 1011 participants, showing that general practitioners are the most suitable use case. We developed demonstrators for this use case and evaluated them in a qualitative study with 42 participants. Our results show that the possibility of minimizing the propagation of sensitive data through additional encryption is highly appreciated and the usage of form-based communication is a promising approach for the digital transformation.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Demuth, Kilian and Fischlin, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

    2023

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Preventing the escalation of cyber conflicts: towards an approach to plausibly assure the non-involvement in a cyberattack
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;12(1):31–58. doi:10.1007/s42597-023-00099-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    While cyberspace has evolved into a commonly shared space vital to our individual lives and societies, malicious cyber activities by state actors as part of espionage operations, regarding defense strategies, or as part of traditional conflicts have strongly increased. In contrast, attributing the origin of such activities remains problematic. The ambiguity of digital data raises the problem of misinterpreting available information, increasing the risk of misinformed reactions and conflict escalation. In order to reduce this risk, this paper proposes a transparency system based on technologies which usually already exist for IT security measures that an accused actor in a specific incident can use to provide credible information which plausibly assures his non-involvement. The paper analyses the technical requirements, presents the technical concept and discusses the necessary adjustments to existing IT networks for its implementation. Intended as a measure for conflict de-escalation, the paper further discusses the limitations of this approach, especially with regard to technical limits as well as the political motivation and behavior of states.

    @article{reinhold_preventing_2023,
    title = {Preventing the escalation of cyber conflicts: towards an approach to plausibly assure the non-involvement in a cyberattack},
    volume = {12},
    issn = {2524-6976},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s42597-023-00099-7},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-023-00099-7},
    abstract = {While cyberspace has evolved into a commonly shared space vital to our individual lives and societies, malicious cyber activities by state actors as part of espionage operations, regarding defense strategies, or as part of traditional conflicts have strongly increased. In contrast, attributing the origin of such activities remains problematic. The ambiguity of digital data raises the problem of misinterpreting available information, increasing the risk of misinformed reactions and conflict escalation. In order to reduce this risk, this paper proposes a transparency system based on technologies which usually already exist for IT security measures that an accused actor in a specific incident can use to provide credible information which plausibly assures his non-involvement. The paper analyses the technical requirements, presents the technical concept and discusses the necessary adjustments to existing IT networks for its implementation. Intended as a measure for conflict de-escalation, the paper further discusses the limitations of this approach, especially with regard to technical limits as well as the political motivation and behavior of states.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {31--58},
    }

  • Sebastian Surminski, Christian Niesler, Sebastian Linsner, Lucas Davi, Christian Reuter (2023)
    SCAtt-man: Side-Channel-Based Remote Attestation for Embedded Devices that Users Understand
    Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3577923.3583652
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    From the perspective of end-users, IoT devices behave like a black box: As long as they work as intended, users will not detect any compromise. Users have minimal control over the software. Hence, it is very likely that the user misses that illegal recordings and transmissions occur if a security camera or a smart speaker is hacked. In this paper, we present SCAtt-man, the first remote attestation scheme that is specifically designed with the user in mind. SCAtt-man deploys software-based attestation to check the integrity of remote devices, allowing users to verify the integrity of IoT devices with their smartphones. The key novelty of SCAtt-man resides in the utilization of user-observable side-channels such as light or sound in the attestation protocol. Our proof-of-concept implementation targets a smart speaker and an attestation protocol that is based on a data-over-sound protocol. Our evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of toolname against a variety of attacks and its usability based on a user study with 20 participants.

    @inproceedings{surminski_scatt-man_2023,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CODASPY} '23},
    title = {{SCAtt}-man: {Side}-{Channel}-{Based} {Remote} {Attestation} for {Embedded} {Devices} that {Users} {Understand}},
    isbn = {9798400700675},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3577923.3583652},
    doi = {10.1145/3577923.3583652},
    abstract = {From the perspective of end-users, IoT devices behave like a black box: As long as they work as intended, users will not detect any compromise. Users have minimal control over the software. Hence, it is very likely that the user misses that illegal recordings and transmissions occur if a security camera or a smart speaker is hacked. In this paper, we present SCAtt-man, the first remote attestation scheme that is specifically designed with the user in mind. SCAtt-man deploys software-based attestation to check the integrity of remote devices, allowing users to verify the integrity of IoT devices with their smartphones. The key novelty of SCAtt-man resides in the utilization of user-observable side-channels such as light or sound in the attestation protocol. Our proof-of-concept implementation targets a smart speaker and an attestation protocol that is based on a data-over-sound protocol. Our evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of toolname against a variety of attacks and its usability based on a user study with 20 participants.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Thirteenth} {ACM} {Conference} on {Data} and {Application} {Security} and {Privacy}},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Surminski, Sebastian and Niesler, Christian and Linsner, Sebastian and Davi, Lucas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-CROSSING},
    pages = {225--236},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Julian Bäumler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Values and Value Conflicts in the Context of OSINT Technologies for Cybersecurity Incident Response: A Value Sensitive Design Perspective
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) . doi:10.1007/s10606-022-09453-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The negotiation of stakeholder values as a collaborative process throughout technology development has been studied extensively within the fields of Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Human-Computer Interaction. Despite their increasing significance for cybersecurity incident response, there is a gap in research on values of importance to the design of open-source intelligence (OSINT) technologies for this purpose. In this paper, we investigate which values and value conflicts emerge due to the application and development of machine learning (ML) based OSINT technologies to assist cyber security incident response operators. For this purpose, we employ a triangulation of methods, consisting of a systematic survey of the technical literature on the development of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity (N = 73) and an empirical value sensitive design case study, comprising semi-structured interviews with stakeholders (N = 9) as well as a focus group (N = 7) with developers. Based on our results, we identify implications relevant to the research on and design of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity incident response.

    @article{riebe_values_2023,
    title = {Values and {Value} {Conflicts} in the {Context} of {OSINT} {Technologies} for {Cybersecurity} {Incident} {Response}: {A} {Value} {Sensitive} {Design} {Perspective}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10606-022-09453-4},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-022-09453-4},
    abstract = {The negotiation of stakeholder values as a collaborative process throughout technology development has been studied extensively within the fields of Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Human-Computer Interaction. Despite their increasing significance for cybersecurity incident response, there is a gap in research on values of importance to the design of open-source intelligence (OSINT) technologies for this purpose. In this paper, we investigate which values and value conflicts emerge due to the application and development of machine learning (ML) based OSINT technologies to assist cyber security incident response operators. For this purpose, we employ a triangulation of methods, consisting of a systematic survey of the technical literature on the development of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity (N = 73) and an empirical value sensitive design case study, comprising semi-structured interviews with stakeholders (N = 9) as well as a focus group (N = 7) with developers. Based on our results, we identify implications relevant to the research on and design of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity incident response.},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Bäumler, Julian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Elise Özalp, Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Trends in Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Non-Experts
    In: Peter Klimczak, Christer Petersen: AI – Limits and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, , 223–243.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper we provide an overview of XAI by introducing fundamental terminology and the goals of XAI, as well as recent research findings. Whilst doing this, we pay special attention to strategies for non-expert stakeholders. This leads us to our first research question: “What are the trends in explainable AI strategies for non-experts?”. In order to illustrate the current state of these trends, we further want to study an exemplary and very relevant application domain. According to Abdul et al. (2018), one of the first domains where researchers pursued XAI is the medical domain. This leads to our second research question: “What are the approaches of XAI in the medical domain for non-expert stakeholders?” These research questions will provide an overview of current topics in XAI and show possible research extensions for specific domains.

    @incollection{ozalp_trends_2023,
    address = {Bielefeld},
    title = {Trends in {Explainable} {Artificial} {Intelligence} for {Non}-{Experts}},
    url = {https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-5732-6/ai-limits-and-prospects-of-artificial-intelligence/?c=313000019},
    abstract = {In this paper we provide an overview of XAI by introducing fundamental terminology and the goals of XAI, as well as recent research findings. Whilst doing this, we pay special attention to strategies for non-expert stakeholders. This leads us to our first research question: “What are the trends in explainable AI strategies for non-experts?”. In order to illustrate the current state of these trends, we further want to study an exemplary and very relevant application domain. According to Abdul et al. (2018), one of the first domains where researchers pursued XAI is the medical domain. This leads to our second research question: “What are the approaches of XAI in the medical domain for non-expert stakeholders?” These research questions will provide an overview of current topics in XAI and show possible research extensions for specific domains.},
    booktitle = {{AI} - {Limits} and {Prospects} of {Artificial} {Intelligence}},
    publisher = {Transcript Verlag},
    author = {Özalp, Elise and Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Petersen, Christer},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {223--243},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Tom Biselli, Sebastian Linsner, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Privacy Perception and Behaviour in Safety-Critical Environments
    In: Nina Gerber, Alina Stöver, Karola Marky: Human Factors in Privacy Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing, , 237–251.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When considering privacy, context, and environmental circumstances can have a strong influence on individual decisions and user behavior. Especially in crises or threatening situations, privacy may conflict with other values, such as personal safety and health. In other cases, personal or public safety can also be dependent on privacy: the context of flight shows how, for those affected, the value of data protection can increase as a result of an increased threat situation. Thus, when individual sovereignty—the autonomous development of one’s own will—or safety is highly dependent on information flows, people tend to be more protective of their privacy in order to maintain their information sovereignty. But also, the context of agriculture, as part of the critical infrastructure, shows how privacy concerns can affect the adoption of digital tools. With these two examples, flight and migration as well as agriculture, this chapter presents some exemplary results that illustrate the importance of the influence of situational factors on perceived information sovereignty and the evaluation of privacy.

    @incollection{steinbrink_privacy_2023,
    address = {Cham},
    title = {Privacy {Perception} and {Behaviour} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Environments}},
    isbn = {978-3-031-28643-8},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28643-8_12},
    abstract = {When considering privacy, context, and environmental circumstances can have a strong influence on individual decisions and user behavior. Especially in crises or threatening situations, privacy may conflict with other values, such as personal safety and health. In other cases, personal or public safety can also be dependent on privacy: the context of flight shows how, for those affected, the value of data protection can increase as a result of an increased threat situation. Thus, when individual sovereignty—the autonomous development of one’s own will—or safety is highly dependent on information flows, people tend to be more protective of their privacy in order to maintain their information sovereignty. But also, the context of agriculture, as part of the critical infrastructure, shows how privacy concerns can affect the adoption of digital tools. With these two examples, flight and migration as well as agriculture, this chapter presents some exemplary results that illustrate the importance of the influence of situational factors on perceived information sovereignty and the evaluation of privacy.},
    booktitle = {Human {Factors} in {Privacy} {Research}},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Biselli, Tom and Linsner, Sebastian and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Gerber, Nina and Stöver, Alina and Marky, Karola},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {237--251},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Helene Pleil, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Challenges for Cyber Arms Control: A Qualitative Expert Interview Study
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) ;16(3):289–310. doi:10.1007/s12399-023-00960-w
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The militarization of cyberspace has been a topic in international fora and scientific debates for several years. However, the development of applicable, and verifiable arms control measures that can effectively reduce the risk of military escalations in cyberspace is still hindered by the characteristics of this domain. The article analyses challenges and obstacles of dual-use, proliferation, constant technological progress, the importance of the private sector, difficulties in defining and verifying weapons and difficulties in attributing attacks.

    @article{reinhold_challenges_2023,
    title = {Challenges for {Cyber} {Arms} {Control}: {A} {Qualitative} {Expert} {Interview} {Study}},
    volume = {16},
    issn = {1866-2196},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s12399-023-00960-w},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-023-00960-w},
    abstract = {The militarization of cyberspace has been a topic in international fora and scientific debates for several years. However, the development of applicable, and verifiable arms control measures that can effectively reduce the risk of military escalations in cyberspace is still hindered by the characteristics of this domain. The article analyses challenges and obstacles of dual-use, proliferation, constant technological progress, the importance of the private sector, difficulties in defining and verifying weapons and difficulties in attributing attacks.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Pleil, Helene and Reuter, Christian},
    month = aug,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {289--310},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Philipp Kuehn, Daniel Günther, Thomas Schneider, Christian Reuter (2023)
    ExTRUST: Reducing Exploit Stockpiles With a Privacy-Preserving Depletion Systems for Inter-State Relationships
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;4(2):158–170. doi:10.1109/TTS.2023.3280356
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Cyberspace is a fragile construct threatened by malicious cyber operations of different actors, with vulnerabilities in IT hardware and software forming the basis for such activities, thus also posing a threat to global IT security. Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence accelerate this development, either with artificial intelligence enabled cyber weapons, automated cyber defense measures, or artificial intelligence-based threat and vulnerability detection. Especially state actors, with their long-term strategic security interests, often stockpile such knowledge of vulnerabilities and exploits to enable their military or intelligence service cyberspace operations. While treaties and regulations to limit these developments and to enhance global IT security by disclosing vulnerabilities are currently being discussed on the international level, these efforts are hindered by state concerns about the disclosure of unique knowledge and about giving up tactical advantages. This leads to a situation where multiple states are likely to stockpile at least some identical exploits, with technical measures to enable a depletion process for these stockpiles that preserve state secrecy interests and consider the special constraints of interacting states as well as the requirements within such environments being non-existent. This paper proposes such a privacy-preserving approach that allows multiple state parties to privately compare their stock of vulnerabilities and exploits to check for items that occur in multiple stockpiles without revealing them so that their disclosure can be considered. We call our system ExTRUST and show that it is scalable and can withstand several attack scenarios. Beyond the intergovernmental setting, ExTRUST can also be used for other zero-trust use cases, such as bug-bounty programs.

    @article{reinhold_extrust_2023,
    title = {{ExTRUST}: {Reducing} {Exploit} {Stockpiles} {With} a {Privacy}-{Preserving} {Depletion} {Systems} for {Inter}-{State} {Relationships}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ReinholdKuehnGuentherSchneiderReuter_ExTrust-ehem-BlockED_TTaS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2023.3280356},
    abstract = {Cyberspace is a fragile construct threatened by malicious cyber operations of different actors, with vulnerabilities in IT hardware and software forming the basis for such activities, thus also posing a threat to global IT security. Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence accelerate this development, either with artificial intelligence enabled cyber weapons, automated cyber defense measures, or artificial intelligence-based threat and vulnerability detection. Especially state actors, with their long-term strategic security interests, often stockpile such knowledge of vulnerabilities and exploits to enable their military or intelligence service cyberspace operations. While treaties and regulations to limit these developments and to enhance global IT security by disclosing vulnerabilities are currently being discussed on the international level, these efforts are hindered by state concerns about the disclosure of unique knowledge and about giving up tactical advantages. This leads to a situation where multiple states are likely to stockpile at least some identical exploits, with technical measures to enable a depletion process for these stockpiles that preserve state secrecy interests and consider the special constraints of interacting states as well as the requirements within such environments being non-existent. This paper proposes such a privacy-preserving approach that allows multiple state parties to privately compare their stock of vulnerabilities and exploits to check for items that occur in multiple stockpiles without revealing them so that their disclosure can be considered. We call our system ExTRUST and show that it is scalable and can withstand several attack scenarios. Beyond the intergovernmental setting, ExTRUST can also be used for other zero-trust use cases, such as bug-bounty programs.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Kuehn, Philipp and Günther, Daniel and Schneider, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Selected, Student, A-Paper, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {158--170},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Tobias Frey, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Multi-Level Fine-Tuning, Data Augmentation, and Few-Shot Learning for Specialized Cyber Threat Intelligence
    Computers & Security . doi:10.1016/j.cose.2023.103430
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A Design Science Artefact for Cyber Threat Detection and Actor Specific Communication

    @article{bayer_multi-level_2023,
    title = {Multi-{Level} {Fine}-{Tuning}, {Data} {Augmentation}, and {Few}-{Shot} {Learning} for {Specialized} {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence}},
    issn = {0167-4048},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_BayerFreyReuter_MultiLevelFineTuningForCyberThreatIntelligence_CS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.cose.2023.103430},
    abstract = {A Design Science Artefact for Cyber Threat Detection and Actor Specific Communication},
    journal = {Computers \& Security},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Frey, Tobias and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Countering Fake News Technically – Detection and Countermeasure Approaches to Support Users
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Truth and Fake in the Post-Factual Digital Age: Distinctions in the Humanities and IT Sciences. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, , 131–147. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-40406-2_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing with fake newsfake news has increased in both political and social contexts: While existing studies mainly focus on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to help users make their own assessments are largely lacking. This article presents existing black-boxblack box and white-boxwhite box approaches and compares advantages and disadvantages. In particular, white-box approaches show promise in counteracting reactance, while black-box approaches detect fake news with much greater accuracy. We also present the browser plugin TrustyTweetTrustyTweet, which we developed to help users evaluate tweets on Twitter by displaying politically neutral and intuitive warnings without generating reactance.

    @incollection{hartwig_countering_2023,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News} {Technically} – {Detection} and {Countermeasure} {Approaches} to {Support} {Users}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-40406-2},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_HartwigReuter_CounteringFakeNews_TruthFakePostTruth.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing with fake newsfake news has increased in both political and social contexts: While existing studies mainly focus on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to help users make their own assessments are largely lacking. This article presents existing black-boxblack box and white-boxwhite box approaches and compares advantages and disadvantages. In particular, white-box approaches show promise in counteracting reactance, while black-box approaches detect fake news with much greater accuracy. We also present the browser plugin TrustyTweetTrustyTweet, which we developed to help users evaluate tweets on Twitter by displaying politically neutral and intuitive warnings without generating reactance.},
    booktitle = {Truth and {Fake} in the {Post}-{Factual} {Digital} {Age}: {Distinctions} in the {Humanities} and {IT} {Sciences}},
    publisher = {Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-40406-2_7},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE},
    pages = {131--147},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2023)
    Towards a Peaceful Development of Cyberspace: Challenges and Technical Measures for the De-Escalation of State-Led Cyberconflicts and Arms Control of Cyberweapons
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt. doi:10.26083/tuprints-00024559
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Cyberspace, already a few decades old, has become a matter of course for most of us, part of our everyday life. At the same time, this space and the global infrastructure behind it are essential for our civilizations, the economy and administration, and thus an essential expression and lifeline of a globalized world. However, these developments also create vulnerabilities and thus, cyberspace is increasingly developing into an intelligence and military operational area – for the defense and security of states but also as a component of offensive military planning, visible in the creation of military cyber-departments and the integration of cyberspace into states‘ security and defense strategies. In order to contain and regulate the conflict and escalation potential of technology used by military forces, over the last decades, a complex tool set of transparency, de-escalation and arms control measures has been developed and proof-tested. Unfortunately, many of these established measures do not work for cyberspace due to its specific technical characteristics. Even more, the concept of what constitutes a weapon – an essential requirement for regulation – starts to blur for this domain. Against this background, this thesis aims to answer how measures for the de-escalation of state-led conflicts in cyberspace and arms control of cyberweapons can be developed. In order to answer this question, the dissertation takes a specifically technical perspective on these problems and the underlying political challenges of state behavior and international humanitarian law in cyberspace to identify starting points for technical measures of transparency, arms control and verification. Based on this approach of adopting already existing technical measures from other fields of computer science, the thesis will provide proof of concepts approaches for some mentioned challenges like a classification system for cyberweapons that is based on technical measurable features, an approach for the mutual reduction of vulnerability stockpiles and an approach to plausibly assure the non-involvement in a cyberconflict as a measure for de-escalation. All these initial approaches and the questions of how and by which measures arms control and conflict reduction can work for cyberspace are still quite new and subject to not too many debates. Indeed, the approach of deliberately self-restricting the capabilities of technology in order to serve a bigger goal, like the reduction of its destructive usage, is yet not very common for the engineering thinking of computer science. Therefore, this dissertation also aims to provide some impulses regarding the responsibility and creative options of computer science with a view to the peaceful development and use of cyberspace.

    @book{reinhold_towards_2023,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Towards a {Peaceful} {Development} of {Cyberspace}: {Challenges} and {Technical} {Measures} for the {De}-{Escalation} of {State}-{Led} {Cyberconflicts} and {Arms} {Control} of {Cyberweapons}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/24559/},
    abstract = {Cyberspace, already a few decades old, has become a matter of course for most of us, part of our everyday life. At the same time, this space and the global infrastructure behind it are essential for our civilizations, the economy and administration, and thus an essential expression and lifeline of a globalized world. However, these developments also create vulnerabilities and thus, cyberspace is increasingly developing into an intelligence and military operational area – for the defense and security of states but also as a component of offensive military planning, visible in the creation of military cyber-departments and the integration of cyberspace into states' security and defense strategies. In order to contain and regulate the conflict and escalation potential of technology used by military forces, over the last decades, a complex tool set of transparency, de-escalation and arms control measures has been developed and proof-tested. Unfortunately, many of these established measures do not work for cyberspace due to its specific technical characteristics. Even more, the concept of what constitutes a weapon – an essential requirement for regulation – starts to blur for this domain. Against this background, this thesis aims to answer how measures for the de-escalation of state-led conflicts in cyberspace and arms control of cyberweapons can be developed. In order to answer this question, the dissertation takes a specifically technical perspective on these problems and the underlying political challenges of state behavior and international humanitarian law in cyberspace to identify starting points for technical measures of transparency, arms control and verification. Based on this approach of adopting already existing technical measures from other fields of computer science, the thesis will provide proof of concepts approaches for some mentioned challenges like a classification system for cyberweapons that is based on technical measurable features, an approach for the mutual reduction of vulnerability stockpiles and an approach to plausibly assure the non-involvement in a cyberconflict as a measure for de-escalation. All these initial approaches and the questions of how and by which measures arms control and conflict reduction can work for cyberspace are still quite new and subject to not too many debates. Indeed, the approach of deliberately self-restricting the capabilities of technology in order to serve a bigger goal, like the reduction of its destructive usage, is yet not very common for the engineering thinking of computer science. Therefore, this dissertation also aims to provide some impulses regarding the responsibility and creative options of computer science with a view to the peaceful development and use of cyberspace.},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.26083/tuprints-00024559},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE, Dissertation},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Laura Guntrum (2023)
    Science Peace Security ‘23 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints. doi:10.26083/tuprints-00024777
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The conference Science · Peace · Security ’23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.

    @book{reuter_science_2023,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Science {Peace} {Security} ‘23 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/24777},
    abstract = {The conference Science · Peace · Security '23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.26083/tuprints-00024777},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Laura Guntrum (2023)
    Science Peace Security ’23: Editorial of the Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    In: Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Laura Guntrum: Science Peace Security ’23: Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 9–13. doi:10.26083/tuprints-00024777
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The conference Science · Peace · Security ’23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.

    @incollection{reuter_science_2023-1,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Science {Peace} {Security} ’23: {Editorial} of the {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/24777},
    abstract = {The conference Science · Peace · Security '23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.},
    booktitle = {Science {Peace} {Security} ’23: {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Guntrum, Laura},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.26083/tuprints-00024777},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {9--13},
    }

    2022

  • Christian Reuter, Luigi Lo Iacono, Alexander Benlian (2022)
    A Quarter Century of Usable Security and Privacy Research: Transparency, Tailorability, and the Road Ahead
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(10):2035–2048. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2080908
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the last decades, research has shown that both technical solutions and user perceptions are important to improve security and privacy in the digital realm. The field of ‘usable security’ already started to emerge in the mid-90s, primarily focussed on password and email security. Later on, the research field of ”usable security and privacy” evolved and broadened the aim to design concepts and tools to assist users in enhancing their behaviour with regard to both privacy and security. Nevertheless, many user interventions are not as effective as desired. Because of highly diverse usage contexts, leading to different privacy and security requirements and not always to one-size-fits-all approaches, tailorability is necessary to address this issue. Furthermore, transparency is a crucial requirement, as providing comprehensible information may counter reactance towards security interventions. This article first provides a brief history of the research field in its first quarter-century and then highlights research on the transparency and tailorability of user interventions. Based on this, this article then presents six contributions with regard to (1) privacy concerns in times of COVID-19, (2) authentication on mobile devices, (3) GDPR-compliant data management, (4) privacy notices on websites, (5) data disclosure scenarios in agriculture, as well as (6) rights under data protection law and the concrete process should data subjects want to claim those rights. This article concludes with several research directions on user-centred transparency and tailorability.

    @article{reuter_quarter_2022,
    title = {A {Quarter} {Century} of {Usable} {Security} and {Privacy} {Research}: {Transparency}, {Tailorability}, and the {Road} {Ahead}},
    volume = {41},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/41/10},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2022.2080908},
    abstract = {In the last decades, research has shown that both technical solutions and user perceptions are important to improve security and privacy in the digital realm. The field of ‘usable security’ already started to emerge in the mid-90s, primarily focussed on password and email security. Later on, the research field of ”usable security and privacy” evolved and broadened the aim to design concepts and tools to assist users in enhancing their behaviour with regard to both privacy and security. Nevertheless, many user interventions are not as effective as desired. Because of highly diverse usage contexts, leading to different privacy and security requirements and not always to one-size-fits-all approaches, tailorability is necessary to address this issue. Furthermore, transparency is a crucial requirement, as providing comprehensible information may counter reactance towards security interventions. This article first provides a brief history of the research field in its first quarter-century and then highlights research on the transparency and tailorability of user interventions. Based on this, this article then presents six contributions with regard to (1) privacy concerns in times of COVID-19, (2) authentication on mobile devices, (3) GDPR-compliant data management, (4) privacy notices on websites, (5) data disclosure scenarios in agriculture, as well as (6) rights under data protection law and the concrete process should data subjects want to claim those rights. This article concludes with several research directions on user-centred transparency and tailorability.},
    number = {10},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Benlian, Alexander},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {2035--2048},
    }

  • Laura Buhleier, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Eine Klassifikation sicherheitskritischer UX-Design-Patterns
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-275
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    User Experience ist von zunehmender Relevanz für die Entwicklung digitaler Designentscheidungen und hat somit weitgehende Auswirkungen auf das Nutzerverhalten. Dass dies besonders für die Sicherheit und Vertraulichkeit nicht nur von Vorteil sein kann, sondern Nutzer*innen negativ beeinflussen kann, wird in dieser Arbeit ersichtlich. Betrachtetwerden dafür die Themengebiete Anti-Patterns, Grey Patterns und Dark-Patterns. Anti-Patterns bezeichnen wiederkehrende Lösungen für ein Konzept eines User Interfaces, die trotz guter Intention ungewünschte Nebeneffekte oder Konsequenzen haben. Dark-Patterns dagegen stellen Designentscheidungen dar, die durch Täuschung oder Ausnutzung psychischen Drucks versuchen Nutzer*innen zu Handlungen zu verleiten, von denen die Ersteller*innen des Dark-Patterns mehr profitieren als die Anwender* innen. Der Begriff Grey Patterns wird in dieser Arbeit für alle Design Patterns genutzt, die sich nicht direkt zuordnen lassen. Da es bisher kaum vergleichendeWerke und keinen Konsens zu diesen Themengebieten gibt, ist das Ziel dieser Arbeit ein grundlegendes Modell aufzustellen. Dabei wird durch die Untersuchung bestehender Literatur eine zusammenfassende Taxonomie und ein Vorgehen zur Unterscheidung von Anti-Patterns und Dark-Patterns erarbeitet, die als Grundlage für weitere Arbeiten und zur Entwicklung von Gegenmaßnahmen genutzt werden können.

    @inproceedings{buhleier_klassifikation_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {Eine {Klassifikation} sicherheitskritischer {UX}-{Design}-{Patterns}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39087},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-275},
    abstract = {User Experience ist von zunehmender Relevanz für die Entwicklung digitaler Designentscheidungen und hat somit weitgehende Auswirkungen auf das Nutzerverhalten. Dass dies besonders für die Sicherheit und Vertraulichkeit nicht nur von Vorteil sein kann, sondern Nutzer*innen negativ beeinflussen kann, wird in dieser Arbeit ersichtlich. Betrachtetwerden dafür die Themengebiete Anti-Patterns, Grey Patterns und Dark-Patterns. Anti-Patterns bezeichnen wiederkehrende Lösungen für ein Konzept eines User Interfaces, die trotz guter Intention ungewünschte Nebeneffekte oder Konsequenzen haben. Dark-Patterns dagegen stellen Designentscheidungen dar, die durch Täuschung oder Ausnutzung psychischen Drucks versuchen Nutzer*innen zu Handlungen zu verleiten, von denen die Ersteller*innen des Dark-Patterns mehr profitieren als die Anwender* innen. Der Begriff Grey Patterns wird in dieser Arbeit für alle Design Patterns genutzt, die sich nicht direkt zuordnen lassen. Da es bisher kaum vergleichendeWerke und keinen Konsens zu diesen Themengebieten gibt, ist das Ziel dieser Arbeit ein grundlegendes Modell aufzustellen. Dabei wird durch die Untersuchung bestehender Literatur eine zusammenfassende Taxonomie und ein Vorgehen zur Unterscheidung von Anti-Patterns und Dark-Patterns erarbeitet, die als Grundlage für weitere Arbeiten und zur Entwicklung von Gegenmaßnahmen genutzt werden können.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Buhleier, Laura and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Tom Biselli, Enno Steinbrink, Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2022)
    On the Challenges of Developing a Concise Questionnaire to Identify Privacy Personas
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4):645–669. doi:10.56553/popets-2022-0126
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Concise instruments to determine privacy personas – typical privacy-related user groups – are not available at present. Consequently, we aimed to identify them on a privacy knowledge–privacy behavior ratio based on a self-developed instrument. To achieve this, we conducted an item analysis (N = 820) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N = 656) of data based on an online study with German participants. Starting with 81 items, we reduced those to an eleven-item questionnaire with the two scales privacy knowledge and privacy behavior. A subsequent cluster analysis (N = 656) revealed three distinct user groups: (1) Fundamentalists scoring high in privacy knowledge and behavior, (2) Pragmatists scoring average in privacy knowledge and behavior and (3) Unconcerned scoring low in privacy knowledge and behavior. In a closer inspection of the questionnaire, the CFAs supported the model with a close global fit based on RMSEA in a training and to a lesser extent in a cross-validation sample. Deficient local fit as well as validity and reliability coefficients well below generally accepted thresholds, however, revealed that the questionnaire in its current form cannot be considered a suitable measurement instrument for determining privacy personas. The results are discussed in terms of related persona conceptualizations, the importance of a methodologically sound investigation of corresponding privacy dimensions and our lessons learned.

    @article{biselli_challenges_2022,
    title = {On the {Challenges} of {Developing} a {Concise} {Questionnaire} to {Identify} {Privacy} {Personas}},
    url = {https://petsymposium.org/2022/files/papers/issue4/popets-2022-0126.pdf},
    doi = {10.56553/popets-2022-0126},
    abstract = {Concise instruments to determine privacy personas – typical privacy-related user groups – are not available at present. Consequently, we aimed to identify them on a privacy knowledge–privacy behavior ratio based on a self-developed instrument. To achieve this, we conducted an item analysis (N = 820) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N = 656) of data based on an online study with German participants. Starting with 81 items, we reduced those to an eleven-item questionnaire with the two scales privacy knowledge and privacy behavior. A subsequent cluster analysis (N = 656) revealed three distinct user groups: (1) Fundamentalists scoring high in privacy knowledge and behavior, (2) Pragmatists scoring average in privacy knowledge and behavior and (3) Unconcerned scoring low in privacy knowledge and behavior. In a closer inspection of the questionnaire, the CFAs supported the model with a close global fit based on RMSEA in a training and to a lesser extent in a cross-validation sample. Deficient local fit as well as validity and reliability coefficients well below generally accepted thresholds, however, revealed that the questionnaire in its current form cannot be considered a suitable measurement instrument for determining privacy personas. The results are discussed in terms of related persona conceptualizations, the importance of a methodologically sound investigation of corresponding privacy dimensions and our lessons learned.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Steinbrink, Enno and Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {645--669},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Nudging Users Towards Better Security Decisions in Password Creation Using Whitebox-based Multidimensional Visualizations
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(7):1357–1380. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users‘ perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.

    @article{hartwig_nudging_2022,
    title = {Nudging {Users} {Towards} {Better} {Security} {Decisions} in {Password} {Creation} {Using} {Whitebox}-based {Multidimensional} {Visualizations}},
    volume = {41},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HartwigReuter_WhiteboxMultidimensionalNudges_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167},
    abstract = {Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users' perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec},
    pages = {1357--1380},
    }

    2021

  • Anjuli Franz, Gregor Albrecht, Verena Zimmermann, Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter, Alexander Benlian, Joachim Vogt (2021)
    SoK: Still Plenty of Phish in the Sea — A Review of User-Oriented Phishing Interventions and Avenues for Future Research
    USENIX Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Phishing is a prevalent cyber threat, targeting individuals and organizations alike. Previous approaches on anti-phishing measures have started to recognize the role of the user, who, at the center of the target, builds the last line of defense. However, user-oriented phishing interventions are fragmented across a diverse research landscape, which has not been systematized to date. This makes it challenging to gain an overview of the various approaches taken by prior works. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of phishing interventions based on a systematic literature analysis. We shed light on the diversity of existing approaches by analyzing them with respect to the intervention type, the addressed phishing attack vector, the time at which the intervention takes place, and the required user interaction. Furthermore, we highlight shortcomings and challenges emerging from both our literature sample and prior meta-analyses, and discuss them in the light of current movements in the field of usable security. With this article, we hope to provide useful directions for future works on phishing interventions.

    @inproceedings{franz_sok_2021,
    title = {{SoK}: {Still} {Plenty} of {Phish} in the {Sea} — {A} {Review} of {User}-{Oriented} {Phishing} {Interventions} and {Avenues} for {Future} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-1-939133-25-0},
    url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/soups2021-franz.pdf},
    abstract = {Phishing is a prevalent cyber threat, targeting individuals and
    organizations alike. Previous approaches on anti-phishing
    measures have started to recognize the role of the user, who,
    at the center of the target, builds the last line of defense.
    However, user-oriented phishing interventions are fragmented
    across a diverse research landscape, which has not been
    systematized to date. This makes it challenging to gain an
    overview of the various approaches taken by prior works.
    In this paper, we present a taxonomy of phishing interventions
    based on a systematic literature analysis. We shed light
    on the diversity of existing approaches by analyzing them
    with respect to the intervention type, the addressed phishing
    attack vector, the time at which the intervention takes place,
    and the required user interaction. Furthermore, we highlight
    shortcomings and challenges emerging from both our literature
    sample and prior meta-analyses, and discuss them in
    the light of current movements in the field of usable security.
    With this article, we hope to provide useful directions for
    future works on phishing interventions.},
    booktitle = {{USENIX} {Symposium} on {Usable} {Privacy} and {Security} ({SOUPS})},
    author = {Franz, Anjuli and Albrecht, Gregor and Zimmermann, Verena and Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian and Benlian, Alexander and Vogt, Joachim},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nudge or Restraint: How do People Assess Nudging in Cybersecurity – A Representative Study in Germany
    European Symposium on Usable Security (EuroUSEC) Karlsruhe, Germany. doi:10.1145/3481357.3481514
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    While nudging is a long-established instrument in many contexts, it has more recently emerged to be relevant in cybersecurity as well. For instance, existing research suggests nudges for stronger passwords or safe WiFi connections. However, those nudges are often not as effective as desired. To improve their effectiveness, it is crucial to understand how people assess nudges in cybersecurity, to address potential fears and resulting reactance and to facilitate voluntary compliance. In other contexts, such as the health sector, studies have already thoroughly explored the attitude towards nudging. To address that matter in cybersecurity, we conducted a representative study in Germany (𝑁 = 1, 012), asking people about their attitude towards nudging in that specific context. Our findings reveal that 64\% rated nudging in cybersecurity as helpful, however several participants expected risks such as intentional misguidance, manipulation and data exposure as well.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_nudge_2021,
    address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
    title = {Nudge or {Restraint}: {How} do {People} {Assess} {Nudging} in {Cybersecurity} - {A} {Representative} {Study} in {Germany}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_NudgingCybersecurityRepresentativeStudy_EuroUSEC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3481357.3481514},
    abstract = {While nudging is a long-established instrument in many contexts, it has more recently emerged to be relevant in cybersecurity as well. For instance, existing research suggests nudges for stronger passwords or safe WiFi connections. However, those nudges are often not as effective as desired. To improve their effectiveness, it is crucial to understand how people assess nudges in cybersecurity, to address potential fears and resulting reactance and to facilitate voluntary compliance. In other contexts, such as the health sector, studies have already thoroughly explored the attitude towards nudging. To address that matter in cybersecurity, we conducted a representative study in Germany (𝑁 = 1, 012), asking people about their attitude towards nudging in that specific context. Our findings reveal that 64\% rated nudging in cybersecurity as helpful, however several participants expected risks such as intentional misguidance, manipulation and data exposure as well.},
    booktitle = {European {Symposium} on {Usable} {Security} ({EuroUSEC})},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {141--150},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Atlas Englisch, Jan Pelle Thomson, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Finding Secret Treasure? Improving Memorized Secrets Through Gamification
    European Symposium on Usable Security (EuroUSEC) Karlsruhe, Germany. doi:10.1145/3481357.3481509
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Users tend to bypass systems that are designed to increase their personal security and privacy while limiting their perceived freedom. Nudges present a possible solution to this problem, offering security benefits without taking away perceived freedom. We have identified a lack of research comparing concrete implementations of nudging concepts in an emulated real-world scenario to assess their relative value as a nudge. Comparing multiple nudging implementations in an emulated real-world scenario including a novel avatar nudge with gamification elements, this publication discusses the advantages of nudging for stronger user-created passwords regarding efficacy, usability, and memorability.We investigated the effect of gamification in nudges, performing two studies (𝑁1 = 16, 𝑁2 = 1, 000) to refine and evaluate implementations of current and novel nudging concepts. Our research found a gamified nudge, which integrates a personalizable avatar guide into the registration process, to perform less effectively than state-of-the-art nudges, independently of participants’ gaming frequency.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_finding_2021,
    address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
    title = {Finding {Secret} {Treasure}? {Improving} {Memorized} {Secrets} {Through} {Gamification}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigEnglischThomsonReuter_MemorizedSecretsThroughGamification_EuroUSEC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3481357.3481509},
    abstract = {Users tend to bypass systems that are designed to increase their personal security and privacy while limiting their perceived freedom.
    Nudges present a possible solution to this problem, offering security benefits without taking away perceived freedom. We have
    identified a lack of research comparing concrete implementations of nudging concepts in an emulated real-world scenario to assess their
    relative value as a nudge. Comparing multiple nudging implementations in an emulated real-world scenario including a novel avatar
    nudge with gamification elements, this publication discusses the advantages of nudging for stronger user-created passwords regarding
    efficacy, usability, and memorability.We investigated the effect of gamification in nudges, performing two studies (𝑁1 = 16, 𝑁2 = 1, 000)
    to refine and evaluate implementations of current and novel nudging concepts. Our research found a gamified nudge, which integrates
    a personalizable avatar guide into the registration process, to perform less effectively than state-of-the-art nudges, independently of
    participants’ gaming frequency.},
    booktitle = {European {Symposium} on {Usable} {Security} ({EuroUSEC})},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Englisch, Atlas and Thomson, Jan Pelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {105--117},
    }

    2020

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/20060/1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CROSSING},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

    2019

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Larissa Aldehoff, Jürgen Altmann, Johannes Buchmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Alfred Nordmann, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Annette Ripper, Ingo Ruhmann, KlausPeter Saalbach, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2019)
    The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 405–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_future_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {The {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Aldehoff, Larissa and Altmann, Jürgen and Buchmann, Johannes and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Nordmann, Alfred and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ripper, Annette and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, Peace, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING},
    pages = {405--413},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – Introduction and Overview
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–9. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_information_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {Introduction} and {Overview}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Peace, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Rashmi Varma, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Vulnerability Assessment in the Smart Farming Infrastructure through Cyberattacks
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Wien, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.

    @inproceedings{linsner_vulnerability_2019,
    address = {Wien, Austria},
    title = {Vulnerability {Assessment} in the {Smart} {Farming} {Infrastructure} through {Cyberattacks}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_119.pdf},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) has a significant impact on agriculture. So-called Smart Farming uses drones and a variety of sensors to measure climate, irrigation, soil moisture or GPS position. With this rapid influx of technology increases the threat that vulnerabilities in those technologies are being exploited for malicious intent. To show the impact of cyberattacks on agriculture, we present a simulation of several attacks on a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network. We conduct a delay attack, an interference attack and three different routing attacks (sinkhole, blackhole and selective forwarding attack). Those attacks are simulated using NETA with the OMNET++ framework. We will show that the security of WSN is influenced by factors like energy consumption or computation power, which can conflict with other interests like low per-unit costs.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Varma, Rashmi and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Security, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {119--124},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Blockchain in der Landwirtschaft 4.0 – Empirische Studie zu Erwartungen von Landwirt_innen gegenüber dezentralen Services auf Basis von Distributed Ledger Technology
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340799
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered

    @inproceedings{linsner_blockchain_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Blockchain in der {Landwirtschaft} 4.0 - {Empirische} {Studie} zu {Erwartungen} von {Landwirt}\_innen gegenüber dezentralen {Services} auf {Basis} von {Distributed} {Ledger} {Technology}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340799},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340799},
    abstract = {Digitalization, which proceeds in all branches, as well in agriculture, by using new technology, sensors and networking, requires responsible usage of data. One possibility to manage data and use them to create value is the blockchain-technology. It is primary enforced by the food industries and consumers to ensure traceability and transparency. To put blockchain-technology into beneficial use in agriculture, this domain has to be analyzed regarding social and business aspects. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study where 41 actors from the agricultural do-main participated in focus groups and delivered a written statement. It was found that farmers are interested in adapting new markets and technologies early to get an economic advantage. On the other hand, the fear of losing traditional local business partners and the social surroundings of the farmers must be considered},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {103--113},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Häusser, Mona Bien, Franziska Herbert (2019)
    Between Effort and Security: User Assessment of the Adequacy of Security Mechanisms for App Categories
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users‘ choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users‘ choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user’s preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users‘ choice of security mechanism.

    @inproceedings{reuter_between_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Between {Effort} and {Security}: {User} {Assessment} of the {Adequacy} of {Security} {Mechanisms} for {App} {Categories}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHaeusserBienHerbert_EffortSecurity_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340770},
    abstract = {With the increasing popularity of the smartphone, the number of people using it for financial transactions such as online shopping, online banking or mobile payment is also growing. Apps used in these contexts store sensitive and valuable data, creating a need for security measures. It has not yet been researched to what extent certain authentication mechanisms, which can be information-, biometric- as well as token-based, are suitable for individual apps and the respective data. The goal of this work is to assess how perceived security and estimated effort of using such mechanisms, as well as the degree to which app data is considered worth protecting, influence users' choices of appropriate measures to protect app categories. Therefore, we conducted a representative study (n=1024). On the one hand, our results show that a positive correlation between perceived security and effort exists for all investigated non-biometric authentication methods. On the other hand, the study sheds light on the differences between the investigated app categories and the users' choice of the appropriate security mechanisms for the particular category. In contrast to perceived security having a positive influence on a user's preference of mechanism, a relation can hardly be identified for effort. Moreover, app data sensitivity does not seem relevant for the users' choice of security mechanism.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Häusser, Katja and Bien, Mona and Herbert, Franziska},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {287--297},
    }

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, UsableSec, Security, Peace, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    From Cyber War to Cyber Peace
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 139–164. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.

    @incollection{reinhold_cyber_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {From {Cyber} {War} to {Cyber} {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {The encompassing trend of digitalisation and widespread dependencies on IT systems triggers adjustments also in the military forces. Besides necessary enhancements of IT security and defensive measures for cyberspace, a growing number of states are estab-lishing offensive military capabilities for this domain. Looking at historical develop-ments and transformations due to advancements in military technologies, the chapter discusses the political progress made and tools developed since. Both of these have con-tributed to handling challenges and confining threats to international security. With this background, the text assesses a possible application of these efforts to developments concerning cyberspace, as well as obstacles that need to be tackled for it to be success-ful. The chapter points out political advancements already in progress, the role of social initiatives, such as the cyber peace campaign of the Forum of Computer Scientists for Peace and Societal Responsibility (FifF), as well as potential consequences of the rising probability of cyber war as opposed to the prospects of cyber peace.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_7},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CROSSING, Cyberwar},
    pages = {139--164},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.

    @book{reuter_information_2019-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural-science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on cyber conflicts, war and peace, cyber arms con-trol, cyber attribution and infrastructures as well as culture and interaction before an outlook is given.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4},
    keywords = {Crisis, Selected, Security, Peace, Infrastructure, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-DualUse, RSF, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar, Projekt-MAKI},
    }

    2017

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Jonas Klös (2017)
    Benutzbare Sicherheit: Usability, Safety und Security bei Passwörtern
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_benutzbare_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Benutzbare {Sicherheit}: {Usability}, {Safety} und {Security} bei {Passwörtern}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3214/2017_WS01_384.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384},
    abstract = {Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klös, Jonas},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING},
    pages = {33--41},
    }

    TraCe: Regionales Forschungszentrum „Transformations of Political Violence“ (1.4.2022-31.3.2026, BMBF)

    TraCe: Regionales Forschungszentrum „Transformations of Political Violence“ (1.4.2022-31.3.2026, BMBF)

    https://www.trace-center.de/

    Die Geschichte moderner Gesell­schaften und der inter­nationalen Beziehungen wird üblicher­weise als ein schritt­weiser Verzicht auf Gewalt erzählt. Von einer Über­windung organisierter Gewalt kann allerdings keine Rede sein. Aktuelle Tendenzen weisen vielmehr in die entgegen­gesetzte Richtung: Das welt­weite Konflikt­geschehen hat an Inten­sität wieder zu­genommen; Globalisierung und techno­logischer Wandel ermöglichen neue Formen kriege­rischer und terroris­tischer Gewalt. Diese Ent­wicklungen verweisen auf Trans­formationen, die existierende Normen und Praktiken zur Einhegung politischer Gewalt heraus­fordern. Das Regionale Forschungs­zentrum „Trans­formations of Political Violence“ untersucht diese Ent­wicklungen mit dem Ziel, die Konse­quenzen für den inner­gesell­schaftlichen und inter­nationalen Frieden zu iden­tifizieren und Strategien zur Ein­dämmung politi­scher Gewalt unter den sich ver­ändernden Bedingungen zu entwickeln.

    Das Regionale Forschungs­zentrum “Trans­formations of Political Violence“ ist ein Kooperations­projekt Leibnitz-Institut für Friedens- und Konflikt­forschung (PRIF), der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, der Philipps-Universität Marburg und der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Es handelt sich um eine inter­disziplinäre Forschungs­initiative, die vom Bundes­ministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) finanziert wird (Laufzeit: April 2022 – März 2026).

    Mit der Errichtung des regionalen Forschungs­zentrums inten­sivieren die beteiligten Partner­institutionen ihre bestehende Zusammen­arbeit und bündeln ihre Ex­pertise in der inter­disziplinären Gewalt­forschung. Durch die thematische Profil­bildung und die Etablierung dauerhafter Veranstaltungs­reihen schaffen sie ein regionales Kompetenz­zentrum für Forschung, Lehre und Wissens­transfer, das inter­national sichtbar ist und systematisch zur Einhegung und Prävention politischer Gewalt beiträgt.

    Das Zentrum bringt disziplinäre Pers­pektiven aus Politik­wissen­schaft, Soziologie, Geschichts- und Rechts­wissenschaften, Sozial­anthropologie, Sozial­psychologie, Kultur- und Sprach­wissen­schaften und Informatik sowie verschiedene methodologische Ansätze zusammen und untersucht das Zusammen­spiel unter­schiedlicher Typen und Ebenen politischer Gewalt systematisch in drei thematischen Forschungs­feldern sowie in einem Synergiefeld.

    2024

  • Stefka Schmid, Katrin Hartwig, Robert Cieslinski, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Digital Resilience in Dealing with Misinformation on Social Media during COVID-19: A Web Application to Assist Users in Crises
    Information Systems Frontiers (ISF) ;26(2):477–499. doi:10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to support users when dealing with social media content. Considering digital resilience, we propose a web app based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) to provide an overview of potentially misleading vs. non-misleading content on Twitter, which can be explored by users and enable foundational learning. The latter aims at systematically identifying thematic patterns which may be associated with misleading information. Additionally, it entails reflecting on indicators of misleading tweets which are proposed to approach classification of tweets. Paying special attention to non-expert users of social media, we conducted a two-step Think Aloud study for evaluation. While participants valued the opportunity to generate new knowledge and the diversity of the application, qualities such as equality and rapidity may be further improved. However, learning effects outweighed individual costs as all users were able to shift focus onto relevant features, such as hashtags, while readily pointing out content characteristics. Our design artifact connects to learning-oriented interventions regarding the spread of misleading information and tackles information overload by a SNA-based plug-in.

    @article{schmid_digital_2024,
    title = {Digital {Resilience} in {Dealing} with {Misinformation} on {Social} {Media} during {COVID}-19: {A} {Web} {Application} to {Assist} {Users} in {Crises}},
    volume = {26},
    issn = {1572-9419},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5},
    doi = {10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5},
    abstract = {In crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to support users when dealing with social media content. Considering digital resilience, we propose a web app based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) to provide an overview of potentially misleading vs. non-misleading content on Twitter, which can be explored by users and enable foundational learning. The latter aims at systematically identifying thematic patterns which may be associated with misleading information. Additionally, it entails reflecting on indicators of misleading tweets which are proposed to approach classification of tweets. Paying special attention to non-expert users of social media, we conducted a two-step Think Aloud study for evaluation. While participants valued the opportunity to generate new knowledge and the diversity of the application, qualities such as equality and rapidity may be further improved. However, learning effects outweighed individual costs as all users were able to shift focus onto relevant features, such as hashtags, while readily pointing out content characteristics. Our design artifact connects to learning-oriented interventions regarding the spread of misleading information and tackles information overload by a SNA-based plug-in.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Information Systems Frontiers (ISF)},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Hartwig, Katrin and Cieslinski, Robert and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, A-Paper, Projekt-TraCe, Projekt-NEBULA},
    pages = {477--499},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2024)
    Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_information_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Selected, Security, Peace, Infrastructure, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum (2024)
    Keyboard Fighters: The Use of ICTs by Activists in Times of Military Coup in Myanmar
    Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3613904.3642279
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Amidst the ongoing anti-military protests in Myanmar since 2021, there is a noticeable research gap on ICT-supported activism. Generally, ICTs play an important role during political crises in conjunction with activists’ practices on the ground. Inspired by Resource Mobilization Theory, I conducted qualitative interviews (N=16) and a qualitative online survey (N=34), which demonstrate the intersection between analog and digital domains, showcasing the ingenuity of the activists, and the rapid adoption of ICTs in a country that has experienced a digital revolution within the last few years. As not all people were able to protest on-the-ground, they acted as keyboard fighters to organize protests, to share information, and to support the civil disobedience movement in Myanmar. The study identifies, inter alia, the need for better offline applications with wider coverage in times of internet shutdowns, applications that cannot be easily identified during physical controls, and providing free and secure VPN access.

    @inproceedings{guntrum_keyboard_2024,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CHI} '24},
    title = {Keyboard {Fighters}: {The} {Use} of {ICTs} by {Activists} in {Times} of {Military} {Coup} in {Myanmar}},
    isbn = {9798400703300},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3613904.3642279},
    doi = {10.1145/3613904.3642279},
    abstract = {Amidst the ongoing anti-military protests in Myanmar since 2021, there is a noticeable research gap on ICT-supported activism. Generally, ICTs play an important role during political crises in conjunction with activists’ practices on the ground. Inspired by Resource Mobilization Theory, I conducted qualitative interviews (N=16) and a qualitative online survey (N=34), which demonstrate the intersection between analog and digital domains, showcasing the ingenuity of the activists, and the rapid adoption of ICTs in a country that has experienced a digital revolution within the last few years. As not all people were able to protest on-the-ground, they acted as keyboard fighters to organize protests, to share information, and to support the civil disobedience movement in Myanmar. The study identifies, inter alia, the need for better offline applications with wider coverage in times of internet shutdowns, applications that cannot be easily identified during physical controls, and providing free and secure VPN access.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {CHI} {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems}},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Peace, Projekt-TraCe, Projekt-ATHENE},
    }

  • Anja-Liisa Gonsior (2024)
    Die intersektionale Perspektive auf letale autonome Waffensysteme: Eine Analyse der Diskurse innerhalb der UN-Waffenkonvention
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Die Entwicklung letaler (teil)autonomer Waffensysteme (LAWS) gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung. Seit 2013 wird das Thema innerhalb der UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons zwischen Mitgliedsstaaten, Zivilgesellschaft und Fachexpert*innen diskutiert. Während sich die Debatte zu Beginn stark mit definitorischen Fragen von LAWS auseinandersetzte, so dominieren im Forum derzeit technische und rechtliche Fragen, was sich auch im entsprechenden wissenschaftlichen Diskurs widerspiegelt. Andererseits haben auch zivilgesellschaftliche Akteure den Verhandlungsprozess wesentlich beeinflusst, nicht zuletzt die Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, welche an der Initiierung des Verhandlungsrahmens maßgeblich beteiligt war. Einer der zentralen Argumentationsstränge dieser zivilgesellschaftlichen Akteure konzentriert sich auf eine intersektionale Perspektive, die unter anderem auf Bias in Technologien und Anwendungen aufmerksam macht, und versucht, diese Perspektiven in die GGE zu LAWS einzubringen und zu stärken. Die Analyse von 51 UN-Dokumenten und Gespräche mit Expert*innen zeigen, dass – im Hinblick auf Intersektionalität – insbesondere die Konzepte Gender und Race in den GGE-Diskussionen berücksichtigt werden, wenn auch nur mit geringem Gewicht. NGOs konnten jedoch die Gesamtdebatte beeinflussen und neue Themen einbringen, indem sie an etabliertere Diskurse in der Debatte anknüpften, wie z. B. an rechtliche oder technische Diskurse.

    @article{gonsior_intersektionale_2024,
    title = {Die intersektionale {Perspektive} auf letale autonome {Waffensysteme}: {Eine} {Analyse} der {Diskurse} innerhalb der {UN}-{Waffenkonvention}},
    abstract = {Die Entwicklung letaler (teil)autonomer Waffensysteme (LAWS) gewinnt zunehmend an Bedeutung. Seit 2013 wird das Thema innerhalb der UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons zwischen Mitgliedsstaaten, Zivilgesellschaft und Fachexpert*innen diskutiert. Während sich die Debatte zu Beginn stark mit definitorischen Fragen von LAWS auseinandersetzte, so dominieren im Forum derzeit technische und rechtliche Fragen, was sich auch im entsprechenden wissenschaftlichen Diskurs widerspiegelt. Andererseits haben auch zivilgesellschaftliche Akteure den Verhandlungsprozess wesentlich beeinflusst, nicht zuletzt die Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, welche an der Initiierung des Verhandlungsrahmens maßgeblich beteiligt war. Einer der zentralen Argumentationsstränge dieser zivilgesellschaftlichen Akteure konzentriert sich auf eine intersektionale Perspektive, die unter anderem auf Bias in Technologien und Anwendungen aufmerksam macht, und versucht, diese Perspektiven in die GGE zu LAWS einzubringen und zu stärken. Die Analyse von 51 UN-Dokumenten und Gespräche mit Expert*innen zeigen, dass – im Hinblick auf Intersektionalität – insbesondere die Konzepte Gender und Race in den GGE-Diskussionen berücksichtigt werden, wenn auch nur mit geringem Gewicht. NGOs konnten jedoch die Gesamtdebatte beeinflussen und neue Themen einbringen, indem sie an etabliertere Diskurse in der Debatte anknüpften, wie z. B. an rechtliche oder technische Diskurse.},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Gonsior, Anja-Liisa},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-TraCe, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum, Sofía Cerrillo, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Navigating the Pandemic through Technology: Colombian NGOs Promoting Peace during the COVID-19 era
    Peacebuilding & Development .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    This article examines how Colombian NGOs use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for peacebuilding attempts amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing from 17 interviews with NGO members, the study underscores the pivotal role of digital peacebuilding in sustaining and expanding peace attempts, effective data management, and a broader engagement of target groups beyond in-person activities often associated with safety and financial concerns. The findings also identify prevailing challenges of incorporating ICTs in NGO’s peacebuilding activities, ranging from privacy-related concerns to connectivity issues. The article points out the potential for NGOs to enhance interactivity, knowledge transfer, and to diversify their activities, including IT-security training and awareness campaigns on hate speech and propaganda. It also emphasizes the importance of developing risk reduction strategies tailored to the specific needs of different target groups.

    @article{guntrum_navigating_2024,
    title = {Navigating the {Pandemic} through {Technology}: {Colombian} {NGOs} {Promoting} {Peace} during the {COVID}-19 era},
    abstract = {This article examines how Colombian NGOs use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for peacebuilding attempts amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing from 17 interviews with NGO members, the study underscores the pivotal role of digital peacebuilding in sustaining and expanding peace attempts, effective data management, and a broader engagement of target groups beyond in-person activities often associated with safety and financial concerns. The findings also identify prevailing challenges of incorporating ICTs in NGO's peacebuilding activities, ranging from privacy-related concerns to connectivity issues. The article points out the potential for NGOs to enhance interactivity, knowledge transfer, and to diversify their activities, including IT-security training and awareness campaigns on hate speech and propaganda. It also emphasizes the importance of developing risk reduction strategies tailored to the specific needs of different target groups.},
    journal = {Peacebuilding \& Development},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Cerrillo, Sofía and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-TraCe, Student},
    }

    2023

  • Stefka Schmid, Laura Guntrum, Steffen Haesler, Lisa Schultheiß, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Digital Volunteers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Care Work on Social Media for Socio-technical Resilience
    Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society ;3(1). doi:10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.

    @article{schmid_digital_2023,
    title = {Digital {Volunteers} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}: {Care} {Work} on {Social} {Media} for {Socio}-technical {Resilience}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2748-5625},
    url = {https://ojs.weizenbaum-institut.de/index.php/wjds/article/view/78},
    doi = {10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6},
    abstract = {Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Guntrum, Laura and Haesler, Steffen and Schultheiß, Lisa and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum, Benjamin Güldenring, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Using Digitally Mediated Methods in Sensitive Contexts: A Threat Analysis and Critical Reflection on Security, Privacy, and Ethical Concerns in the Case of Afghanistan
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;11(2):95–128. doi:10.1007/s42597-022-00088-2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Given the lack of empirical examples of how research can be conducted via digital means in sensitive contexts, this paper provides a threat model using Afghanistan, where the Taliban took power in August 2021, as an example. Both technical and non-technical research-related risks are analyzed, paying attention to research ethics, data security, and privacy. We argue that any threat model and risk analysis is highly context-dependent. Our analysis reveals that in certain research processes, human security does not necessarily coincide with data security and that an ambivalence exists between privacy and usability. In addition to the concrete threat analysis, the paper identifies some general technical solutions (e.g., encryption methods, communication software) for different research steps to foster secure and ethically justifiable research.

    @article{guntrum_using_2023,
    title = {Using {Digitally} {Mediated} {Methods} in {Sensitive} {Contexts}: {A} {Threat} {Analysis} and {Critical} {Reflection} on {Security}, {Privacy}, and {Ethical} {Concerns} in the {Case} of {Afghanistan}},
    volume = {11},
    issn = {2524-6976},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42597-022-00088-2},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-022-00088-2},
    abstract = {Given the lack of empirical examples of how research can be conducted via digital means in sensitive contexts, this paper provides a threat model using Afghanistan, where the Taliban took power in August 2021, as an example. Both technical and non-technical research-related risks are analyzed, paying attention to research ethics, data security, and privacy. We argue that any threat model and risk analysis is highly context-dependent. Our analysis reveals that in certain research processes, human security does not necessarily coincide with data security and that an ambivalence exists between privacy and usability. In addition to the concrete threat analysis, the paper identifies some general technical solutions (e.g., encryption methods, communication software) for different research steps to foster secure and ethically justifiable research.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Güldenring, Benjamin and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian},
    month = oct,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {95--128},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Zur Debatte über die Einhegung eines Cyberwars: Analyse militärischer Cyberaktivitäten im Krieg Russlands gegen die Ukraine
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) . doi:10.1007/s42597-023-00094-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Überfall Russlands auf die Ukraine und der sich anschließende Krieg haben neben vielen anderen sicherheitspolitischen Gewissheiten auch zum ersten Mal die Rolle des Cyberspace in einem offenen Angriffskrieg demonstriert und bedenkenswerte Entwicklungen offenbart. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, die militärischen Aktivitäten im Cyberspace im Rahmen des Krieges Russlands gegen die Ukraine auf der Grundlage der öffentlich verfügbaren Informationen zu analysieren und im Hinblick auf die bis dato gängigen Vorstellungen eines Cyberwars zu bewerten. Darauf aufbauend werden mögliche Schlussfolgerungen betrachtet, zum einen mit Blick auf die zukünftige Bedeutung von Cyberaktivitäten für Russland, hinsichtlich des generellen militärischen Einsatzes von Cyberwirkmitteln und dessen weiterer Entwicklung, und in Bezug auf zukünftige internationale Debatten zur Einhegung von Cyberwars und des schädigenden Einsatzes von Cyberwirkmitteln.

    @article{reinhold_zur_2023,
    title = {Zur {Debatte} über die {Einhegung} eines {Cyberwars}: {Analyse} militärischer {Cyberaktivitäten} im {Krieg} {Russlands} gegen die {Ukraine}},
    issn = {2524-6976},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s42597-023-00094-y},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-023-00094-y},
    abstract = {Der Überfall Russlands auf die Ukraine und der sich anschließende Krieg haben neben vielen anderen sicherheitspolitischen Gewissheiten auch zum ersten Mal die Rolle des Cyberspace in einem offenen Angriffskrieg demonstriert und bedenkenswerte Entwicklungen offenbart. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es, die militärischen Aktivitäten im Cyberspace im Rahmen des Krieges Russlands gegen die Ukraine auf der Grundlage der öffentlich verfügbaren Informationen zu analysieren und im Hinblick auf die bis dato gängigen Vorstellungen eines Cyberwars zu bewerten. Darauf aufbauend werden mögliche Schlussfolgerungen betrachtet, zum einen mit Blick auf die zukünftige Bedeutung von Cyberaktivitäten für Russland, hinsichtlich des generellen militärischen Einsatzes von Cyberwirkmitteln und dessen weiterer Entwicklung, und in Bezug auf zukünftige internationale Debatten zur Einhegung von Cyberwars und des schädigenden Einsatzes von Cyberwirkmitteln.},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = mar,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum, Sebastian Schwartz, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Dual-Use Technologies in the Context of Autonomous Driving: An Empirical Case Study From Germany
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) . doi:10.1007/s12399-022-00935-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The article examines which technical aspects of autonomous driving are potentially transferable to the military sector. Through expert interviews the strong fragmentation of technologies in the field of autonomous driving becomes apparent. This hinders the clear identification of a specific dual-use technology. Environmental perception, artificial intelligence and sensors are considered to have the highest transferability rate from civil research to the military sector. Therefore, sensor development should receive special attention.

    @article{guntrum_dual-use_2023,
    title = {Dual-{Use} {Technologies} in the {Context} of {Autonomous} {Driving}: {An} {Empirical} {Case} {Study} {From} {Germany}},
    issn = {1866-2196},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s12399-022-00935-3},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-022-00935-3},
    abstract = {The article examines which technical aspects of autonomous driving are potentially transferable to the military sector. Through expert interviews the strong fragmentation of technologies in the field of autonomous driving becomes apparent. This hinders the clear identification of a specific dual-use technology. Environmental perception, artificial intelligence and sensors are considered to have the highest transferability rate from civil research to the military sector. Therefore, sensor development should receive special attention.},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Schwartz, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    month = jan,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid (2023)
    Safe and Secure? Visions of Military Human-Computer Interaction
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Rapperswil, Switzerland. doi:10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-365
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Safety-critical human-computer interaction has focused on technology use in life-critical situations, including military operations. Due to the practical relevance of HCI and disciplinary debates about human-centered design, this literature review studies HCI scholarships’ visions of military human-computer interaction. Through text analysis and categorization of publications, it is found that interaction is envisioned to take place in the context of both missionoriented operational (e.g., target detection) as well as organizational tasks (e.g., military training). While artificial intelligence, virtual/augmented reality, and robots are most frequently defined as technological environments, goals, such as situation awareness, enjoyment, and trust are predominantly associated with them. Considering scholarly references to application contexts and different factors of the context of use allows to systematically approach how military human-computer interaction is imagined. Offering insight into research trends in HCI, this first overview of research endeavors also contributes to interdisciplinary debates, such as Security Studies and technology assessment.

    @inproceedings{schmid_safe_2023,
    address = {Rapperswil, Switzerland},
    title = {Safe and {Secure}? {Visions} of {Military} {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/items/841cc5bd-8e25-40de-804f-8fb4fedddf11},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-365},
    abstract = {Safety-critical human-computer interaction has focused on technology use in life-critical situations, including military operations. Due to the practical relevance of HCI and disciplinary debates about human-centered design, this literature review studies HCI scholarships’ visions of military human-computer interaction. Through text analysis and categorization of publications, it is found that interaction is envisioned to take place in the context of both missionoriented operational (e.g., target detection) as well as organizational tasks (e.g., military training). While artificial intelligence, virtual/augmented reality, and robots are most frequently defined as technological environments, goals, such as situation awareness, enjoyment, and trust are predominantly associated with them. Considering scholarly references to application contexts and different factors of the context of use allows to systematically approach how military human-computer interaction is imagined. Offering insight into research trends in HCI, this first overview of research endeavors also contributes to interdisciplinary debates, such as Security Studies and technology assessment.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Laura Guntrum (2023)
    Science Peace Security ‘23 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints. doi:10.26083/tuprints-00024777
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The conference Science · Peace · Security ’23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.

    @book{reuter_science_2023,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Science {Peace} {Security} ‘23 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/24777},
    abstract = {The conference Science · Peace · Security '23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.26083/tuprints-00024777},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Laura Guntrum (2023)
    Science Peace Security ’23: Editorial of the Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research
    In: Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Laura Guntrum: Science Peace Security ’23: Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research. Darmstadt, Germany: TUprints, , 9–13. doi:10.26083/tuprints-00024777
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The conference Science · Peace · Security ’23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.

    @incollection{reuter_science_2023-1,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Science {Peace} {Security} ’23: {Editorial} of the {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/24777},
    abstract = {The conference Science · Peace · Security '23 took place from September 20 to 22, 2023, at the Georg-Christoph-Lichtenberg-Haus of the Technical University of Darmstadt. It focused on the transformation of technologies, their role in wars and conflicts, and issues related to arms control. The three-day scientific conference welcomed over 110 participants from Germany and speakers from the United Kingdom, Sweden, the USA, Colombia, India, Italy, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Iraq, Austria, and the Netherlands. More than 50 different organizations were represented, ensuring interdisciplinary exchange. The program covered a wide range of topics reflecting societal discourses in light of a changing global security landscape. In total, the conference featured 40 presentations, workshops, discussions, and panels that discussed current and future challenges in the field of technical peace and conflict research. Particularly relevant topics included: Artificial Intelligence, Unmanned Weapons Systems, Rocket and Space Technologies (Nuclear) Arms Control, Regulation of Biological and Chemical Weapons, Information Technologies for Surveillance and Oppression of Civilians, (Civilian) Critical Infrastructures, Digital Peacebuilding, Human-Machine Interaction, Dual-Used, Cyber Attacks and Relevant Technology and Security Policies.},
    booktitle = {Science {Peace} {Security} ’23: {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Guntrum, Laura},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.26083/tuprints-00024777},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {9--13},
    }

    2022

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Laura Guntrum, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Vision or Threat – Awareness for Dual-Use in the Development of Autonomous Driving
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;3(3):163–174. doi:10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.

    @article{schwartz_vision_2022,
    title = {Vision or {Threat} – {Awareness} for {Dual}-{Use} in the {Development} of {Autonomous} {Driving}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchwartzGuntrumReuter_VisionorThreatAwarenessDualUseAutonomousDriving_IEEE-TTS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310},
    abstract = {In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Guntrum, Laura and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {163--174},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid (2022)
    Trustworthy and Explainable: A European Vision of (Weaponised) Artificial Intelligence
    Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO) ;95(3-4):290–315. doi:10.35998/fw-2022-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The European Union (EU) has undertaken policies which address the research and development of artificial intelligence (AI). In light of debates of technology assessment which focus on risks for humans and questions of control of AI, the EU has propagated an ethical, human-centred approach of the application of AI. It is important to identify how the EU envisions AI as this may guide emerging norms in AI governance and today’s research and development of (weaponised) AI. Building on works of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), this work derives the actor’s understanding of human-AI interaction, including conceptualisations of explainability, interpretability, and risks. Analysis of EU documents on the implementation of AI as a general-purpose technology and for military application reveals that explainability and risk identification are crucial elements for trust, which itself is a necessary component in the uptake of AI. Interdisciplinary approaches allow for a more detailed understanding of actors’ fundamental views on human control of AI, which further contributes to debates on technology assessment in professionalised political contexts.

    @article{schmid_trustworthy_2022,
    title = {Trustworthy and {Explainable}: {A} {European} {Vision} of ({Weaponised}) {Artificial} {Intelligence}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://elibrary.bwv-verlag.de/article/10.35998/fw-2022-0013},
    doi = {10.35998/fw-2022-0013},
    abstract = {The European Union (EU) has undertaken policies which address the research and development of artificial intelligence (AI). In light of debates of technology assessment which focus on risks for humans and questions of control of AI, the EU has propagated an ethical, human-centred approach of the application of AI. It is important to identify how the EU envisions AI as this may guide emerging norms in AI governance and today’s research and development of (weaponised) AI. Building on works of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), this work derives the actor’s understanding of human-AI interaction, including conceptualisations of explainability, interpretability, and risks. Analysis of EU documents on the implementation of AI as a general-purpose technology and for military application reveals that explainability and risk identification are crucial elements for trust, which itself is a necessary component in the uptake of AI. Interdisciplinary approaches allow for a more detailed understanding of actors’ fundamental views on human control of AI, which further contributes to debates on technology assessment in professionalised political contexts.},
    number = {3-4},
    journal = {Die Friedens-Warte / Journal of International Peace and Organization (JIPO)},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {290--315},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum (2022)
    Justice-oriented Research in Peace and Conflict Studies in Times of Social Distancing
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-216
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only since the COVID-19 pandemic, many research processes had already been increasingly digitized to maintain global ex-change of information efficiently. For years, scientific empirical studies have been conducted in politically sensitive contexts using digitally mediated methods, entailing numerous risks as well as potentials. One goal of digital research is to also capture marginal-ized voices. With emerging risks related to digital research, such as digital surveillance and social media monitoring by adversaries (e.g., the military in Myanmar), research needs to be more thoughtfully conducted. Considering research ethics, an evolving discrepancy between security measures and values of social jus-tice, such as accessibility and representation, appears as most data-secure applications are not used widely and offers such as “Free Basics” entice people to use rather data-unsecure applica-tions. Reflecting on this existing discrepancy in ethical require-ments, I illustrate challenges of the German research context re-lated to digitally conducted research focusing on overt conflictive social contexts.

    @inproceedings{guntrum_justice-oriented_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {Justice-oriented {Research} in {Peace} and {Conflict} {Studies} in {Times} of {Social} {Distancing}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39092},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-216},
    abstract = {Not only since the COVID-19 pandemic, many research processes had already been increasingly digitized to maintain global ex-change of information efficiently. For years, scientific empirical studies have been conducted in politically sensitive contexts using digitally mediated methods, entailing numerous risks as well as potentials. One goal of digital research is to also capture marginal-ized voices. With emerging risks related to digital research, such as digital surveillance and social media monitoring by adversaries (e.g., the military in Myanmar), research needs to be more thoughtfully conducted. Considering research ethics, an evolving discrepancy between security measures and values of social jus-tice, such as accessibility and representation, appears as most data-secure applications are not used widely and offers such as “Free Basics” entice people to use rather data-unsecure applica-tions. Reflecting on this existing discrepancy in ethical require-ments, I illustrate challenges of the German research context re-lated to digitally conducted research focusing on overt conflictive social contexts.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum, Mira Keßler, Jignesh Patel, Anna Varfolomeeva (2022)
    Remotely Accessing the Field and Building Trust with Distant Sources. Perspectives from Journalism Practice for Ethnographic Research
    Global Media Journal – German Edition ;12(1).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Journalists and ethnographic researchers, such as anthropologists, sociologists or media scholars, have comparable ways of establishing initial contacts with people from their fields of interest. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and consequential travel restrictions and social distancing, it has become increasingly difficult to access a field. Taking inspiration from social anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (2004, p. 226), who compared journalists and anthropologists as “neighboring groups engaged in a somehow parallel pursuit,” this article explores what researchers may learn from practitioners who conduct research without being on-site. Fed by various practical journalists’ experiences, the article aims to investigate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digitally mediated methods, such as online search tools and social media, can be used to establish contacts and gain trust remotely. Here, the relevance of these methods for accessing a field in general goes beyond the limitations imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic and can be of interest to all those who face difficulties of field access of any kind. Ultimately, this article reflects on corresponding ethical challenges that may arise while conducting research remotely.

    @article{guntrum_remotely_2022,
    title = {Remotely {Accessing} the {Field} and {Building} {Trust} with {Distant} {Sources}. {Perspectives} from {Journalism} {Practice} for {Ethnographic} {Research}},
    volume = {12},
    url = {https://globalmediajournal.de/index.php/gmj/article/view/220},
    abstract = {Journalists and ethnographic researchers, such as anthropologists, sociologists or media scholars, have comparable ways of establishing initial contacts with people from their fields of interest. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and consequential travel restrictions and social distancing, it has become increasingly difficult to access a field. Taking inspiration from social anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (2004, p. 226), who compared journalists and anthropologists as “neighboring groups engaged in a somehow parallel pursuit,” this article explores what researchers may learn from practitioners who conduct research without being on-site. Fed by various practical journalists’ experiences, the article aims to investigate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digitally mediated methods, such as online search tools and social media, can be used to establish contacts and gain trust remotely. Here, the relevance of these methods for accessing a field in general goes beyond the limitations imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic and can be of interest to all those who face difficulties of field access of any kind. Ultimately, this article reflects on corresponding ethical challenges that may arise while conducting research remotely.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Global Media Journal - German Edition},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Keßler, Mira and Patel, Jignesh and Varfolomeeva, Anna},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

    NEBULA: Nutzerzentrierte KI-basierte Erkennung von Fake News und Fehlinformationen (1.7.2022-30.6.2025, BMBF)

    BMBF-Verbundprojekt NEBULA: Nutzerzentrierte KI-basierte Erkennung von Fake News und Fehlinformationen (1.7.2022-30.6.2025, BMBF)

    https://peasec.de/projekte/nebula

    Die Verbreitung falscher und irreführender Informationen – insbesondere über soziale Medien wie TikTok, Twitter, Facebook und Co. – nehmen eine immer größer werdende Relevanz in sicherheitsrelevanten Situationen ein. Gerade im Kontext des Ukrainekriegs spielen derartige Plattformen eine besondere Rolle, indem gefälschte Videos oder Inhalte mit falscher zeitlicher Einordnung in kürzester Zeit viral gehen und somit das Potential für Verunsicherung und Meinungsmanipulation birgen. Problematisch sind dabei nicht nur absichtliche sondern auch unabsichtlich irreführende Informationen.

    Ziel des interdisziplinären Verbundvorhabens NEBULA ist die transparente, KI-basierte Erkennung von Fake News und Fehlinformationen in sicherheitsrelevanten Situationen sowie die zielgruppengerechte Darstellung der Detektionsergebnisse zur Förderung der Medienkompetenz. Die nutzerzentrierten Ansätze adressieren dabei sowohl  Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) in der akkuraten Lagebilderstellung und Krisenkommunikation als auch vulnerable Personen (z.B. aufgrund ihres Alters, Bildungshintergrunds oder ihrer Sprachkenntnisse) durch partizipative Entwicklung von technischen Unterstützungswerkzeugen. Innerhalb des Projekts entstehen Demonstratore in Form von Smartphone-Apps, Browser-Plugins und Webanwendungen, um Einzelpersonen und Behörden dazu zu befähigen, Fake News und Fehlinformationen selbst erkennen zu können.

    Dem Verbundprojekt NEBULA gehören fünf Verbundpartner, acht assoziierte Partner sowie zwei Unterauftragsnehmer an: Neben dem Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt (Prof. Dr. Christian Reuter) als Verbundkoordinator sind der Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Neue Medien (WiNeMe) der Universität Siegen (Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf), die Professur für Kommunikationswissenschaft mit Schwerpunkt politische Kommunikation der Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg (Prof. Dr. Hektor Haarkötter), der Lehrstuhl Data Science (DICE) der Universität Paderborn (Prof. Dr. Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo) sowie die NanoGiants GmbH (Lukas Czarnecki) als Verbundpartner am Projekt beteiligt.

    2024

  • Stefka Schmid, Katrin Hartwig, Robert Cieslinski, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Digital Resilience in Dealing with Misinformation on Social Media during COVID-19: A Web Application to Assist Users in Crises
    Information Systems Frontiers (ISF) ;26(2):477–499. doi:10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to support users when dealing with social media content. Considering digital resilience, we propose a web app based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) to provide an overview of potentially misleading vs. non-misleading content on Twitter, which can be explored by users and enable foundational learning. The latter aims at systematically identifying thematic patterns which may be associated with misleading information. Additionally, it entails reflecting on indicators of misleading tweets which are proposed to approach classification of tweets. Paying special attention to non-expert users of social media, we conducted a two-step Think Aloud study for evaluation. While participants valued the opportunity to generate new knowledge and the diversity of the application, qualities such as equality and rapidity may be further improved. However, learning effects outweighed individual costs as all users were able to shift focus onto relevant features, such as hashtags, while readily pointing out content characteristics. Our design artifact connects to learning-oriented interventions regarding the spread of misleading information and tackles information overload by a SNA-based plug-in.

    @article{schmid_digital_2024,
    title = {Digital {Resilience} in {Dealing} with {Misinformation} on {Social} {Media} during {COVID}-19: {A} {Web} {Application} to {Assist} {Users} in {Crises}},
    volume = {26},
    issn = {1572-9419},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5},
    doi = {10.1007/s10796-022-10347-5},
    abstract = {In crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to support users when dealing with social media content. Considering digital resilience, we propose a web app based on Social Network Analysis (SNA) to provide an overview of potentially misleading vs. non-misleading content on Twitter, which can be explored by users and enable foundational learning. The latter aims at systematically identifying thematic patterns which may be associated with misleading information. Additionally, it entails reflecting on indicators of misleading tweets which are proposed to approach classification of tweets. Paying special attention to non-expert users of social media, we conducted a two-step Think Aloud study for evaluation. While participants valued the opportunity to generate new knowledge and the diversity of the application, qualities such as equality and rapidity may be further improved. However, learning effects outweighed individual costs as all users were able to shift focus onto relevant features, such as hashtags, while readily pointing out content characteristics. Our design artifact connects to learning-oriented interventions regarding the spread of misleading information and tackles information overload by a SNA-based plug-in.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Information Systems Frontiers (ISF)},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Hartwig, Katrin and Cieslinski, Robert and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, A-Paper, Projekt-TraCe, Projekt-NEBULA},
    pages = {477--499},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Frederic Doell, Christian Reuter (2024)
    The Landscape of User-centered Misinformation Interventions – A Systematic Literature Review
    ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Misinformation represent a key challenge for society. User-centered misinformation interventions as digital countermeasures that exert a direct influence on users represent a promising means to deal with the large amounts of information available. While an extensive body of research on this topic exists, researchers are confronted with a diverse research landscape spanning multiple disciplines. This review systematizes the landscape of user-centered misinformation interventions to facilitate knowledge transfer, identify trends, and enable informed decision-making. Over 3,700 scholarly publications were screened and a systematic literature review (N=108) was conducted. A taxonomy was derived regarding intervention design (e.g., binary label), user interaction (active or passive), and timing (e.g., post exposure to misinformation). We provide a structured overview of approaches across multiple disciplines, and derive six overarching challenges for future research.

    @article{hartwig_landscape_2024,
    title = {The {Landscape} of {User}-centered {Misinformation} {Interventions} – {A} {Systematic} {Literature} {Review}},
    abstract = {Misinformation represent a key challenge for society. User-centered misinformation interventions as digital countermeasures that exert a direct influence on users represent a promising means to deal with the large amounts of information available. While an extensive body of research on this topic exists, researchers are confronted with a diverse research landscape spanning multiple disciplines. This review systematizes the landscape of user-centered misinformation interventions to facilitate knowledge transfer, identify trends, and enable informed decision-making. Over 3,700 scholarly publications were screened and a systematic literature review (N=108) was conducted. A taxonomy was derived regarding intervention design (e.g., binary label), user interaction (active or passive), and timing (e.g., post exposure to misinformation). We provide a structured overview of approaches across multiple disciplines, and derive six overarching challenges for future research.},
    journal = {ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Doell, Frederic and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {A-Paper, HCI, Peace, Projekt-NEBULA, Ranking-CORE-A*, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Student},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Tom Biselli, Franziska Schneider, Christian Reuter (2024)
    From Adolescents‘ Eyes: Assessing an Indicator-Based Intervention to Combat Misinformation on TikTok
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3613904.3642264
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Misinformation poses a recurrent challenge for video-sharing platforms (VSPs) like TikTok. Obtaining user perspectives on digital interventions addressing the need for transparency (e.g., through indicators) is essential. This article offers a thorough examination of the comprehensibility, usefulness, and limitations of an indicator-based intervention from an adolescents’ perspective. This study (𝑁 = 39; aged 13-16 years) comprised two qualitative steps: (1) focus group discussions and (2) think-aloud sessions, where participants engaged with a smartphone-app for TikTok. The results offer new insights into how video-based indicators can assist adolescents’ assessments. The intervention received positive feedback, especially for its transparency, and could be applicable to new content. This paper sheds light on how adolescents are expected to be experts while also being prone to video-based misinformation, with limited understanding of an intervention’s limitations. By adopting teenagers’ perspectives, we contribute to HCI research and provide new insights into the chances and limitations of interventions for VSPs.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_adolescents_2024,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CHI} '24},
    title = {From {Adolescents}' {Eyes}: {Assessing} an {Indicator}-{Based} {Intervention} to {Combat} {Misinformation} on {TikTok}},
    isbn = {9798400703300},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3613904.3642264},
    doi = {10.1145/3613904.3642264},
    abstract = {Misinformation poses a recurrent challenge for video-sharing platforms (VSPs) like TikTok. Obtaining user perspectives on digital interventions addressing the need for transparency (e.g., through indicators) is essential. This article offers a thorough examination of the comprehensibility, usefulness, and limitations of an indicator-based intervention from an adolescents’ perspective. This study (𝑁 = 39; aged 13-16 years) comprised two qualitative steps: (1) focus group discussions and (2) think-aloud sessions, where participants
    engaged with a smartphone-app for TikTok. The results offer new insights into how video-based indicators can assist adolescents’ assessments. The intervention received positive feedback, especially for its transparency, and could be applicable to new content. This paper sheds light on how adolescents are expected to be experts while also being prone to video-based misinformation, with limited understanding of an intervention’s limitations. By adopting
    teenagers’ perspectives, we contribute to HCI research and provide new insights into the chances and limitations of interventions for VSPs.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Biselli, Tom and Schneider, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Ruslan Sandler, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Navigating Misinformation in Voice Messages: Identification of User-Centered Features for Digital Interventions
    Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP) . doi:10.1002/rhc3.12296
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Misinformation presents a challenge to democracies, particularly in times of crisis. One way in which misinformation is spread is through voice messages sent via messenger groups, which enable members to share information on a larger scale. Gaining user perspectives on digital misinformation interventions as countermeasure after detection is crucial. In this paper, we extract potential features of misinformation in voice messages from literature, implement them within a program that automatically processes voice messages, and evaluate their perceived usefulness and comprehensibility as user-centered indicators.We propose 35 features extracted from audio files at the character, word, sentence, audio and creator levels to assist (1) private individuals in conducting credibility assessments, (2) government agencies faced with data overload during crises, and (3) researchers seeking to gather features for automatic detection approaches. We conducted a think-aloud study with laypersons (N = 20) to provide initial insight into how individuals autonomously assess the credibility of voice messages, as well as which automatically extracted features they find to be clear and convincing indicators of misinformation. Our study provides qualitative and quantitative insights into valuable indicators, particularly when they relate directly to the content or its creator, and uncovers challenges in user interface design.

    @article{hartwig_navigating_2024,
    title = {Navigating {Misinformation} in {Voice} {Messages}: {Identification} of {User}-{Centered} {Features} for {Digital} {Interventions}},
    issn = {1944-4079},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2024/2024_HartwigSandlerReuter_NavigatingMisinfoVoiceMessages_RiskHazards.pdf},
    doi = {10.1002/rhc3.12296},
    abstract = {Misinformation presents a challenge to democracies, particularly in times of crisis. One way in which misinformation is spread is through voice messages sent via messenger groups, which enable members to share information on a larger scale. Gaining user perspectives on digital misinformation interventions as countermeasure after detection is crucial. In this paper, we extract potential features of misinformation in voice messages from literature, implement them within a program that automatically processes voice messages, and evaluate their perceived usefulness and comprehensibility as user-centered indicators.We propose 35 features extracted from audio files at the character, word, sentence, audio and creator levels to assist (1) private individuals in conducting credibility assessments, (2) government agencies faced with data overload during crises, and (3) researchers seeking to gather features for automatic detection approaches. We conducted a think-aloud study with laypersons (N = 20) to provide initial insight into how individuals autonomously assess the credibility of voice messages, as well as which automatically extracted features they find to be clear and convincing indicators of misinformation. Our study provides qualitative and quantitative insights into valuable indicators, particularly when they relate directly to the content or its creator, and uncovers challenges in user interface design.},
    journal = {Risk, Hazards, \& Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Sandler, Ruslan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    note = {Publisher: John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Cyberwar, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Stefka Schmid, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Misleading Information in Crises: Exploring Content-specific Indicators for Misleading Information on Twitter from a User Perspective
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{hartwig_misleading_2024,
    title = {Misleading {Information} in {Crises}: {Exploring} {Content}-specific {Indicators} for {Misleading} {Information} on {Twitter} from a {User} {Perspective}},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Schmid, Stefka and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

    2023

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil (2023)
    Increasing Adoption Despite Perceived Limitations of Social Media in Emergencies: Representative Insights on German Citizens’ Perception and Trends from 2017 to 2021
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;96. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.

    @article{reuter_increasing_2023,
    title = {Increasing {Adoption} {Despite} {Perceived} {Limitations} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {Representative} {Insights} on {German} {Citizens}’ {Perception} and {Trends} from 2017 to 2021},
    volume = {96},
    issn = {2212-4209},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ReuterKaufholdBiselliPleil_SocialMediaEmergenciesSurvey_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

    GRK2050 P&T: DFG-Graduiertenkolleg Privatheit und Vertrauen (1.4.2020-30.9.2024, DFG)

    DFG-Graduiertenkolleg Privatheit und Vertrauen (1.4.2020-30.9.2024, DFG)

    https://www.informatik.tu-darmstadt.de/privacy-trust

    In dem von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft finanzierten Graduiertenkolleg „Privatheit und Vertrauen für mobile Nutzer“ werden interdisziplinär neue Lösungen für den Schutz der Privatsphäre bei der mobilen Internetnutzung entwickelt. Vertreter der Informatik, Usability und Wirtschaftswissenschaften aus der TU Darmstadt arbeiten eng mit Wissenschaftler aus den Bereichen der Rechtswissenschaften und der Soziologie der Universität Kassel zusammen. Sie alle arbeiten in interdisziplinären Promotionsthemen an der Vision eines neuartigen persönlichen Mobilgeräts.

    Das Graduiertenkolleg möchte zu besserem und persönlich anpassbarem Schutz der Privatsphäre der Nutzer und zu mehr Transparenz in der IT-Welt beitragen. Die Nutzer sollen in der Lage sein, das sie umgebende Netzwerk und seine Komponenten hinreichend zu verstehen, die vermeintliche Qualität einer Dienst- und System-Nutzung mit all den Vor- und Nachteilen abzuwägen und so die Vertrauenswürdigkeit zu bewerten. Die Ergebnisse des Graduiertenkollegs sollen dazu beitragen, dass die Grundrechte auf informationelle Selbstbestimmung und auf Schutz des Telekommunikationsgeheimnisses im Internet künftig besser verwirklicht werden können.

    2023

  • Enno Steinbrink, Tom Biselli, Sebastian Linsner, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Privacy Perception and Behaviour in Safety-Critical Environments
    In: Nina Gerber, Alina Stöver, Karola Marky: Human Factors in Privacy Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing, , 237–251.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When considering privacy, context, and environmental circumstances can have a strong influence on individual decisions and user behavior. Especially in crises or threatening situations, privacy may conflict with other values, such as personal safety and health. In other cases, personal or public safety can also be dependent on privacy: the context of flight shows how, for those affected, the value of data protection can increase as a result of an increased threat situation. Thus, when individual sovereignty—the autonomous development of one’s own will—or safety is highly dependent on information flows, people tend to be more protective of their privacy in order to maintain their information sovereignty. But also, the context of agriculture, as part of the critical infrastructure, shows how privacy concerns can affect the adoption of digital tools. With these two examples, flight and migration as well as agriculture, this chapter presents some exemplary results that illustrate the importance of the influence of situational factors on perceived information sovereignty and the evaluation of privacy.

    @incollection{steinbrink_privacy_2023,
    address = {Cham},
    title = {Privacy {Perception} and {Behaviour} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Environments}},
    isbn = {978-3-031-28643-8},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28643-8_12},
    abstract = {When considering privacy, context, and environmental circumstances can have a strong influence on individual decisions and user behavior. Especially in crises or threatening situations, privacy may conflict with other values, such as personal safety and health. In other cases, personal or public safety can also be dependent on privacy: the context of flight shows how, for those affected, the value of data protection can increase as a result of an increased threat situation. Thus, when individual sovereignty—the autonomous development of one’s own will—or safety is highly dependent on information flows, people tend to be more protective of their privacy in order to maintain their information sovereignty. But also, the context of agriculture, as part of the critical infrastructure, shows how privacy concerns can affect the adoption of digital tools. With these two examples, flight and migration as well as agriculture, this chapter presents some exemplary results that illustrate the importance of the influence of situational factors on perceived information sovereignty and the evaluation of privacy.},
    booktitle = {Human {Factors} in {Privacy} {Research}},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Biselli, Tom and Linsner, Sebastian and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Gerber, Nina and Stöver, Alina and Marky, Karola},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {237--251},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold, Philipp Kuehn, Daniel Günther, Thomas Schneider, Christian Reuter (2023)
    ExTRUST: Reducing Exploit Stockpiles With a Privacy-Preserving Depletion Systems for Inter-State Relationships
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;4(2):158–170. doi:10.1109/TTS.2023.3280356
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Cyberspace is a fragile construct threatened by malicious cyber operations of different actors, with vulnerabilities in IT hardware and software forming the basis for such activities, thus also posing a threat to global IT security. Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence accelerate this development, either with artificial intelligence enabled cyber weapons, automated cyber defense measures, or artificial intelligence-based threat and vulnerability detection. Especially state actors, with their long-term strategic security interests, often stockpile such knowledge of vulnerabilities and exploits to enable their military or intelligence service cyberspace operations. While treaties and regulations to limit these developments and to enhance global IT security by disclosing vulnerabilities are currently being discussed on the international level, these efforts are hindered by state concerns about the disclosure of unique knowledge and about giving up tactical advantages. This leads to a situation where multiple states are likely to stockpile at least some identical exploits, with technical measures to enable a depletion process for these stockpiles that preserve state secrecy interests and consider the special constraints of interacting states as well as the requirements within such environments being non-existent. This paper proposes such a privacy-preserving approach that allows multiple state parties to privately compare their stock of vulnerabilities and exploits to check for items that occur in multiple stockpiles without revealing them so that their disclosure can be considered. We call our system ExTRUST and show that it is scalable and can withstand several attack scenarios. Beyond the intergovernmental setting, ExTRUST can also be used for other zero-trust use cases, such as bug-bounty programs.

    @article{reinhold_extrust_2023,
    title = {{ExTRUST}: {Reducing} {Exploit} {Stockpiles} {With} a {Privacy}-{Preserving} {Depletion} {Systems} for {Inter}-{State} {Relationships}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ReinholdKuehnGuentherSchneiderReuter_ExTrust-ehem-BlockED_TTaS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2023.3280356},
    abstract = {Cyberspace is a fragile construct threatened by malicious cyber operations of different actors, with vulnerabilities in IT hardware and software forming the basis for such activities, thus also posing a threat to global IT security. Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence accelerate this development, either with artificial intelligence enabled cyber weapons, automated cyber defense measures, or artificial intelligence-based threat and vulnerability detection. Especially state actors, with their long-term strategic security interests, often stockpile such knowledge of vulnerabilities and exploits to enable their military or intelligence service cyberspace operations. While treaties and regulations to limit these developments and to enhance global IT security by disclosing vulnerabilities are currently being discussed on the international level, these efforts are hindered by state concerns about the disclosure of unique knowledge and about giving up tactical advantages. This leads to a situation where multiple states are likely to stockpile at least some identical exploits, with technical measures to enable a depletion process for these stockpiles that preserve state secrecy interests and consider the special constraints of interacting states as well as the requirements within such environments being non-existent. This paper proposes such a privacy-preserving approach that allows multiple state parties to privately compare their stock of vulnerabilities and exploits to check for items that occur in multiple stockpiles without revealing them so that their disclosure can be considered. We call our system ExTRUST and show that it is scalable and can withstand several attack scenarios. Beyond the intergovernmental setting, ExTRUST can also be used for other zero-trust use cases, such as bug-bounty programs.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas and Kuehn, Philipp and Günther, Daniel and Schneider, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Selected, Student, A-Paper, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {158--170},
    }

  • Verena Zimmermann, Jasmin Haunschild, Alina Stöver, Nina Gerber (2023)
    Safe AND Secure Infrastructures? – Studying Human Aspects of Safety and Security Incidents with Experts from both Domains
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Rapperswil, Switzerland. doi:10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-225
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In today’s digitalized and interconnected world, the traditionally distinct concepts security and safety are increasingly intertwined. For example, a cyber attack on a hospital can negatively impact the patients’ physical safety. Thus, security research and practice should consider these interactions. To explore human-related challenges at the intersection of safety and security, we conducted three focus group workshops with N= 16 experts from both domains. We introduced two scenarios leading to a power outage, one with a safety-related cause (snow storm) and one with a security-related cause (cyber attack). The experts discussed interactions, differences and parallels in coping with the scenarios. Additionally, potential solutions for building response capacity by including volunteers were explored. The findings indicate similar consequences resulting from the safety- vs. security-related incidents. However, the experts identified relevant differences in the challenges preparing for and coping with the scenarios. While security-related challenges included the incalculable time horizon, impact and cascading effects as well as lack of emergency plans and training, safety challengesmainly concerned accessibility of the affected area. The implications for future work are discussed.

    @inproceedings{zimmermann_safe_2023,
    address = {Rapperswil, Switzerland},
    title = {Safe {AND} {Secure} {Infrastructures}? – {Studying} {Human} {Aspects} of {Safety} and {Security} {Incidents} with {Experts} from both {Domains}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/items/9c1d2bd5-229f-4db0-a764-6126cf92ef5f},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2023-mci-ws01-225},
    abstract = {In today’s digitalized and interconnected world, the traditionally distinct concepts security and safety are increasingly intertwined. For example, a cyber attack on a hospital can negatively impact the patients’ physical safety. Thus, security research and practice should consider these interactions. To explore human-related challenges at the intersection of safety and security, we conducted three focus group workshops with N= 16 experts from both domains. We introduced two scenarios leading to a power outage, one with a safety-related cause (snow storm) and one with a security-related cause (cyber attack). The experts discussed interactions, differences and parallels in coping with the scenarios. Additionally, potential solutions for building response capacity by including volunteers were explored. The findings indicate similar consequences resulting from the safety- vs. security-related incidents. However, the experts identified relevant differences in the challenges preparing for and coping with the scenarios. While security-related challenges included the incalculable time horizon, impact and cascading effects as well as lack of emergency plans and training, safety challengesmainly concerned accessibility of the affected area. The implications for future work are discussed.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Zimmermann, Verena and Haunschild, Jasmin and Stöver, Alina and Gerber, Nina},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

    2022

  • Franz Kuntke, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Resilience in Agriculture: Communication and Energy Infrastructure Dependencies of German Farmers
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (IJDRS) ;13(2):214–229. doi:10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Agriculture is subject to high demands regarding resilience as it is an essential component of the food production chain. In the agricultural sector, there is an increasing usage of digital tools that rely on communication and energy infrastructures. Should disruption occur, such strengthened dependencies on other infrastructures increase the probability of ripple effects. Thus, there is a need to analyze the resilience of the agricultural sector with a specific focus on the effects of digitalization. This study works out resilience capacities of the interconnected technologies used in farm systems based on the experiences and opinions of farmers. Information was gathered through focus group interviews with farmers (N = 52) and a survey with participants from the agricultural sector (N = 118). In particular, the focus is put on the digital tools and other information and communication technologies they use. Based on a definition of resilience capacities, we evaluate resilience regarding energy and communication demands in various types of farm systems. Especially important are the resilience aspects of modern systems’ digital communication as well as the poorly developed and nonresilient network infrastructure in rural areas that contrast with the claim for a resilient agriculture. The result is a low robustness capacity, as our analysis concludes with the risk of food production losses.

    @article{kuntke_resilience_2022,
    title = {Resilience in {Agriculture}: {Communication} and {Energy} {Infrastructure} {Dependencies} of {German} {Farmers}},
    volume = {13},
    issn = {2192-6395},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7},
    doi = {10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7},
    abstract = {Agriculture is subject to high demands regarding resilience as it is an essential component of the food production chain. In the agricultural sector, there is an increasing usage of digital tools that rely on communication and energy infrastructures. Should disruption occur, such strengthened dependencies on other infrastructures increase the probability of ripple effects. Thus, there is a need to analyze the resilience of the agricultural sector with a specific focus on the effects of digitalization. This study works out resilience capacities of the interconnected technologies used in farm systems based on the experiences and opinions of farmers. Information was gathered through focus group interviews with farmers (N = 52) and a survey with participants from the agricultural sector (N = 118). In particular, the focus is put on the digital tools and other information and communication technologies they use. Based on a definition of resilience capacities, we evaluate resilience regarding energy and communication demands in various types of farm systems. Especially important are the resilience aspects of modern systems’ digital communication as well as the poorly developed and nonresilient network infrastructure in rural areas that contrast with the claim for a resilient agriculture. The result is a low robustness capacity, as our analysis concludes with the risk of food production losses.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (IJDRS)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {214--229},
    }

  • Laura Buhleier, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Eine Klassifikation sicherheitskritischer UX-Design-Patterns
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-275
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    User Experience ist von zunehmender Relevanz für die Entwicklung digitaler Designentscheidungen und hat somit weitgehende Auswirkungen auf das Nutzerverhalten. Dass dies besonders für die Sicherheit und Vertraulichkeit nicht nur von Vorteil sein kann, sondern Nutzer*innen negativ beeinflussen kann, wird in dieser Arbeit ersichtlich. Betrachtetwerden dafür die Themengebiete Anti-Patterns, Grey Patterns und Dark-Patterns. Anti-Patterns bezeichnen wiederkehrende Lösungen für ein Konzept eines User Interfaces, die trotz guter Intention ungewünschte Nebeneffekte oder Konsequenzen haben. Dark-Patterns dagegen stellen Designentscheidungen dar, die durch Täuschung oder Ausnutzung psychischen Drucks versuchen Nutzer*innen zu Handlungen zu verleiten, von denen die Ersteller*innen des Dark-Patterns mehr profitieren als die Anwender* innen. Der Begriff Grey Patterns wird in dieser Arbeit für alle Design Patterns genutzt, die sich nicht direkt zuordnen lassen. Da es bisher kaum vergleichendeWerke und keinen Konsens zu diesen Themengebieten gibt, ist das Ziel dieser Arbeit ein grundlegendes Modell aufzustellen. Dabei wird durch die Untersuchung bestehender Literatur eine zusammenfassende Taxonomie und ein Vorgehen zur Unterscheidung von Anti-Patterns und Dark-Patterns erarbeitet, die als Grundlage für weitere Arbeiten und zur Entwicklung von Gegenmaßnahmen genutzt werden können.

    @inproceedings{buhleier_klassifikation_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {Eine {Klassifikation} sicherheitskritischer {UX}-{Design}-{Patterns}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39087},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-275},
    abstract = {User Experience ist von zunehmender Relevanz für die Entwicklung digitaler Designentscheidungen und hat somit weitgehende Auswirkungen auf das Nutzerverhalten. Dass dies besonders für die Sicherheit und Vertraulichkeit nicht nur von Vorteil sein kann, sondern Nutzer*innen negativ beeinflussen kann, wird in dieser Arbeit ersichtlich. Betrachtetwerden dafür die Themengebiete Anti-Patterns, Grey Patterns und Dark-Patterns. Anti-Patterns bezeichnen wiederkehrende Lösungen für ein Konzept eines User Interfaces, die trotz guter Intention ungewünschte Nebeneffekte oder Konsequenzen haben. Dark-Patterns dagegen stellen Designentscheidungen dar, die durch Täuschung oder Ausnutzung psychischen Drucks versuchen Nutzer*innen zu Handlungen zu verleiten, von denen die Ersteller*innen des Dark-Patterns mehr profitieren als die Anwender* innen. Der Begriff Grey Patterns wird in dieser Arbeit für alle Design Patterns genutzt, die sich nicht direkt zuordnen lassen. Da es bisher kaum vergleichendeWerke und keinen Konsens zu diesen Themengebieten gibt, ist das Ziel dieser Arbeit ein grundlegendes Modell aufzustellen. Dabei wird durch die Untersuchung bestehender Literatur eine zusammenfassende Taxonomie und ein Vorgehen zur Unterscheidung von Anti-Patterns und Dark-Patterns erarbeitet, die als Grundlage für weitere Arbeiten und zur Entwicklung von Gegenmaßnahmen genutzt werden können.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Buhleier, Laura and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Tom Biselli, Enno Steinbrink, Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2022)
    On the Challenges of Developing a Concise Questionnaire to Identify Privacy Personas
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4):645–669. doi:10.56553/popets-2022-0126
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Concise instruments to determine privacy personas – typical privacy-related user groups – are not available at present. Consequently, we aimed to identify them on a privacy knowledge–privacy behavior ratio based on a self-developed instrument. To achieve this, we conducted an item analysis (N = 820) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N = 656) of data based on an online study with German participants. Starting with 81 items, we reduced those to an eleven-item questionnaire with the two scales privacy knowledge and privacy behavior. A subsequent cluster analysis (N = 656) revealed three distinct user groups: (1) Fundamentalists scoring high in privacy knowledge and behavior, (2) Pragmatists scoring average in privacy knowledge and behavior and (3) Unconcerned scoring low in privacy knowledge and behavior. In a closer inspection of the questionnaire, the CFAs supported the model with a close global fit based on RMSEA in a training and to a lesser extent in a cross-validation sample. Deficient local fit as well as validity and reliability coefficients well below generally accepted thresholds, however, revealed that the questionnaire in its current form cannot be considered a suitable measurement instrument for determining privacy personas. The results are discussed in terms of related persona conceptualizations, the importance of a methodologically sound investigation of corresponding privacy dimensions and our lessons learned.

    @article{biselli_challenges_2022,
    title = {On the {Challenges} of {Developing} a {Concise} {Questionnaire} to {Identify} {Privacy} {Personas}},
    url = {https://petsymposium.org/2022/files/papers/issue4/popets-2022-0126.pdf},
    doi = {10.56553/popets-2022-0126},
    abstract = {Concise instruments to determine privacy personas – typical privacy-related user groups – are not available at present. Consequently, we aimed to identify them on a privacy knowledge–privacy behavior ratio based on a self-developed instrument. To achieve this, we conducted an item analysis (N = 820) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N = 656) of data based on an online study with German participants. Starting with 81 items, we reduced those to an eleven-item questionnaire with the two scales privacy knowledge and privacy behavior. A subsequent cluster analysis (N = 656) revealed three distinct user groups: (1) Fundamentalists scoring high in privacy knowledge and behavior, (2) Pragmatists scoring average in privacy knowledge and behavior and (3) Unconcerned scoring low in privacy knowledge and behavior. In a closer inspection of the questionnaire, the CFAs supported the model with a close global fit based on RMSEA in a training and to a lesser extent in a cross-validation sample. Deficient local fit as well as validity and reliability coefficients well below generally accepted thresholds, however, revealed that the questionnaire in its current form cannot be considered a suitable measurement instrument for determining privacy personas. The results are discussed in terms of related persona conceptualizations, the importance of a methodologically sound investigation of corresponding privacy dimensions and our lessons learned.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Steinbrink, Enno and Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {645--669},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Franz Kuntke, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Supporting Users in Data Disclosure Scenarios in Agriculture through Transparency
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(10):2137–2159. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2068070
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business collaboration in the era of digital transformation requires the exchange of operational data. Since data are hardly controllable once they have been published or shared with others, it is highly important that users are clearly informed about who has access to which data and how certain settings can prevent the disclosure of sensitive data. However, giving end users more control over their data through increased transparency could also lead to information overload. This is particularly true in the field of agriculture, where tight schedules put pressure on employees of small enterprises. We conduct an empirical prestudy with 52 German farmers to investigate current data sharing scenarios. From these insights, we derive requirements and a concept for data sharing solutions providing data flow transparency for users. To investigate the behavior of users and the effects of transparent UI controls, we evaluate a prototype with 18 persons. Our evaluation shows that farmers demand flexible and secure tools that adjust to their workflows. Also, data should be stored and processed locally, granting farmers data sovereignty. Although the controls require additional effort, the evaluated transparent controls for data disclosure are easy to use and raise user awareness.

    @article{linsner_supporting_2022,
    title = {Supporting {Users} in {Data} {Disclosure} {Scenarios} in {Agriculture} through {Transparency}},
    volume = {41},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_LinsnerSteinbrinkKuntkeFrankenReuter_SupportingDataDisclosureScenariosAgriculture_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2022.2068070},
    abstract = {Business collaboration in the era of digital transformation requires the exchange of operational data. Since data are hardly controllable once they have been published or shared with others, it is highly important that users are clearly informed about who has access to which data and how certain settings can prevent the disclosure of sensitive data. However, giving end users more control over their data through increased transparency could also lead to information overload. This is particularly true in the field of agriculture, where tight schedules put pressure on employees of small enterprises. We conduct an empirical prestudy with 52 German farmers to investigate current data sharing scenarios. From these insights, we derive requirements and a concept for data sharing solutions providing data flow transparency for users. To investigate the behavior of users and the effects of transparent UI controls, we evaluate a prototype with 18 persons. Our evaluation shows that farmers demand flexible and secure tools that adjust to their workflows. Also, data should be stored and processed locally, granting farmers data sovereignty. Although the controls require additional effort, the evaluated transparent controls for data disclosure are easy to use and raise user awareness.},
    number = {10},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Kuntke, Franz and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, RSF, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {2137--2159},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Vladimir Romanenko, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Christian Reuter (2022)
    LoRaWAN Security Issues and Mitigation Options by the Example of Agricultural IoT Scenarios
    Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT) ;33(5):e4452. doi:10.1002/ett.4452
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a major trend that is seen as a great opportunity to improve efficiency in many domains, including agriculture. This technology could transform the sector, improving the management and quality of agricultural operations, for example, crop farming. The most promising data transmission standard for this domain seems to be Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), a popular representative of low power wide area network technologies today. LoRaWAN, like any wireless protocol, has properties that can be exploited by attackers, which has been a topic of multiple research papers in recent years. By conducting a systematic literature review, we build a recent list of attacks, as well as collect mitigation options. Taking a look at a concrete use case (IoT in agriculture) allows us to evaluate the practicality of both exploiting the vulnerabilities and implementing the countermeasures. We detected 16 attacks that we grouped into six attack types. Along with the attacks, we collect countermeasures for attack mitigation. Developers can use our findings to minimize the risks when developing applications based on LoRaWAN. These mostly theoretical security recommendations should encourage future works to evaluate the mitigations in practice.

    @article{kuntke_lorawan_2022,
    title = {{LoRaWAN} {Security} {Issues} and {Mitigation} {Options} by the {Example} of {Agricultural} {IoT} {Scenarios}},
    volume = {33},
    issn = {2161-3915},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_KuntkeRomanenkoLinsnerSteinbrinkReuter_LoRaWANsecurityAgriculture_ETT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1002/ett.4452},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) is a major trend that is seen as a great opportunity to improve efficiency in many domains, including agriculture. This technology could transform the sector, improving the management and quality of agricultural operations, for example, crop farming. The most promising data transmission standard for this domain seems to be Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), a popular representative of low power wide area network technologies today. LoRaWAN, like any wireless protocol, has properties that can be exploited by attackers, which has been a topic of multiple research papers in recent years. By conducting a systematic literature review, we build a recent list of attacks, as well as collect mitigation options. Taking a look at a concrete use case (IoT in agriculture) allows us to evaluate the practicality of both exploiting the vulnerabilities and implementing the countermeasures. We detected 16 attacks that we grouped into six attack types. Along with the attacks, we collect countermeasures for attack mitigation. Developers can use our findings to minimize the risks when developing applications based on LoRaWAN. These mostly theoretical security recommendations should encourage future works to evaluate the mitigations in practice.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Romanenko, Vladimir and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {e4452},
    }

    2021

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3):334–350. doi:10.2478/popets-2021-0050
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    doi = {10.2478/popets-2021-0050},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {334--350},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Lilian Reichert, Michelle Mende, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Digital Privacy Perceptions of Asylum Seekers in Germany – An Empirical Study about Smartphone Usage during the Flight
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479526
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.

    @article{steinbrink_digital_2021,
    title = {Digital {Privacy} {Perceptions} of {Asylum} {Seekers} in {Germany} - {An} {Empirical} {Study} about {Smartphone} {Usage} during the {Flight}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_SteinbrinkReichertMendeReuter_DigitalPrivacyPerceptionAsylumSeekers_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479526},
    abstract = {Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Reichert, Lilian and Mende, Michelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

    Das Netz hat Geschichte: Netzwerk- und Vulnerabilitätsanalyse Kritischer Infrastrukturen am Beispiel IKT und Verkehr in Rhein/Main (1.1.2023-30.06.2024, FIF-IANUS)

    Das Netz hat Geschichte: Netzwerk- und Vulnerabilitätsanalyse Kritischer Infrastrukturen am Beispiel IKT und Verkehr in Rhein/Main (1.1.2023-30.6.2024, FIF-IANUS)

    Wohl kaum eine Infrastruktur gilt moderner als elektronische Kommunikationssysteme. Doch auch digitale Kommunikationsmittel haben eine Geschichte. Die Historizität von Infrastrukturen hat enorme Auswirkungen auf ihre aktuelle Gestalt. Insbesondere die Vulnerabilität von Infrastrukturen ist stark von historischen Strukturen geprägt. Die räumliche Ausdehnung der Netzwerke aufgrund historischer Strukturen reproduziert ungleiche Vulnerabilitätsniveaus.

    Das Projekt wird die Verletzlichkeit der kritischen Infrastrukturen Verkehr und Kommunikation in der Rhein-Main-Region analysieren. Beide komplexen Netzwerkstrukturen haben sich aus mehr oder weniger heterogenen „Zeitschichten“ entwickelt, die aus raum-zeitlicher und technischer Perspektive untersucht werden. Das Projektziel ist es, aus der historischen Entstehung und der aktuellen Technologieverbreitung Lehren für eine resilientere Gestaltung zu ziehen. Auf der Grundlage von Literaturrecherche und Konzeption wird eine qualitative Interviewstudie durchgeführt, um Hypothesen über das implizite Wissen über die zeitliche Heterogenität, die daraus resultierenden Schwachstellen und die interdependente Entwicklung beider Sektoren zu generieren. Anschließend sollen quantitative Netzwerkanalysen Einblicke in die Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der Verbreitung und der daraus folgenden Verwundbarkeit emergenter Technologien liefern. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine Archivstudie vorgesehen, in der die zeitlichen Schichtungsprozesse der Infrastrukturen aufgeschlüsselt und Hypothesen historisch geprüft werden. Die empirischen Schritte des Projekts sind eingebettet in eine initiale interdisziplinäre Konzeption und eine abschließende gemeinsame Projektevaluation.

    AgriRegio: Infrastruktur zur Förderung von digitaler Resilienz und Klimaresilienz im ländlichen Raum am Beispiel der Pilotregion Nahe-Donnersberg (BMEL, 1.1.2022-30.06.2024)

    AgriRegio: Infrastruktur zur Förderung von digitaler Resilienz und Klimaresilienz im ländlichen Raum am Beispiel der Pilotregion Nahe-Donnersberg (BMEL, 1.1.2022-30.6.2024)

    https://peasec.de/projekte/agriregio

    AgriRegio LogoSmart Farming macht ressourcenschonendes und wirtschaftlicheres Arbeiten in der Landwirtschaft möglich. Doch die Digitalisierung bietet den Landwirten nicht nur betriebsinterne Vorteile. Sensordaten können auch beim überbetrieblichen Logistik- und Bewirtschaftungsmanagement neue regionale Handlungsoptionen zum Boden-, Pflanzen- und Klimaschutz liefern. Ein Ausfall oder gar Angriff auf die dabei eingesetzten digitalen Lösungen kann jedoch im Extremfall zu Produktionsausfällen und Versorgungsengpässen führen. Im neuen Verbundvorhaben „AgriRegio – Infrastruktur zur Förderung von digitaler Resilienz und Klimaresilienz im ländlichen Raum am Beispiel der Pilotregion Nahe-Donnersberg“ wird jetzt ein innovatives Konzept für dezentrales und resilientes Edge Computing zur Praxisreife entwickelt und erprobt. Damit soll die digitalisierte Datenerfassung und -nutzung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben widerstandsfähiger gemacht und die sicherheitskritische Infrastruktur auf dem Sektor Ernährung geschützt werden. Das Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) fördert AgriRegio für zwei Jahre (1.1.2022 – 31.12.2023) mit einem Gesamtvolumen von ca. 800.000 Euro.

    Ziel des Projekts AgriRegio ist es zu zeigen, dass sich auf regionaler Ebene ein flächendeckendes und vom Internet unabhängiges Sensornetz mithilfe von aktuellen, standardisierten Technologien des Edge Computings etablieren lässt. Beim Edge Computing werden digital erfasste Daten dezentral verarbeitet. Die in der Landwirtschaft eingesetzten smarten Sensoren sollen sich dabei an einen kostengünstigen Miniserver („HofBox“) zur lokalen Speicherung von Betriebsdaten, Geodaten und Fachinformationen anbinden lassen. Landwirte können so eigene IoT-Sensornetze im überbetrieblichen Verbund betreiben. Das Konzept wird im Rahmen einer öffentlich-privaten Partnerschaft unter Einbeziehung von regionalen Erzeugerorganisationen und Gebietskörperschaften in der Pilotregion Nahe-Donnersberg in Rheinland-Pfalz getestet. AgriRegio wird technologisch flankiert durch die vom BMEL geförderten Projekte GeoBox-Infrastruktur und Experimentierfeld-Südwest am  Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum Rheinland-Pfalz.

    Koordiniert wird das Verbundprojekt vom Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) am Fachbereich Informatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Weitere Partner sind IBM Deutschland GmbH, expeer GmbH, RLP AgroScience, der Maschinen- und Betriebshilfsring Rheinhessen-Nahe-Donnersberg e.V. sowie die Kreisverwaltungen Donnersbergkreis und Bad Kreuznach. Durch den Open-Source-Ansatz des Verbundprojektes wird die flächendeckende Einführung der bereits entwickelten, sensorgestützten HofBox unterstützt. Die in AgriRegio geplante experimentelle Operationalisierung einer resilienten, digitalen Infrastruktur bei Internetausfällen schließt sowohl Erzeugerorganisationen als auch die in Krisenfällen zuständigen Gebietskörperschaften bzw. Landkreise in eine regional ausgerichtete Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft ein, die durch den Aufbau smarter Sensornetzwerke zudem die Umsetzung von umwelt- und klimaschonenden Bewirtschaftungs- und Logistikmaßnahmen sogar auf überbetrieblicher Ebene fördert. Dieser gesellschaftlich relevante regionale Ansatz von AgriRegio ist offen für eine herstellerübergreifende Beteiligung der IT-Branche und wird insbesondere für die etablierten Anbieter verwundbarer Cloudlösungen von zunehmender Relevanz bei der Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als Teil der kritischen Infrastruktur.

    Weitere Informationen zum Projekt finden Sie unter https://peasec.de/projekte/agriregio/

    2024

  • Franz Kuntke, Marc-André Kaufhold, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter (2024)
    GeoBox: Design and Evaluation of a Tool for Resilient and Decentralized Data Management in Agriculture
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;43(4):764–786. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2023.2185747
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS) are an important core component of modern farming companies as they allow, e.g., to document activities, create fertilization plans, and feed digital equipment with required data. Since the entire agricultural sector is an essential component of food production, high standards of resilience should be established in the involved companies. Accordingly, the used software should also be designed with high standards on reliability and crisis capability. Based on a literature review, we found that software for farmers with certain resilience needs is lacking. Thus, we designed and evaluated a new FMIS concept with the user-centered design method. By conducting focus groups (two rounds, total N=57) in 2017 and 2019, we raised specific front-end and back-end requirements of farmers. Based on the requirements, we developed our concept for both front- and back-end in terms of a decentralized and offline-working FMIS. Through the evaluation with practitioners (N=16) of the implemented concept, we derived findings and implications, highlighting the need for privacy, stability, and offline-capability, as well as the UI-requirement to be supportive, e.g., with easy to understand icons and terms.

    @article{kuntke_geobox_2024,
    title = {{GeoBox}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Tool} for {Resilient} and {Decentralized} {Data} {Management} in {Agriculture}},
    volume = {43},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_KuntkeKaufholdLinsnerReuter_GeoBox_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2023.2185747},
    abstract = {Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS) are an important core component of modern farming companies as they allow, e.g., to document activities, create fertilization plans, and feed digital equipment with required data. Since the entire agricultural sector is an essential component of food production, high standards of resilience should be established in the involved companies. Accordingly, the used software should also be designed with high standards on reliability and crisis capability. Based on a literature review, we found that software for farmers with certain resilience needs is lacking. Thus, we designed and evaluated a new FMIS concept with the user-centered design method. By conducting focus groups (two rounds, total N=57) in 2017 and 2019, we raised specific front-end and back-end requirements of farmers. Based on the requirements, we developed our concept for both front- and back-end in terms of a decentralized and offline-working FMIS. Through the evaluation with practitioners (N=16) of the implemented concept, we derived findings and implications, highlighting the need for privacy, stability, and offline-capability, as well as the UI-requirement to be supportive, e.g., with easy to understand icons and terms.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    month = mar,
    year = {2024},
    note = {Publisher: Taylor \& Francis},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {764--786},
    }

  • Daniel EberzEder, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Ansgar Bernardi, Ahmad Kadi, Gerwin Brill, Daniel Martini, Benno Kleinhenz (2024)
    Hybrid Cloud Infrastrukturen – Edge Computing und KI-basierte Anwendungen in der Landwirtschaft für resiliente und effektive Produktions- und Biodiversitätsmaßnahmen
    44. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobile Erhebung semantisch modellierter Daten und deren Auswertung im Feld durch Hybrid Cloud Computing sind Grundlage des Resilienten Smart Farmings im Projekt GeoBox. Eine skalierbare Architektur und semantische Datenmodellierung ermöglichen Management betrieblicher Software-Container, flexible Anpassung an neue Aufgaben, und die Realisierung einfach nutzbarer externer Services, vorgestellt am Beispiel eines Resistenz-Beratungs-Chatbots und von Blühstreifen als Biodiversitätsmaßnahme.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_hybrid_2024,
    title = {Hybrid {Cloud} {Infrastrukturen} - {Edge} {Computing} und {KI}-basierte {Anwendungen} in der {Landwirtschaft} für resiliente und effektive {Produktions}- und {Biodiversitätsmaßnahmen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/43877,},
    abstract = {Mobile Erhebung semantisch modellierter Daten und deren Auswertung im Feld durch Hybrid Cloud Computing sind Grundlage des Resilienten Smart Farmings im Projekt GeoBox. Eine skalierbare Architektur und semantische Datenmodellierung ermöglichen Management betrieblicher Software-Container, flexible Anpassung an neue Aufgaben, und die Realisierung einfach nutzbarer externer Services, vorgestellt am Beispiel eines Resistenz-Beratungs-Chatbots und von Blühstreifen als Biodiversitätsmaßnahme.},
    booktitle = {44. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Bernardi, Ansgar and Kadi, Ahmad and Brill, Gerwin and Martini, Daniel and Kleinhenz, Benno},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Projekt-AgriRegio, Projekt-GeoBox, RSF, Security, UsableSec},
    }

    2023

  • Daniel EberzEder, Franz Kuntke, Gerwin Brill, Ansgar Bernardi, Christian Wied, Philippe Nuderscher, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Prototypische Entwicklungen zur Umsetzung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) mittels Edge Computing
    43. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Landwirtschaft als essenzieller Teil der Nahrungsmittelproduktion gehört zu den kritischen Infrastrukturen (KRITIS). Dementsprechend müssen die eingesetzten Systeme für einen widerstandsfähigen Betrieb ausgelegt sein. Dies gilt auch für die auf landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben eingesetzte Software, die Sicherheits- und Resilienzkriterien genügen muss. Jedoch ist die Zunahme an Software zu beobachten, welche eine permanente Internetkonnektivität erfordert, d. h. eine stabile Verbindung zu Servern oder Cloud-Applikationen ist für deren Funktionsweise erforderlich. Dies stellt eine erhebliche Schwachstelle hinsichtlich der Resilienz dar und kann bei Ausfällen der Telekommunikationsinfrastruktur zu großen Problemen führen. Mit Entwicklungen aus dem Bereich Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zeigen wir, wie Datenhaltung nach dem Offline-First-Prinzip gestaltet werden kann. Ein zentraler Bestandteil hierbei ist das Resilient Edge Computing (REC) und die entwickelte HofBox: ein Mini-Server, der das Datenmanagement im Betrieb übernimmt und mittels innovativer Open-Source basierender Container-Technologie (Open Horizon) umsetzt. Dadurch werden in Zukunft weitere Anwendungsfälle innerhalb der landwirtschaftlichen Produktions- und Wertschöpfungskette durch Public-Private-Partnership-Modelle realistisch und realisierbar.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_prototypische_2023,
    title = {Prototypische {Entwicklungen} zur {Umsetzung} des {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) mittels {Edge} {Computing}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/40264},
    abstract = {Landwirtschaft als essenzieller Teil der Nahrungsmittelproduktion gehört zu den kritischen Infrastrukturen (KRITIS). Dementsprechend müssen die eingesetzten Systeme für einen widerstandsfähigen Betrieb ausgelegt sein. Dies gilt auch für die auf landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben eingesetzte Software, die Sicherheits- und Resilienzkriterien genügen muss. Jedoch ist die Zunahme an Software zu beobachten, welche eine permanente Internetkonnektivität erfordert, d. h. eine stabile Verbindung zu Servern oder Cloud-Applikationen ist für deren Funktionsweise erforderlich. Dies stellt eine erhebliche Schwachstelle hinsichtlich der Resilienz dar und kann bei Ausfällen der Telekommunikationsinfrastruktur zu großen Problemen führen. Mit Entwicklungen aus dem Bereich Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) zeigen wir, wie Datenhaltung nach dem Offline-First-Prinzip gestaltet werden kann. Ein zentraler Bestandteil hierbei ist das Resilient Edge Computing (REC) und die entwickelte HofBox: ein Mini-Server, der das Datenmanagement im Betrieb übernimmt und mittels innovativer Open-Source basierender Container-Technologie (Open Horizon) umsetzt. Dadurch werden in Zukunft weitere Anwendungsfälle innerhalb der landwirtschaftlichen Produktions- und Wertschöpfungskette durch Public-Private-Partnership-Modelle realistisch und realisierbar.},
    booktitle = {43. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Brill, Gerwin and Bernardi, Ansgar and Wied, Christian and Nuderscher, Philippe and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {309--314},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Lars Baumgärtner, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Rural Communication in Outage Scenarios: Disruption-Tolerant Networking via LoRaWAN Setups
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since communications infrastructure is subject to many impacts, e.g., destructive natural events, they can potentially collapse at any time. Especially in rural areas, the recovery of public network infrastructure can take some time, so a dedicated communication channel would be advantageous. We explore the possibility of transforming commodity LoRaWAN gateways into meshed network nodes for a digital emergency communication channel. In order to obtain the required parameters, we collected farm locations in Germany with OpenStreetMap. Based on the assumptions of LoRa communication range and considering our use case requirements, connecting farm communities seems theoretically feasible in many areas of our data set. To further analyze our idea, we ran simulations of two common DTN routing protocols with different scenarios. A proof-of-concept implementation allows smaller messages to be transmitted using real hardware and demonstrates that a decentralized communications infrastructure based on commodity hardware is possible.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_rural_2023,
    title = {Rural {Communication} in {Outage} {Scenarios}: {Disruption}-{Tolerant} {Networking} via {LoRaWAN} {Setups}},
    url = {https://idl.iscram.org/files/kuntke/2023/2581_Kuntke_etal2023.pdf},
    abstract = {Since communications infrastructure is subject to many impacts, e.g., destructive natural events, they can potentially collapse at any time. Especially in rural areas, the recovery of public network infrastructure can take some time, so a dedicated communication channel would be advantageous. We explore the possibility of transforming commodity LoRaWAN gateways into meshed network nodes for a digital emergency communication channel. In order to obtain the required parameters, we collected farm locations in Germany with OpenStreetMap. Based on the assumptions of LoRa communication range and considering our use case requirements, connecting farm communities seems theoretically feasible in many areas of our data set. To further analyze our idea, we ran simulations of two common DTN routing protocols with different scenarios. A proof-of-concept implementation allows smaller messages to be transmitted using real hardware and demonstrates that a decentralized communications infrastructure based on commodity hardware is possible.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Baumgärtner, Lars and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, RSF, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Merve Bektas, Laura Buhleier, Ella Pohl, Rebekka Schiller, Christian Reuter (2023)
    How Would Emergency Communication Based on LoRaWAN Perform? Empirical Findings of Signal Propagation in Rural Areas
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are typically promoted for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, but are also of interest for emergency communications systems when regular fixed and mobile networks break down. Although LoRaWAN is a frequently used representative here, there are sometimes large differences between the proposed range and the results of some practical evaluations. Since previous work has focused on urban environments or has conducted simulations, this work aims to gather concrete knowledge on the transmission characteristics in rural environments. Extensive field studies with varying geographic conditions and comparative tests in urban environments were performed using two different hardware implementations. Overall, it was found that the collected values in rural areas are significantly lower than the theoretical values. Nevertheless, the results certify that LoRaWAN technology has a high range that cannot be achieved with other common technologies for emergency communications.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_how_2023,
    title = {How {Would} {Emergency} {Communication} {Based} on {LoRaWAN} {Perform}? {Empirical} {Findings} of {Signal} {Propagation} in {Rural} {Areas}},
    url = {https://idl.iscram.org/files/kuntke/2023/2586_Kuntke_etal2023.pdf},
    abstract = {Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are typically promoted for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, but are also of interest for emergency communications systems when regular fixed and mobile networks break down. Although LoRaWAN is a frequently used representative here, there are sometimes large differences between the proposed range and the results of some practical evaluations. Since previous work has focused on urban environments or has conducted simulations, this work aims to gather concrete knowledge on the transmission characteristics in rural environments. Extensive field studies with varying geographic conditions and comparative tests in urban environments were performed using two different hardware implementations. Overall, it was found that the collected values in rural areas are significantly lower than the theoretical values. Nevertheless, the results certify that LoRaWAN technology has a high range that cannot be achieved with other common technologies for emergency communications.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Bektas, Merve and Buhleier, Laura and Pohl, Ella and Schiller, Rebekka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--8},
    }

  • Denis Orlov, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Optimierte Messenger-Applikation zur Notfallkommunikation via LoRaWAN-DTN
    In: : INFORMATIK 2023 – Designing Futures: Zukünfte gestalten. Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V., , 1–6. doi:10.18420/inf2023_160
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die vorliegende Arbeit präsentiert die Entwicklung einer Messenger-App mit Schwerpunkt auf Benutzerfreundlichkeit, für die Nutzung mit einem bestehenden LoRaWAN-DTN-Backend. Die App ermöglicht den Austausch von Nachrichten mit anderen Personen über ein vorhandenes Kommunikationssystem auf LoRaWAN-Basis. Das grundlegende Softwaregerüst wurde mithilfe agiler Softwareentwicklungsmethoden als Progressive-Web-App entwickelt und iterativ verbessert. Das Ergebnis ist eine plattformübergreifende App für Desktop-PCs und Android-Smartphones. Die App bietet grundlegende Messenger-Funktionen wie Kontaktverwaltung, Chatverlauf-Speicher und Benachrichtigungen. Zusätzlich enthält die App erweiterte Funktionen wie einen leicht zugänglichen SOS-Button, um Notfallnachrichten schnell absetzen zu können. Ziel der Entwicklung war es, die Gebrauchstauglichkeit gegenüber einem ersten Prototyp zu verbessern. Die App soll effektive Kommunikation zwischen Helfern und Betroffenen ermöglichen, während und nach Krisenereignissen wie beispielsweise der europäischen Flutkatastrophe 2021. In folgenden Arbeiten soll das System unter Nutzung dieser App im Einsatz getestet werden.

    @incollection{orlov_optimierte_2023,
    title = {Optimierte {Messenger}-{Applikation} zur {Notfallkommunikation} via {LoRaWAN}-{DTN}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_OrlovKuntkeReuter_OptimierteMessengerApplikation_GI.pdf},
    abstract = {Die vorliegende Arbeit präsentiert die Entwicklung einer Messenger-App mit Schwerpunkt auf Benutzerfreundlichkeit, für die Nutzung mit einem bestehenden LoRaWAN-DTN-Backend. Die App ermöglicht den Austausch von Nachrichten mit anderen Personen über ein vorhandenes Kommunikationssystem auf LoRaWAN-Basis. Das grundlegende Softwaregerüst wurde mithilfe agiler Softwareentwicklungsmethoden als Progressive-Web-App entwickelt und iterativ verbessert. Das Ergebnis ist eine plattformübergreifende App für Desktop-PCs und Android-Smartphones. Die App bietet grundlegende Messenger-Funktionen wie Kontaktverwaltung, Chatverlauf-Speicher und Benachrichtigungen. Zusätzlich enthält die App erweiterte Funktionen wie einen leicht zugänglichen SOS-Button, um Notfallnachrichten schnell absetzen zu können. Ziel der Entwicklung war es, die Gebrauchstauglichkeit gegenüber einem ersten Prototyp zu verbessern. Die App soll effektive Kommunikation zwischen Helfern und Betroffenen ermöglichen, während und nach Krisenereignissen wie beispielsweise der europäischen Flutkatastrophe 2021. In folgenden Arbeiten soll das System unter Nutzung dieser App im Einsatz getestet werden.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2023 - {Designing} {Futures}: {Zukünfte} gestalten},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Orlov, Denis and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2023_160},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, RSF, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Marco Zivkovic, Nadja Thiessen, Jens Ivo Engels, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Das Netz hat Geschichte: Historisch-technische Analyse der kritischen Infrastrukturen in der Region Rhein/Main
    In: : INFORMATIK 2023 – Designing Futures: Zukünfte gestalten. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V., , 1–6. doi:10.18420/inf2023_159
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kritische Infrastrukturen sind häufig über Jahrzehnte gewachsene, komplexe Netze. Dennoch fehlt derzeit die historische Perspektive auf die Aufschichtungstendenzen von Technologien in den Sektoren, die für die Gesellschaft essenzielle Dienste bereitstellen. Ein besseres Verständnis von Ausbreitungs-, Ausbau-, Ersatz- und Ausmusterungsprozessen kann Entscheidungshilfe und Orientierung für resilientere Versorgungsnetzarchitekturen in der Zukunft geben. Kompatibilitätsprobleme mit Legacy-Soft- und Hardware sind bekannte Phänomene in vielen KRITIS-Einrichtungen. Entsprechend gewinnen Wissens- und Erfahrungstransfers bei zunehmend komplexen, dennoch über Jahrzehnte verwendete Technologien in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben enorm an Bedeutung. Der Beitrag vollzieht die Konzeption und Fragestellungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts nach, in welchem die Verwundbarkeit der kritischen Infrastruktursektoren Verkehr und Kommunikation im Rhein-Main-Gebiet analysiert wird. Von den Leistungen beider Sektoren hängt die digitale Landwirtschaft stark ab. Insbesondere rurale, beim digitalen und Schienennetzausbau häufig vernachlässigte Gebiete werden dabei mittels explorativer Interviewstudie und anschließender archivbasierter, quantitativer Überprüfung der zuvor generierten Hypothesen aus einer raum-zeitlichen und technischen Perspektive untersucht.

    @incollection{franken_netz_2023,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Das {Netz} hat {Geschichte}: {Historisch}-technische {Analyse} der kritischen {Infrastrukturen} in der {Region} {Rhein}/{Main}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_FrankenZivkovicThiessenEngelsReuter_NetzGeschichte_GI.pdf},
    abstract = {Kritische Infrastrukturen sind häufig über Jahrzehnte gewachsene, komplexe Netze. Dennoch fehlt derzeit die historische Perspektive auf die Aufschichtungstendenzen von Technologien in den Sektoren, die für die Gesellschaft essenzielle Dienste bereitstellen. Ein besseres Verständnis von Ausbreitungs-, Ausbau-, Ersatz- und Ausmusterungsprozessen kann Entscheidungshilfe und Orientierung für resilientere Versorgungsnetzarchitekturen in der Zukunft geben. Kompatibilitätsprobleme mit Legacy-Soft- und Hardware sind bekannte Phänomene in vielen KRITIS-Einrichtungen. Entsprechend gewinnen Wissens- und Erfahrungstransfers bei zunehmend komplexen, dennoch über Jahrzehnte verwendete Technologien in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben enorm an Bedeutung. Der Beitrag vollzieht die Konzeption und Fragestellungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts nach, in welchem die Verwundbarkeit der kritischen Infrastruktursektoren Verkehr und Kommunikation im Rhein-Main-Gebiet analysiert wird. Von den Leistungen beider Sektoren hängt die digitale Landwirtschaft stark ab. Insbesondere rurale, beim digitalen und Schienennetzausbau häufig vernachlässigte Gebiete werden dabei mittels explorativer Interviewstudie und anschließender archivbasierter, quantitativer Überprüfung der zuvor generierten Hypothesen aus einer raum-zeitlichen und technischen Perspektive untersucht.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2023 - {Designing} {Futures}: {Zukünfte} gestalten},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Zivkovic, Marco and Thiessen, Nadja and Engels, Jens Ivo and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2023_159},
    keywords = {Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Daniel EberzEder, Matthias Trapp, Christian Reuter (2023)
    RSF-Lab’23: Konzepte und Anwendungen zur resilienten digitalen Landwirtschaft
    In: : INFORMATIK 2023 – Designing Futures: Zukünfte gestalten. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V., , 1529–1533. doi:10.18420/inf2023_156
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Neben positiven Aspekten wie der Produktivitätssteigerung bringt die Digitalisierung auch neue Gefahren mit sich. Entsprechend muss der Prozess gerade in Bereichen von gesellschaftlich enormer Bedeutung kritisch begleitet werden, um eine fundierte Entscheidung bei Auswahl und Entwicklung neuer Technologien zu treffen. Die Vision ist hierbei ein resilientes Smart Farming (RSF), bei dem die Fortschritte der Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft genutzt werden, ohne dabei die Ausfallsicherheit der landwirtschaftlichen Primärproduktion und somit die Lebensmittelversorgung der Verbraucher zu gefährden. Dieser Workshop konzentriert sich auf die Bewältigung dieser Forschungsherausforderungen und liefert Beiträge zu verschiedenen Themenbereichen. Dazu gehören (1) ein Hofbox-Ansatz basierend auf etablierten Open-Source Werkzeugen, (2) ein mobiles Assistenzsystem für den Transport von künstlichen Besamungsportionen, (3) die historische Perspektive auf kritische Infrastrukturen in der Region Rhein/Main, und (4) eine Messenger-Applikation zur Notfallkommunikation mittels LoRaWAN-basierten IoT-Setups.

    @incollection{kuntke_rsf-lab23_2023,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {{RSF}-{Lab}'23: {Konzepte} und {Anwendungen} zur resilienten digitalen {Landwirtschaft}},
    isbn = {978-3-88579-731-9},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_KuntkeEberzEderTrappReuter_KonzepteAnwendungen_GI.pdf},
    abstract = {Neben positiven Aspekten wie der Produktivitätssteigerung bringt die Digitalisierung auch neue Gefahren mit sich. Entsprechend muss der Prozess gerade in Bereichen von gesellschaftlich enormer Bedeutung kritisch begleitet werden, um eine fundierte Entscheidung bei Auswahl und Entwicklung neuer Technologien zu treffen. Die Vision ist hierbei ein resilientes Smart Farming (RSF), bei dem die Fortschritte der Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft genutzt werden, ohne dabei die Ausfallsicherheit der landwirtschaftlichen Primärproduktion und somit die Lebensmittelversorgung der Verbraucher zu gefährden. Dieser Workshop konzentriert sich auf die Bewältigung dieser Forschungsherausforderungen und liefert Beiträge zu verschiedenen Themenbereichen. Dazu gehören (1) ein Hofbox-Ansatz basierend auf etablierten Open-Source Werkzeugen, (2) ein mobiles Assistenzsystem für den Transport von künstlichen Besamungsportionen, (3) die historische Perspektive auf kritische Infrastrukturen in der Region Rhein/Main, und (4) eine Messenger-Applikation zur Notfallkommunikation mittels LoRaWAN-basierten IoT-Setups.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2023 - {Designing} {Futures}: {Zukünfte} gestalten},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Trapp, Matthias and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2023_156},
    keywords = {Security, RSF, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1529--1533},
    }

  • Daniel Schmidt, Franz Kuntke, Maximilian Bauer, Lars Baumgärtner (2023)
    BPoL: A Disruption-Tolerant LoRa Network for Disaster Communication
    IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC) . doi:10.1109/GHTC56179.2023.10354717
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is vital for everyday life and especially during times of disaster.Relying on existing infrastructure is problematic as maintenance is expensive, and they can be disrupted in emergency scenarios. Cost is a major factor which limits the technologies that can be used in rural areas or for emergency response, as satellite uplinks or private cellular networks are very expensive and complex. LoRa is commonly used for IoT infrastructure worldwide in the form of LoRaWAN to cover larger distances with low costs. But it can also be used in a Device-to-Device (D2D) mode for direct communication. By combining LoRa with Disruption-tolerant Networking (DTN), we present an affordable and practical solution that can cope with challenging conditions and be used for a large variety of applications. In our evaluation, we show how adaptable our solution is and how it outperforms similar mesh-based applications for disaster communication.

    @inproceedings{schmidt_bpol_2023,
    title = {{BPoL}: {A} {Disruption}-{Tolerant} {LoRa} {Network} for {Disaster} {Communication}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_SchmidtKuntkeBauerBaumgaertner_BPOL_GHTC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/GHTC56179.2023.10354717},
    abstract = {Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is vital for everyday life and especially during times of disaster.Relying on existing infrastructure is problematic as maintenance is expensive, and they can be disrupted in emergency scenarios. Cost is a major factor which limits the technologies that can be used in rural areas or for emergency response, as satellite uplinks or private cellular networks are very expensive and complex. LoRa is commonly used for IoT infrastructure worldwide in the form of LoRaWAN to cover larger distances with low costs. But it can also be used in a Device-to-Device (D2D) mode for direct communication. By combining LoRa with Disruption-tolerant Networking (DTN), we present an affordable and practical solution that can cope with challenging conditions and be used for a large variety of applications. In our evaluation, we show how adaptable our solution is and how it outperforms similar mesh-based applications for disaster communication.},
    booktitle = {{IEEE} {Global} {Humanitarian} {Technology} {Conference} ({GHTC})},
    author = {Schmidt, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Bauer, Maximilian and Baumgärtner, Lars},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {440--447},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Franziska Schneider, Christian Reuter (2023)
    The Internet’s Plumbing Consists of Garden Hoses: A Critical Analysis of the Advantages and Pitfalls of Metaphors Use for Critical Maritime Infrastructures
    Dreizack 23 Kiel.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{franken_internets_2023,
    address = {Kiel},
    title = {The {Internet}’s {Plumbing} {Consists} of {Garden} {Hoses}: {A} {Critical} {Analysis} of the {Advantages} and {Pitfalls} of {Metaphors} {Use} for {Critical} {Maritime} {Infrastructures}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_FrankenSchneiderReuter_MetaphernMarKRITIS_Dreizack23.pdf},
    booktitle = {Dreizack 23},
    publisher = {The Kiel Seapower Series},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Schneider, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Schilling, Henrik},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-AgriRegio, Projekt-NetzGeschichte},
    pages = {1--8},
    }

    2022

  • Franz Kuntke, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Resilience in Agriculture: Communication and Energy Infrastructure Dependencies of German Farmers
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (IJDRS) ;13(2):214–229. doi:10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Agriculture is subject to high demands regarding resilience as it is an essential component of the food production chain. In the agricultural sector, there is an increasing usage of digital tools that rely on communication and energy infrastructures. Should disruption occur, such strengthened dependencies on other infrastructures increase the probability of ripple effects. Thus, there is a need to analyze the resilience of the agricultural sector with a specific focus on the effects of digitalization. This study works out resilience capacities of the interconnected technologies used in farm systems based on the experiences and opinions of farmers. Information was gathered through focus group interviews with farmers (N = 52) and a survey with participants from the agricultural sector (N = 118). In particular, the focus is put on the digital tools and other information and communication technologies they use. Based on a definition of resilience capacities, we evaluate resilience regarding energy and communication demands in various types of farm systems. Especially important are the resilience aspects of modern systems’ digital communication as well as the poorly developed and nonresilient network infrastructure in rural areas that contrast with the claim for a resilient agriculture. The result is a low robustness capacity, as our analysis concludes with the risk of food production losses.

    @article{kuntke_resilience_2022,
    title = {Resilience in {Agriculture}: {Communication} and {Energy} {Infrastructure} {Dependencies} of {German} {Farmers}},
    volume = {13},
    issn = {2192-6395},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7},
    doi = {10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7},
    abstract = {Agriculture is subject to high demands regarding resilience as it is an essential component of the food production chain. In the agricultural sector, there is an increasing usage of digital tools that rely on communication and energy infrastructures. Should disruption occur, such strengthened dependencies on other infrastructures increase the probability of ripple effects. Thus, there is a need to analyze the resilience of the agricultural sector with a specific focus on the effects of digitalization. This study works out resilience capacities of the interconnected technologies used in farm systems based on the experiences and opinions of farmers. Information was gathered through focus group interviews with farmers (N = 52) and a survey with participants from the agricultural sector (N = 118). In particular, the focus is put on the digital tools and other information and communication technologies they use. Based on a definition of resilience capacities, we evaluate resilience regarding energy and communication demands in various types of farm systems. Especially important are the resilience aspects of modern systems’ digital communication as well as the poorly developed and nonresilient network infrastructure in rural areas that contrast with the claim for a resilient agriculture. The result is a low robustness capacity, as our analysis concludes with the risk of food production losses.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (IJDRS)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {214--229},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Thomas Reinhold, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2022)
    The Digital Divide in State Vulnerability to Submarine Communications Cable Failure
    International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection (IJCIP) ;38(100522):1–15. doi:10.1016/j.ijcip.2022.100522
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The backbone network of submarine communication cables (SCC) carries 98\% of international internet traffic. Coastal and island states strongly depend on this physical internet infrastructure to provide internet connectivity. Although about 100 SCC breakdowns of human or natural origin occur at yearly average, a literature review reveals that there is no approach to assess individual state vulnerability to SCC failure in global comparison. In this article, the global SCC network is modeled based on publicly available data. Besides the analysis of the global network properties, a focus is put on remaining bandwidth capacities in three different failure scenario simulations of SCC breakdowns. As a result, this study identifies 15 highly vulnerable states and overseas territories, and another 28 territories that are classified as partially vulnerable to SCC failures. Since economic market decisions shape the structure of the SCC network, an uneven distribution of redundancies and the resulting vulnerability of disadvantaged economies can be confirmed. Therefore, the study’s findings may contribute to a better assessment of the necessity of preventive protection measures of critical telecommunication infrastructures in states and territories characterized by high and medium vulnerability.

    @article{franken_digital_2022,
    title = {The {Digital} {Divide} in {State} {Vulnerability} to {Submarine} {Communications} {Cable} {Failure}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_FrankenReinholdReichertReuter_DigitalDivideStateVulnerabilitySubmarineCommunicationsCable_IJCIP.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijcip.2022.100522},
    abstract = {The backbone network of submarine communication cables (SCC) carries 98\% of international internet traffic. Coastal and island states strongly depend on this physical internet infrastructure to provide internet connectivity. Although about 100 SCC breakdowns of human or natural origin occur at yearly average, a literature review reveals that there is no approach to assess individual state vulnerability to SCC failure in global comparison. In this article, the global SCC network is modeled based on publicly available data. Besides the analysis of the global network properties, a focus is put on remaining bandwidth capacities in three different failure scenario simulations of SCC breakdowns. As a result, this study identifies 15 highly vulnerable states and overseas territories, and another 28 territories that are classified as partially vulnerable to SCC failures. Since economic market decisions shape the structure of the SCC network, an uneven distribution of redundancies and the resulting vulnerability of disadvantaged economies can be confirmed. Therefore, the study's findings may contribute to a better assessment of the necessity of preventive protection measures of critical telecommunication infrastructures in states and territories characterized by high and medium vulnerability.},
    number = {100522},
    journal = {International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection (IJCIP)},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Reinhold, Thomas and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--15},
    }

  • Laura Buhleier, Patrick Gantner, Tobias Frey, Michael Boers, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Effizienz und Nachhaltigkeit durch Green-IT: ein systematischer Literaturüberblick im Kontext der Klimakrise
    INFORMATIK 2022: 52. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2022_83
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Klimakrise gehört zu den aktuell größten Herausforderungen unserer Zeit. Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) können hierbei eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. Einerseits, da eine Effizienzsteigerung von oder durch IKT zu einer klimafreundlicheren Nutzung beitragen kann, und andererseits, da IKT zu einem erhöhten Ressourcenverbrauch führen kann. Um diese Thematik weiter zu untersuchen, wird in dieser Arbeit eine systematische Literaturrecherche durchgeführt, um Herausforderungen und Potenziale in der Adressierung der Klimakrise durch eine effiziente und nachhaltige Entwicklung des IKT-Sektors zu analysieren. Die dabei untersuchte Literatur beinhaltet Herausforderungen wie zum Beispiel den hohen Energie- und Materialverbrauch der IKT-Geräte und Datenzentren sowie die entstehenden Entsorgungskosten und das Konsumverhalten der Nutzer*innen. Deswegen sollten die Nutzer*innen mehr Informationen zur Wartung, zum Kauf gebrauchter Geräte, und zum Recyceln/Entsorgen erhalten. Die Analyse lieferte aber auch viele Potenziale. Durch IKT können Effizienzsteigerungen in den Bereich Industrie, Landwirtschaft, Verkehr und Transport erreicht und auch umweltschädliche Geräte substituiert werden. Durch diese Potenziale kann es aber, wie in anderen Bereichen, zu einem Rebound-Effekt kommen.

    @inproceedings{buhleier_effizienz_2022,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Effizienz und {Nachhaltigkeit} durch {Green}-{IT}: ein systematischer {Literaturüberblick} im {Kontext} der {Klimakrise}},
    isbn = {978-3-88579-720-3},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/39590/rsflab_06.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2022_83},
    abstract = {Die Klimakrise gehört zu den aktuell größten Herausforderungen unserer Zeit. Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) können hierbei eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. Einerseits, da eine Effizienzsteigerung von oder durch IKT zu einer klimafreundlicheren Nutzung beitragen kann, und andererseits, da IKT zu einem erhöhten Ressourcenverbrauch führen kann. Um diese Thematik weiter zu untersuchen, wird in dieser Arbeit eine systematische Literaturrecherche durchgeführt, um Herausforderungen und Potenziale in der Adressierung der Klimakrise durch eine effiziente und nachhaltige Entwicklung des IKT-Sektors zu analysieren. Die dabei untersuchte Literatur beinhaltet Herausforderungen wie zum Beispiel den hohen Energie- und Materialverbrauch der IKT-Geräte und Datenzentren sowie die entstehenden Entsorgungskosten und das Konsumverhalten der Nutzer*innen. Deswegen sollten die Nutzer*innen mehr Informationen zur Wartung, zum Kauf gebrauchter Geräte, und zum Recyceln/Entsorgen erhalten. Die Analyse lieferte aber auch viele Potenziale. Durch IKT können Effizienzsteigerungen in den Bereich Industrie, Landwirtschaft, Verkehr und Transport erreicht und auch umweltschädliche Geräte substituiert werden. Durch diese Potenziale kann es aber, wie in anderen Bereichen, zu einem Rebound-Effekt kommen.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2022: 52. {Jahrestagung} der {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Buhleier, Laura and Gantner, Patrick and Frey, Tobias and Boers, Michael and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Demmler, D. and Krupka, D. and Federrath, H.},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Security, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {995--1012},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Franz Kuntke, Matthias Trapp, Christian Wied, Gerwin Brill, Georg Müller, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Daniel EberzEder, Wolfgang Schneider (2022)
    AgriRegio: Infrastruktur zur Förderung von digitaler Resilienz und Klimaresilienz im ländlichen Raum am Beispiel der Pilotregion Nahe-Donnersberg
    INFORMATIK 2022: 52. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2022_81
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet auch in der Landwirtschaft immer weiter voran. Vermehrt werden in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben sogenannte Smart Farming-Technologien eingesetzt, mit deren Hilfe verschiedenste Arbeitsabläufe automatisiert ablaufen, kontrolliert werden und mit anderen Betrieben ausgetauscht werden können. Durch die verfügbaren Daten und die Vernetzung mit anderen Betrieben, ergeben sich vielfältige neue Möglichkeiten in Bezug auf ressourcenschonendes, wirtschaftlicheres und kollaboratives Arbeiten. Problematiken ergeben sich mit Blick auf die Speicherung dieser sensiblen Betriebsdaten, vor allem, wenn hierfür nur einige wenige Anbieter zur Verfügung stehen. Das Forschungsprojekt „AgriRegio“ soll die digitalisierte Datenerfassung und -nutzung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben widerstandsfähiger machen und die sicherheitskritische Infrastruktur schützen. Sieben Projektpartner erproben dazu smarte Sensoren auf Basis standardisierter Open-Source-Technologien in der Landwirtschaft, bei denen die Betriebsdaten dezentral auf lokalen Servern gespeichert werden.

    @inproceedings{reuter_agriregio_2022,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{AgriRegio}: {Infrastruktur} zur {Förderung} von digitaler {Resilienz} und {Klimaresilienz} im ländlichen {Raum} am {Beispiel} der {Pilotregion} {Nahe}-{Donnersberg}},
    isbn = {978-3-88579-720-3},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/39588/rsflab_04.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2022_81},
    abstract = {Die Digitalisierung schreitet auch in der Landwirtschaft immer weiter voran. Vermehrt werden in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben sogenannte Smart Farming-Technologien eingesetzt, mit deren Hilfe verschiedenste Arbeitsabläufe automatisiert ablaufen, kontrolliert werden und mit anderen Betrieben ausgetauscht werden können. Durch die verfügbaren Daten und die Vernetzung mit anderen Betrieben, ergeben sich vielfältige neue Möglichkeiten in Bezug auf ressourcenschonendes, wirtschaftlicheres und kollaboratives Arbeiten. Problematiken ergeben sich mit Blick auf die Speicherung dieser sensiblen Betriebsdaten, vor allem, wenn hierfür nur einige wenige Anbieter zur Verfügung stehen. Das Forschungsprojekt „AgriRegio“ soll die digitalisierte Datenerfassung und -nutzung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben widerstandsfähiger machen und die sicherheitskritische Infrastruktur schützen. Sieben Projektpartner erproben dazu smarte Sensoren auf Basis standardisierter Open-Source-Technologien in der Landwirtschaft, bei denen die Betriebsdaten dezentral auf lokalen Servern gespeichert werden.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2022: 52. {Jahrestagung} der {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kuntke, Franz and Trapp, Matthias and Wied, Christian and Brill, Gerwin and Müller, Georg and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Schneider, Wolfgang},
    editor = {Demmler, D. and Krupka, D. and Federrath, H.},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, UsableSec, Security, RSF, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {961--972},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Daniel EberzEder, Franz Kuntke, Matthias Trapp (2022)
    RSF-Lab’22: Resilient Smart Farming Laboratory: Für eine widerstandsfähige und intelligente Landwirtschaft
    INFORMATIK 2022: 52. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2022_78
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zunehmende Vernetzung und Digitalisierung bringen große Veränderungen aber auch Vulnerabilitäten auf allen Ebenen mit sich. Um eine Infrastruktur für ein resilientes Smart Farming (RSF) zu erstellen, welche die Fortschritte der Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft nutzt, ohne die Ausfallsicherheit der landwirtschaftlichen Primärproduktion und damit die Lebensmittelversorgung der Verbraucher zu gefährden, bedarf speziell der Sicherheitsaspekt einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung. Der Workshop adressiert diese Forschungsherausforderungen durch Beiträge zu einem umfassenden Monitoring für den Transport von künstlichen Besamungsdosen, zu modularer, sicherer und robuster Steuerungsarchitektur für autonomes Bewirtschaften von Weinbergen, zur Resilienz im ländlichen Raum, zum Aufbau eines informellen Netzwerkes zur Förderung der Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft und zu Effizienz und Nachhaltigkeit durch Green-IT.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rsf-lab22_2022,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{RSF}-{Lab}’22: {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} {Laboratory}: {Für} eine widerstandsfähige und intelligente {Landwirtschaft}},
    isbn = {978-3-88579-720-3},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/39585/rsflab_01.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2022_78},
    abstract = {Die zunehmende Vernetzung und Digitalisierung bringen große Veränderungen aber auch Vulnerabilitäten auf allen Ebenen mit sich. Um eine Infrastruktur für ein resilientes Smart Farming (RSF) zu erstellen, welche die Fortschritte der Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft nutzt, ohne die Ausfallsicherheit der landwirtschaftlichen Primärproduktion und damit die Lebensmittelversorgung der Verbraucher zu gefährden, bedarf speziell der Sicherheitsaspekt einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung. Der Workshop adressiert diese Forschungsherausforderungen durch Beiträge zu einem umfassenden Monitoring für den Transport von künstlichen Besamungsdosen, zu modularer, sicherer und robuster Steuerungsarchitektur für autonomes Bewirtschaften von Weinbergen, zur Resilienz im ländlichen Raum, zum Aufbau eines informellen Netzwerkes zur Förderung der Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft und zu Effizienz und Nachhaltigkeit durch Green-IT.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2022: 52. {Jahrestagung} der {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Trapp, Matthias},
    editor = {Demmler, D. and Krupka, D. and Federrath, H.},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Security, RSF, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {931--934},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Franz Kuntke, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Supporting Users in Data Disclosure Scenarios in Agriculture through Transparency
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(10):2137–2159. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2068070
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business collaboration in the era of digital transformation requires the exchange of operational data. Since data are hardly controllable once they have been published or shared with others, it is highly important that users are clearly informed about who has access to which data and how certain settings can prevent the disclosure of sensitive data. However, giving end users more control over their data through increased transparency could also lead to information overload. This is particularly true in the field of agriculture, where tight schedules put pressure on employees of small enterprises. We conduct an empirical prestudy with 52 German farmers to investigate current data sharing scenarios. From these insights, we derive requirements and a concept for data sharing solutions providing data flow transparency for users. To investigate the behavior of users and the effects of transparent UI controls, we evaluate a prototype with 18 persons. Our evaluation shows that farmers demand flexible and secure tools that adjust to their workflows. Also, data should be stored and processed locally, granting farmers data sovereignty. Although the controls require additional effort, the evaluated transparent controls for data disclosure are easy to use and raise user awareness.

    @article{linsner_supporting_2022,
    title = {Supporting {Users} in {Data} {Disclosure} {Scenarios} in {Agriculture} through {Transparency}},
    volume = {41},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_LinsnerSteinbrinkKuntkeFrankenReuter_SupportingDataDisclosureScenariosAgriculture_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2022.2068070},
    abstract = {Business collaboration in the era of digital transformation requires the exchange of operational data. Since data are hardly controllable once they have been published or shared with others, it is highly important that users are clearly informed about who has access to which data and how certain settings can prevent the disclosure of sensitive data. However, giving end users more control over their data through increased transparency could also lead to information overload. This is particularly true in the field of agriculture, where tight schedules put pressure on employees of small enterprises. We conduct an empirical prestudy with 52 German farmers to investigate current data sharing scenarios. From these insights, we derive requirements and a concept for data sharing solutions providing data flow transparency for users. To investigate the behavior of users and the effects of transparent UI controls, we evaluate a prototype with 18 persons. Our evaluation shows that farmers demand flexible and secure tools that adjust to their workflows. Also, data should be stored and processed locally, granting farmers data sovereignty. Although the controls require additional effort, the evaluated transparent controls for data disclosure are easy to use and raise user awareness.},
    number = {10},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Kuntke, Franz and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, RSF, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {2137--2159},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Vladimir Romanenko, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Christian Reuter (2022)
    LoRaWAN Security Issues and Mitigation Options by the Example of Agricultural IoT Scenarios
    Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT) ;33(5):e4452. doi:10.1002/ett.4452
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a major trend that is seen as a great opportunity to improve efficiency in many domains, including agriculture. This technology could transform the sector, improving the management and quality of agricultural operations, for example, crop farming. The most promising data transmission standard for this domain seems to be Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), a popular representative of low power wide area network technologies today. LoRaWAN, like any wireless protocol, has properties that can be exploited by attackers, which has been a topic of multiple research papers in recent years. By conducting a systematic literature review, we build a recent list of attacks, as well as collect mitigation options. Taking a look at a concrete use case (IoT in agriculture) allows us to evaluate the practicality of both exploiting the vulnerabilities and implementing the countermeasures. We detected 16 attacks that we grouped into six attack types. Along with the attacks, we collect countermeasures for attack mitigation. Developers can use our findings to minimize the risks when developing applications based on LoRaWAN. These mostly theoretical security recommendations should encourage future works to evaluate the mitigations in practice.

    @article{kuntke_lorawan_2022,
    title = {{LoRaWAN} {Security} {Issues} and {Mitigation} {Options} by the {Example} of {Agricultural} {IoT} {Scenarios}},
    volume = {33},
    issn = {2161-3915},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_KuntkeRomanenkoLinsnerSteinbrinkReuter_LoRaWANsecurityAgriculture_ETT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1002/ett.4452},
    abstract = {The Internet of Things (IoT) is a major trend that is seen as a great opportunity to improve efficiency in many domains, including agriculture. This technology could transform the sector, improving the management and quality of agricultural operations, for example, crop farming. The most promising data transmission standard for this domain seems to be Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), a popular representative of low power wide area network technologies today. LoRaWAN, like any wireless protocol, has properties that can be exploited by attackers, which has been a topic of multiple research papers in recent years. By conducting a systematic literature review, we build a recent list of attacks, as well as collect mitigation options. Taking a look at a concrete use case (IoT in agriculture) allows us to evaluate the practicality of both exploiting the vulnerabilities and implementing the countermeasures. We detected 16 attacks that we grouped into six attack types. Along with the attacks, we collect countermeasures for attack mitigation. Developers can use our findings to minimize the risks when developing applications based on LoRaWAN. These mostly theoretical security recommendations should encourage future works to evaluate the mitigations in practice.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Romanenko, Vladimir and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {e4452},
    }

  • Daniel EberzEder, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Sensibilität für Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) und seine Bedeutung in Krisenzeiten
    42. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Tänikon, Switzerland.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mit der globalen COVID-19-Pandemie und dem Hochwasser in West- und Mitteleuropa im Sommer 2021 hat unter anderem Deutschland in jüngster Vergangenheit zwei schwerwiegende Krisenszenarien erlebt. Die Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft sind verheerend. Parallel lassen sich Krisenereignisse im digitalen Raum, wie die Zunahme an Cyberkriminalität beobachten. Es wird zunehmend deutlich, dass die Resilienz analoger sowie digitaler Prozesse wichtiger für die vollständige Betriebsfähigkeit wird. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Bedeutung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) in Krisenzeiten als Möglichkeit für eine nachhaltige, umweltgerechte und resiliente digitale Landwirtschaft auseinander. Dazu wurden u.a. lokale Schadensmeldungen gruppiert und mögliche RSF-Gegenmaßnahmen aufgezeigt. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich eine Bewertung von Konzepten des RSF hinsichtlich der Krisenprävention und -bewältigung anhand aktueller realer Beispiele. Aufgrund zunehmender Bedrohungen durch Naturkatastrophen und Cyberkriminialität gehen wir davon aus, dass die Aufmerksamkeit von Gesellschaft und Politik für die Resilienz der Primärproduktion weiter steigen wird.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_sensibilitat_2022,
    address = {Tänikon, Switzerland},
    title = {Sensibilität für {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) und seine {Bedeutung} in {Krisenzeiten}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_EberzEderKuntkeReuter_SensibilitaetResilientSmartFarmingKrisen_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Mit der globalen COVID-19-Pandemie und dem Hochwasser in West- und Mitteleuropa im Sommer 2021 hat unter anderem Deutschland in jüngster Vergangenheit zwei schwerwiegende Krisenszenarien erlebt. Die Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft sind verheerend. Parallel lassen sich Krisenereignisse im digitalen Raum, wie die Zunahme an Cyberkriminalität beobachten. Es wird zunehmend deutlich, dass die Resilienz analoger sowie digitaler Prozesse wichtiger für die vollständige Betriebsfähigkeit wird. Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit der Bedeutung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) in Krisenzeiten als Möglichkeit für eine nachhaltige, umweltgerechte und resiliente digitale Landwirtschaft auseinander. Dazu wurden u.a. lokale Schadensmeldungen gruppiert und mögliche RSF-Gegenmaßnahmen aufgezeigt. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich eine Bewertung von Konzepten des RSF hinsichtlich der Krisenprävention und -bewältigung anhand aktueller realer Beispiele. Aufgrund zunehmender Bedrohungen durch Naturkatastrophen und Cyberkriminialität gehen wir davon aus, dass die Aufmerksamkeit von Gesellschaft und Politik für die Resilienz der Primärproduktion weiter steigen wird.},
    booktitle = {42. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    }

     

    Finished Projects / Abgeschlossene Projekte

    Abgeschlossene Projekte an der TU Darmstadt:

    CYWARN: Analyse und Kommunikation des Lagebilds im Cyberraum (1.10.2020-31.3.2024, BMBF)

    CYWARN: Analyse und Kommunikation des Lagebilds im Cyberraum (1.10.2020-31.3.2024, BMBF)

    https://cywarn.peasec.de

    Die Zunahme komplexer Cyberangriffe, wie die Hackerangriffe auf den Deutschen Bundestag (2015) oder auf das Lukaskrankenhaus in Neuss (2016), verdeutlichen die Verletzbarkeit der Gesellschaft und Informationsinfrastruktur. Neben Technologien zur Informations- und IT-Sicherheit braucht es Frühwarnsysteme und Reaktionsstrategien zur Stärkung der zivilen Sicherheit. Sogenannte Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) sind die zentrale Anlaufstelle für präventive und reaktive Maßnahmen bei IT-Sicherheitsvorfällen. Aufgrund der unüber-sichtlichen Informationslage bei Cyberangriffen ist die Auswertung und zielgruppengerechte Aufbereitung der Vorfälle für diese Teams eine große Herausforderung.

    Das Projekt CYWARN verfolgt das Ziel, CERTs durch neue Strategien und Technologien bei der Analyse und Kommunikation des Cyber-Lagebilds zu unterstützen. Es entsteht ein Demonstrator, der die automatisierte Sammlung öffentlicher und geschlossener Datenquellen sowie eine Datenauswertung mit Glaubwürdigkeitsanalyse und Informationspriorisierung ermöglicht. Durch den hohen Grad an Automatisierung werden die Teams durch den Demonstrator darin befähigt, effizienter Cyberbedrohungen zu erkennen, zu analysieren und zu kommunizieren. Die Ergebnisse fließen in Handlungsempfehlungen, Sensibilisierungsmaßnahmen, Lageberichte und Warnmeldungen ein, die dann von den Teams für die adressatengerechte Kommunikation mit der Bevölkerung, Behörden oder KRITIS-Betreibern verwendet werden. Akzeptanz und Anwenderfreundlichkeit werden bei der Entwicklung ebenso berücksichtigt, wie ethische, rechtliche und soziale Rahmenbedingungen. Langfristig ist ein Einsatz auch bei anderen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben oder Unternehmen, die ein eigenes CERT betreiben, denkbar.

    Projektumriss_CYWARN

    2024

  • Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Ramin Shanehsaz, Christian Reuter (2024)
    CySecBERT: A Domain-Adapted Language Model for the Cybersecurity Domain
    ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security (TOPS) ;27(2). doi:10.1145/3652594
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The field of cybersecurity is evolving fast. Security professionals are in need of intelligence on past, current and – ideally – on upcoming threats, because attacks are becoming more advanced and are increasingly targeting larger and more complex systems. Since the processing and analysis of such large amounts of information cannot be addressed manually, cybersecurity experts rely on machine learning techniques. In the textual domain, pre-trained language models like BERT have proven to be helpful as they provide a good baseline for further fine-tuning. However, due to the domain-knowledge and the many technical terms in cybersecurity, general language models might miss the gist of textual information. For this reason, we create a high-quality dataset and present a language model specifically tailored to the cybersecurity domain which can serve as a basic building block for cybersecurity systems. The model is compared on 15 tasks: Domain-dependent extrinsic tasks for measuring the performance on specific problems, intrinsic tasks for measuring the performance of the internal representations of the model as well as general tasks from the SuperGLUE benchmark. The results of the intrinsic tasks show that our model improves the internal representation space of domain words compared to the other models. The extrinsic, domain-dependent tasks, consisting of sequence tagging and classification, show that the model performs best in cybersecurity scenarios. In addition, we pay special attention to the choice of hyperparameters against catastrophic forgetting, as pre-trained models tend to forget the original knowledge during further training.

    @article{bayer_cysecbert_2024,
    title = {{CySecBERT}: {A} {Domain}-{Adapted} {Language} {Model} for the {Cybersecurity} {Domain}},
    volume = {27},
    issn = {2471-2566},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3652594},
    doi = {10.1145/3652594},
    abstract = {The field of cybersecurity is evolving fast. Security professionals are in need of intelligence on past, current and - ideally - on upcoming threats, because attacks are becoming more advanced and are increasingly targeting larger and more complex systems. Since the processing and analysis of such large amounts of information cannot be addressed manually, cybersecurity experts rely on machine learning techniques. In the textual domain, pre-trained language models like BERT have proven to be helpful as they provide a good baseline for further fine-tuning. However, due to the domain-knowledge and the many technical terms in cybersecurity, general language models might miss the gist of textual information. For this reason, we create a high-quality dataset and present a language model specifically tailored to the cybersecurity domain which can serve as a basic building block for cybersecurity systems. The model is compared on 15 tasks: Domain-dependent extrinsic tasks for measuring the performance on specific problems, intrinsic tasks for measuring the performance of the internal representations of the model as well as general tasks from the SuperGLUE benchmark. The results of the intrinsic tasks show that our model improves the internal representation space of domain words compared to the other models. The extrinsic, domain-dependent tasks, consisting of sequence tagging and classification, show that the model performs best in cybersecurity scenarios. In addition, we pay special attention to the choice of hyperparameters against catastrophic forgetting, as pre-trained models tend to forget the original knowledge during further training.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security (TOPS)},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Shanehsaz, Ramin and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2024},
    note = {Place: New York, NY, USA
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Dilara Nadermahmoodi, Moritz Kerk, Christian Reuter (2024)
    ThreatCluster: Threat Clustering for Information Overload Reduction in Computer Emergency Response Teams
    arXiv. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2210.14067
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The ever-increasing number of threats and the existing diversity of information sources pose challenges for Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). To respond to emerging threats, CERTs must gather information in a timely and comprehensive manner. But the volume of sources and information leads to information overload. This paper contributes to the question of how to reduce information overload for CERTs. We propose clustering incoming information as scanning this information is one of the most tiresome, but necessary, manual steps. Based on current studies, we establish conditions for such a framework. Different types of evaluation metrics are used and selected in relation to the framework conditions. Furthermore, different document embeddings and distance measures are evaluated and interpreted in combination with clustering methods. We use three different corpora for the evaluation, a novel ground truth corpus based on threat reports, one security bug report (SBR) corpus, and one with news articles. Our work shows, it is possible to reduce the information overload by up to 84.8\% with homogeneous clusters. A runtime analysis of the clustering methods strengthens the decision of selected clustering methods. The source code and dataset will be made publicly available after acceptance.

    @misc{kuehn_threatcluster_2024,
    title = {{ThreatCluster}: {Threat} {Clustering} for {Information} {Overload} {Reduction} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}},
    shorttitle = {{ThreatCluster}},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2210.14067},
    doi = {10.48550/arXiv.2210.14067},
    abstract = {The ever-increasing number of threats and the existing diversity of information sources pose challenges for Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). To respond to emerging threats, CERTs must gather information in a timely and comprehensive manner. But the volume of sources and information leads to information overload. This paper contributes to the question of how to reduce information overload for CERTs. We propose clustering incoming information as scanning this information is one of the most tiresome, but necessary, manual steps. Based on current studies, we establish conditions for such a framework. Different types of evaluation metrics are used and selected in relation to the framework conditions. Furthermore, different document embeddings and distance measures are evaluated and interpreted in combination with clustering methods. We use three different corpora for the evaluation, a novel ground truth corpus based on threat reports, one security bug report (SBR) corpus, and one with news articles. Our work shows, it is possible to reduce the information overload by up to 84.8\% with homogeneous clusters. A runtime analysis of the clustering methods strengthens the decision of selected clustering methods. The source code and dataset will be made publicly available after acceptance.},
    urldate = {2024-03-18},
    publisher = {arXiv},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Nadermahmoodi, Dilara and Kerk, Moritz and Reuter, Christian},
    month = mar,
    year = {2024},
    note = {arXiv:2210.14067 [cs]
    version: 2},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2024)
    ‚We Do Not Have the Capacity to Monitor All Media‘: A Design Case Study on Cyber Situational Awareness in Computer Emergency Response Teams
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (Best Paper Award) New York, NY, USA. doi:10.1145/3613904.3642368
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) have been established in the public sector globally to provide advisory, preventive and reactive cybersecurity services for government agencies, citizens, and businesses. Nevertheless, their responsibility of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating cyber threats and security vulnerabilities have become increasingly challenging due to the growing volume and varying quality of information disseminated through public and social channels. Based on a design case study conducted from 2021 to 2023, this paper combines three iterations of expert interviews (N=25), design workshops (N=4) and cognitive walkthroughs (N=25) to design an automated, cross-platform and real-time cybersecurity dashboard. By adopting the notion of cyber situational awareness, the study further extracts user requirements and design heuristics for enhanced threat intelligence and mission awareness in CERTs, discussing the aspects of source integration, data management, customizable visualization, relationship awareness, information assessment, software integration, (inter-)organizational collaboration, and communication of stakeholder warnings.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_we_2024,
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    series = {{CHI} '24},
    title = {'{We} {Do} {Not} {Have} the {Capacity} to {Monitor} {All} {Media}': {A} {Design} {Case} {Study} on {Cyber} {Situational} {Awareness} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}},
    isbn = {9798400703300},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2024/2024_KaufholdRiebeBayerReuter_CertDesignCaseStudy_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3613904.3642368},
    abstract = {Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) have been established in the public sector globally to provide advisory, preventive and reactive cybersecurity services for government agencies, citizens, and businesses. Nevertheless, their responsibility of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating cyber threats and security vulnerabilities have become increasingly challenging due to the growing volume and varying quality of information disseminated through public and social channels. Based on a design case study conducted from 2021 to 2023, this paper combines three iterations of expert interviews (N=25), design workshops (N=4) and cognitive walkthroughs (N=25) to design an automated, cross-platform and real-time cybersecurity dashboard. By adopting the notion of cyber situational awareness, the study further extracts user requirements and design heuristics for enhanced threat intelligence and mission awareness in CERTs, discussing the aspects of source integration, data management, customizable visualization, relationship awareness, information assessment, software integration, (inter-)organizational collaboration, and communication of stakeholder warnings.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award})},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Projekt-CYWARN, AuswahlUsableSec, AuswahlKaufhold, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE-CyAware},
    }

    2023

  • Philipp Kuehn, Mike Schmidt, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2023)
    ThreatCrawl: A BERT-based Focused Crawler for the Cybersecurity Domain
    2023.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Publicly available information contains valuable information for Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI). This can be used to prevent attacks that have already taken place on other systems. Ideally, only the initial attack succeeds and all subsequent ones are detected and stopped. But while there are different standards to exchange this information, a lot of it is shared in articles or blog posts in non-standardized ways. Manually scanning through multiple online portals and news pages to discover new threats and extracting them is a time-consuming task. To automize parts of this scanning process, multiple papers propose extractors that use Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) from documents. However, while this already solves the problem of extracting the information out of documents, the search for these documents is rarely considered. In this paper, a new focused crawler is proposed called ThreatCrawl, which uses Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT)-based models to classify documents and adapt its crawling path dynamically. While ThreatCrawl has difficulties to classify the specific type of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) named in texts, e.g., IOC content, it can successfully find relevant documents and modify its path accordingly. It yields harvest rates of up to 52\%, which are, to the best of our knowledge, better than the current state of the art.

    @techreport{kuehn_threatcrawl_2023,
    title = {{ThreatCrawl}: {A} {BERT}-based {Focused} {Crawler} for the {Cybersecurity} {Domain}},
    shorttitle = {{ThreatCrawl}},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2304.11960},
    abstract = {Publicly available information contains valuable information for Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI). This can be used to prevent attacks that have already taken place on other systems. Ideally, only the initial attack succeeds and all subsequent ones are detected and stopped. But while there are different standards to exchange this information, a lot of it is shared in articles or blog posts in non-standardized ways. Manually scanning through multiple online portals and news pages to discover new threats and extracting them is a time-consuming task. To automize parts of this scanning process, multiple papers propose extractors that use Natural Language Processing (NLP) to extract Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) from documents. However, while this already solves the problem of extracting the information out of documents, the search for these documents is rarely considered. In this paper, a new focused crawler is proposed called ThreatCrawl, which uses Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT)-based models to classify documents and adapt its crawling path dynamically. While ThreatCrawl has difficulties to classify the specific type of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) named in texts, e.g., IOC content, it can successfully find relevant documents and modify its path accordingly. It yields harvest rates of up to 52\%, which are, to the best of our knowledge, better than the current state of the art.},
    number = {arXiv:2304.11960},
    urldate = {2023-04-27},
    institution = {arXiv},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Schmidt, Mike and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2023},
    note = {arXiv:2304.11960 [cs]},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Thea Riebe (2023)
    Technology Assessment of Dual-Use ICTs – How to assess Diffusion, Governance and Design
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt. doi:10.26083/tuprints-00022849
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technologies that can be used in military and civilian applications are referred to as dual-use. The dual-use nature of many information and communications technologies (ICTs) raises new questions for research and development for national, international, and human security. Measures to deal with the risks associated with the various dual-use technologies, including proliferation control, design approaches, and policy measures, vary widely. For example, Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) have not yet been regulated, while cryptographic products are subject to export and import controls. Innovations in artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, cybersecurity, and automated analysis of publicly available data raise new questions about their respective dual-use risks. Dual-use risks have been systematically discussed so far, especially in the life sciences, which have contributed to the development of methods for assessment and risk management. Dual-use risks arise, among other things, from the fact that safety-critical technologies can be easily disseminated or modified, as well as used as part of a weapon system. Therefore, the development and adaptation of robots and software requires an independent consideration that builds on the insights of related dual-use discourses. Therefore, this dissertation considers the management of such risks in terms of the proliferation, regulation, and design of individual dual-use information technologies. Technology Assessment (TA) is the epistemological framework for this work, bringing together the concepts and approaches of Critical Security Studies (CSS) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to help evaluate and shape dual-use technologies. In order to identify the diffusion of dual-use at an early stage, the dissertation first examines the diffusion of dual-use innovations between civilian and military research in expert networks on LinkedIn, as well as on the basis of AI patents in a patent network. The results show low diffusion and tend to confirm existing studies on diffusion in patent networks. In the following section, the regulation of dual-use technologies is examined in the paper through two case studies. The first study uses a discourse analysis to show the value conflicts with regard to the regulation of autonomous weapons systems using the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC), while a second study, as a long-term comparative case study, analyzes the change and consequences of the regulation of strong cryptography in the U.S. as well as the programs of intelligence agencies for mass surveillance. Both cases point to the central role of private companies, both in the production of AWS and as intermediaries for the dissemination of encryption, as well as surveillance intermediaries. Subsequently, the dissertation examines the design of a dual-use technology using an Open Source Intelligence System (OSINT) for cybersecurity. For this purpose, conceptual, empirical, and technical studies are conducted as part of the Value-Sensitive Design (VSD) framework. During the studies, implications for research on and design of OSINT were identified. For example, the representative survey of the German population has shown that transparency of use while reducing mistrust is associated with higher acceptance of such systems. Additionally, it has been shown that data sparsity through the use of expert networks has many positive effects, not only improving the performance of the system, but is also preferable for legal and social reasons. Thus, the work contributes to the understanding of specific dual-use risks of AI, the regulation of AWS and cryptography, and the design of OSINT in cybersecurity. By combining concepts from CSS and participatory design methods in HCI, this work provides an interdisciplinary and multi-method contribution.

    @book{riebe_technology_2023,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Technology {Assessment} of {Dual}-{Use} {ICTs} – {How} to assess {Diffusion}, {Governance} and {Design}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/22849/},
    abstract = {Technologies that can be used in military and civilian applications are referred to as dual-use. The dual-use nature of many information and communications technologies (ICTs) raises new questions for research and development for national, international, and human security. Measures to deal with the risks associated with the various dual-use technologies, including proliferation control, design approaches, and policy measures, vary widely. For example, Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) have not yet been regulated, while cryptographic products are subject to export and import controls. Innovations in artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, cybersecurity, and automated analysis of publicly available data raise new questions about their respective dual-use risks.
    Dual-use risks have been systematically discussed so far, especially in the life sciences, which have contributed to the development of methods for assessment and risk management. Dual-use risks arise, among other things, from the fact that safety-critical technologies can be easily disseminated or modified, as well as used as part of a weapon system. Therefore, the development and adaptation of robots and software requires an independent consideration that builds on the insights of related dual-use discourses. Therefore, this dissertation considers the management of such risks in terms of the proliferation, regulation, and design of individual dual-use information technologies. Technology Assessment (TA) is the epistemological framework for this work, bringing together the concepts and approaches of Critical Security Studies (CSS) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to help evaluate and shape dual-use technologies.
    In order to identify the diffusion of dual-use at an early stage, the dissertation first examines the diffusion of dual-use innovations between civilian and military research in expert networks on LinkedIn, as well as on the basis of AI patents in a patent network. The results show low diffusion and tend to confirm existing studies on diffusion in patent networks. In the following section, the regulation of dual-use technologies is examined in the paper through two case studies. The first study uses a discourse analysis to show the value conflicts with regard to the regulation of autonomous weapons systems using the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC), while a second study, as a long-term comparative case study, analyzes the change and consequences of the regulation of strong cryptography in the U.S. as well as the programs of intelligence agencies for mass surveillance. Both cases point to the central role of private companies, both in the production of AWS and as intermediaries for the dissemination of encryption, as well as surveillance intermediaries. Subsequently, the dissertation examines the design of a dual-use technology using an Open Source Intelligence System (OSINT) for cybersecurity. For this purpose, conceptual, empirical, and technical studies are conducted as part of the Value-Sensitive Design (VSD) framework. During the studies, implications for research on and design of OSINT were identified. For example, the representative survey of the German population has shown that transparency of use while reducing mistrust is associated with higher acceptance of such systems. Additionally, it has been shown that data sparsity through the use of expert networks has many positive effects, not only improving the performance of the system, but is also preferable for legal and social reasons. Thus, the work contributes to the understanding of specific dual-use risks of AI, the regulation of AWS and cryptography, and the design of OSINT in cybersecurity. By combining concepts from CSS and participatory design methods in HCI, this work provides an interdisciplinary and multi-method contribution.},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt},
    author = {Riebe, Thea},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.26083/tuprints-00022849},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CYWARN, Dissertation},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    A Survey on Data Augmentation for Text Classification
    ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) ;55(7):1–39. doi:10.1145/3544558
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing a model’s generalization capabilities, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data, to regularizing the objective, to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation and a taxonomy for existing works, this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to provide a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners. Derived from the taxonomy, we divide more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and give state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising by relating them to each other. Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are provided.

    @article{bayer_survey_2023,
    title = {A {Survey} on {Data} {Augmentation} for {Text} {Classification}},
    volume = {55},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3544558},
    doi = {10.1145/3544558},
    abstract = {Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing a model's generalization capabilities, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data, to regularizing the objective, to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation and a taxonomy for existing works, this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to provide a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners. Derived from the taxonomy, we divide more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and give state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising by relating them to each other. Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are provided.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {1--39},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2023)
    Big Data and Multi-platform Social Media Services in Disaster Management
    In: Amita Singh: International Handbook of Disaster Research. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, , 1–21.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media today is not only ubiquitous and an integral part of everyday life but is also increasingly relevant before, during, or after emergencies. Data produced in these contexts, such as situational updates and multimedia content, is disseminated across different social media platforms and can be leveraged by various actors, including emergency services or volunteer communities. However, the dissemination of several thousand or even millions of messages during large-scale emergencies confronts analysts with challenges of information quality and overload. Hence, crisis informatics as a research domain seeks to explore and develop systems that support the collection, analysis, and dissemination of valuable social media information in emergencies. This chapter presents the social media API (SMA), which is a multi-platform service for gathering big social data across different social media channels and analyzing the credibility and relevance of collected data by the means of machine learning models. Based on the lessons learned from both the implementation process and user-centered evaluations in multiple emergency settings, this chapter discusses core challenges and potentials of the SMA and similar services, focusing on (1) the multi-platform gathering and management of data, (2) the mitigation of information overload by relevance assessment and message grouping, (3) the assessment of credibility and information quality, and (4) user-centered tailorability and adjustable data operations.

    @incollection{kaufhold_big_2023,
    address = {Singapore},
    title = {Big {Data} and {Multi}-platform {Social} {Media} {Services} in {Disaster} {Management}},
    isbn = {978-981-16-8800-3},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_KaufholdReuterLudwig_BigDataMultiPlatformSocialMediaDisaster_HandbookDisaster.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media today is not only ubiquitous and an integral part of everyday life but is also increasingly relevant before, during, or after emergencies. Data produced in these contexts, such as situational updates and multimedia content, is disseminated across different social media platforms and can be leveraged by various actors, including emergency services or volunteer communities. However, the dissemination of several thousand or even millions of messages during large-scale emergencies confronts analysts with challenges of information quality and overload. Hence, crisis informatics as a research domain seeks to explore and develop systems that support the collection, analysis, and dissemination of valuable social media information in emergencies. This chapter presents the social media API (SMA), which is a multi-platform service for gathering big social data across different social media channels and analyzing the credibility and relevance of collected data by the means of machine learning models. Based on the lessons learned from both the implementation process and user-centered evaluations in multiple emergency settings, this chapter discusses core challenges and potentials of the SMA and similar services, focusing on (1) the multi-platform gathering and management of data, (2) the mitigation of information overload by relevance assessment and message grouping, (3) the assessment of credibility and information quality, and (4) user-centered tailorability and adjustable data operations.},
    booktitle = {International {Handbook} of {Disaster} {Research}},
    publisher = {Springer Nature Singapore},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Singh, Amita},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-KOKOS, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--21},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Julian Bäumler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Values and Value Conflicts in the Context of OSINT Technologies for Cybersecurity Incident Response: A Value Sensitive Design Perspective
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) . doi:10.1007/s10606-022-09453-4
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The negotiation of stakeholder values as a collaborative process throughout technology development has been studied extensively within the fields of Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Human-Computer Interaction. Despite their increasing significance for cybersecurity incident response, there is a gap in research on values of importance to the design of open-source intelligence (OSINT) technologies for this purpose. In this paper, we investigate which values and value conflicts emerge due to the application and development of machine learning (ML) based OSINT technologies to assist cyber security incident response operators. For this purpose, we employ a triangulation of methods, consisting of a systematic survey of the technical literature on the development of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity (N = 73) and an empirical value sensitive design case study, comprising semi-structured interviews with stakeholders (N = 9) as well as a focus group (N = 7) with developers. Based on our results, we identify implications relevant to the research on and design of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity incident response.

    @article{riebe_values_2023,
    title = {Values and {Value} {Conflicts} in the {Context} of {OSINT} {Technologies} for {Cybersecurity} {Incident} {Response}: {A} {Value} {Sensitive} {Design} {Perspective}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10606-022-09453-4},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-022-09453-4},
    abstract = {The negotiation of stakeholder values as a collaborative process throughout technology development has been studied extensively within the fields of Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Human-Computer Interaction. Despite their increasing significance for cybersecurity incident response, there is a gap in research on values of importance to the design of open-source intelligence (OSINT) technologies for this purpose. In this paper, we investigate which values and value conflicts emerge due to the application and development of machine learning (ML) based OSINT technologies to assist cyber security incident response operators. For this purpose, we employ a triangulation of methods, consisting of a systematic survey of the technical literature on the development of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity (N = 73) and an empirical value sensitive design case study, comprising semi-structured interviews with stakeholders (N = 9) as well as a focus group (N = 7) with developers. Based on our results, we identify implications relevant to the research on and design of OSINT artefacts for cybersecurity incident response.},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Bäumler, Julian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tom Biselli, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Privacy Concerns and Acceptance Factors of OSINT for Cybersecurity: A Representative Survey
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (1):477–493. doi:https://doi.org/10.56553/popets-2023-0028
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) to monitor and detect cybersecurity threats is gaining popularity among Cybersecurity Emergency or Incident Response Teams (CERTs/CSIRTs). They increasingly use semi-automated OSINT approaches when monitoring cyber threats for public infrastructure services and incident response. Most of the systems use publicly available data, often focusing on social media due to timely data for situational assessment. As indirect and affected stakeholders, the acceptance of OSINT systems by users, as well as the conditions which influence the acceptance, are relevant for the development of OSINT systems for cybersecurity. Therefore, as part of the ethical and social technology assessment, we conducted a survey (N=1,093), in which we asked participants about their acceptance of OSINT systems, their perceived need for open source surveillance, as well as their privacy behavior and concerns. Further, we tested if the awareness of OSINT is an interactive factor that affects other factors. Our results indicate that cyber threat perception and the perceived need for OSINT are positively related to acceptance, while privacy concerns are negatively related. The awareness of OSINT, however, has only shown effects on people with higher privacy concerns. Here, particularly high OSINT awareness and limited privacy concerns were associated with higher OSINT acceptance. Lastly, we provide implications for further research and the use of OSINT systems for cybersecurity by authorities. As OSINT is a framework rather than a single technology, approaches can be selected and combined to adhere to data minimization and anonymization as well as to leverage improvements in privacy-preserving computation and machine learning innovations. Regarding the use of OSINT, the results suggest to favor approaches that provide transparency to users regarding the use of the systems and the data they gather.

    @article{riebe_privacy_2023,
    title = {Privacy {Concerns} and {Acceptance} {Factors} of {OSINT} for {Cybersecurity}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://petsymposium.org/popets/2023/popets-2023-0028.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.56553/popets-2023-0028},
    abstract = {The use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) to monitor and detect cybersecurity threats is gaining popularity among Cybersecurity Emergency or Incident Response Teams (CERTs/CSIRTs). They increasingly use semi-automated OSINT approaches when monitoring cyber threats for public infrastructure services and incident response. Most of the systems use publicly available data, often focusing on social media due to timely data for situational assessment. As indirect and affected stakeholders, the acceptance of OSINT systems by users, as well as the conditions which influence the acceptance, are relevant for the development of OSINT systems for cybersecurity. Therefore, as part of the ethical and social technology assessment, we conducted a survey (N=1,093), in which we asked participants about their acceptance of OSINT systems, their perceived need for open source surveillance, as well as their privacy behavior and concerns. Further, we tested if the awareness of OSINT is an interactive factor that affects other factors. Our results indicate that cyber threat perception and the perceived need for OSINT are positively related to acceptance, while privacy concerns are negatively related. The awareness of OSINT, however, has only shown effects on people with higher privacy concerns. Here, particularly high OSINT awareness and limited privacy concerns were associated with higher OSINT acceptance. Lastly, we provide implications for further research and the use of OSINT systems for cybersecurity by authorities. As OSINT is a framework rather than a single technology, approaches can be selected and combined to adhere to data minimization and anonymization as well as to leverage improvements in privacy-preserving computation and machine learning innovations. Regarding the use of OSINT, the results suggest to favor approaches that provide transparency to users regarding the use of the systems and the data they gather.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Biselli, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec},
    pages = {477--493},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2023)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2023,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    isbn = {978-1-00-905708-0},
    url = {https://www.cambridge.org/de/universitypress/subjects/psychology/applied-psychology/cambridge-handbook-cyber-behavior?format=WX&isbn=9781316616956},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Peace, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Elise Özalp, Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Trends in Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Non-Experts
    In: Peter Klimczak, Christer Petersen: AI – Limits and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, , 223–243.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper we provide an overview of XAI by introducing fundamental terminology and the goals of XAI, as well as recent research findings. Whilst doing this, we pay special attention to strategies for non-expert stakeholders. This leads us to our first research question: “What are the trends in explainable AI strategies for non-experts?”. In order to illustrate the current state of these trends, we further want to study an exemplary and very relevant application domain. According to Abdul et al. (2018), one of the first domains where researchers pursued XAI is the medical domain. This leads to our second research question: “What are the approaches of XAI in the medical domain for non-expert stakeholders?” These research questions will provide an overview of current topics in XAI and show possible research extensions for specific domains.

    @incollection{ozalp_trends_2023,
    address = {Bielefeld},
    title = {Trends in {Explainable} {Artificial} {Intelligence} for {Non}-{Experts}},
    url = {https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-5732-6/ai-limits-and-prospects-of-artificial-intelligence/?c=313000019},
    abstract = {In this paper we provide an overview of XAI by introducing fundamental terminology and the goals of XAI, as well as recent research findings. Whilst doing this, we pay special attention to strategies for non-expert stakeholders. This leads us to our first research question: “What are the trends in explainable AI strategies for non-experts?”. In order to illustrate the current state of these trends, we further want to study an exemplary and very relevant application domain. According to Abdul et al. (2018), one of the first domains where researchers pursued XAI is the medical domain. This leads to our second research question: “What are the approaches of XAI in the medical domain for non-expert stakeholders?” These research questions will provide an overview of current topics in XAI and show possible research extensions for specific domains.},
    booktitle = {{AI} - {Limits} and {Prospects} of {Artificial} {Intelligence}},
    publisher = {Transcript Verlag},
    author = {Özalp, Elise and Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Petersen, Christer},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {223--243},
    }

  • Thea Riebe (2023)
    Technology Assessment of Dual-Use ICTs – How to assess Diffusion, Governance and Design
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technologies that can be used in military and civilian applications are referred to as dual-use. The dual-use nature of many information and communications technologies (ICTs) raises new questions for research and development for national, international, and human security. Measures to deal with the risks associated with the various dual-use technologies, including proliferation control, design approaches, and policy measures, vary widely. For example, Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) have not yet been regulated, while cryptographic products are subject to export and import controls. Innovations in artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, cybersecurity, and automated analysis of publicly available data raise new questions about their respective dual-use risks. Dual-use risks have been systematically discussed so far, especially in the life sciences, which have contributed to the development of methods for assessment and risk management. Dual-use risks arise, among other things, from the fact that safety-critical technologies can be easily disseminated or modified, as well as used as part of a weapon system. Therefore, the development and adaptation of robots and software requires an independent consideration that builds on the insights of related dual-use discourses. Therefore, this dissertation considers the management of such risks in terms of the proliferation, regulation, and design of individual dual-use information technologies. Technology Assessment (TA) is the epistemological framework for this work, bringing together the concepts and approaches of Critical Security Studies (CSS) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to help evaluate and shape dual-use technologies. In order to identify the diffusion of dual-use at an early stage, the dissertation first examines the diffusion of dual-use innovations between civilian and military research in expert networks on LinkedIn, as well as on the basis of AI patents in a patent network. The results show low diffusion and tend to confirm existing studies on diffusion in patent networks. In the following section, the regulation of dual-use technologies is examined in the paper through two case studies. The first study uses a discourse analysis to show the value conflicts with regard to the regulation of autonomous weapons systems using the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC), while a second study, as a long-term comparative case study, analyzes the change and consequences of the regulation of strong cryptography in the U.S. as well as the programs of intelligence agencies for mass surveillance. Both cases point to the central role of private companies, both in the production of AWS and as intermediaries for the dissemination of encryption, as well as surveillance intermediaries. Subsequently, the dissertation examines the design of a dual-use technology using an Open Source Intelligence System (OSINT) for cybersecurity. For this purpose, conceptual, empirical, and technical studies are conducted as part of the Value-Sensitive Design (VSD) framework. During the studies, implications for research on and design of OSINT were identified. For example, the representative survey of the German population has shown that transparency of use while reducing mistrust is associated with higher acceptance of such systems. Additionally, it has been shown that data sparsity through the use of expert networks has many positive effects, not only improving the performance of the system, but is also preferable for legal and social reasons. Thus, the work contributes to the understanding of specific dual-use risks of AI, the regulation of AWS and cryptography, and the design of OSINT in cybersecurity. By combining concepts from CSS and participatory design methods in HCI, this work provides an interdisciplinary and multi-method contribution.

    @book{riebe_technology_2023-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Technology {Assessment} of {Dual}-{Use} {ICTs} – {How} to assess {Diffusion}, {Governance} and {Design}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-41666-9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-658-41667-6},
    abstract = {Technologies that can be used in military and civilian applications are referred to as dual-use. The dual-use nature of many information and communications technologies (ICTs) raises new questions for research and development for national, international, and human security. Measures to deal with the risks associated with the various dual-use technologies, including proliferation control, design approaches, and policy measures, vary widely. For example, Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) have not yet been regulated, while cryptographic products are subject to export and import controls. Innovations in artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, cybersecurity, and automated analysis of publicly available data raise new questions about their respective dual-use risks.
    Dual-use risks have been systematically discussed so far, especially in the life sciences, which have contributed to the development of methods for assessment and risk management. Dual-use risks arise, among other things, from the fact that safety-critical technologies can be easily disseminated or modified, as well as used as part of a weapon system. Therefore, the development and adaptation of robots and software requires an independent consideration that builds on the insights of related dual-use discourses. Therefore, this dissertation considers the management of such risks in terms of the proliferation, regulation, and design of individual dual-use information technologies. Technology Assessment (TA) is the epistemological framework for this work, bringing together the concepts and approaches of Critical Security Studies (CSS) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) to help evaluate and shape dual-use technologies.
    In order to identify the diffusion of dual-use at an early stage, the dissertation first examines the diffusion of dual-use innovations between civilian and military research in expert networks on LinkedIn, as well as on the basis of AI patents in a patent network. The results show low diffusion and tend to confirm existing studies on diffusion in patent networks. In the following section, the regulation of dual-use technologies is examined in the paper through two case studies. The first study uses a discourse analysis to show the value conflicts with regard to the regulation of autonomous weapons systems using the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC), while a second study, as a long-term comparative case study, analyzes the change and consequences of the regulation of strong cryptography in the U.S. as well as the programs of intelligence agencies for mass surveillance. Both cases point to the central role of private companies, both in the production of AWS and as intermediaries for the dissemination of encryption, as well as surveillance intermediaries. Subsequently, the dissertation examines the design of a dual-use technology using an Open Source Intelligence System (OSINT) for cybersecurity. For this purpose, conceptual, empirical, and technical studies are conducted as part of the Value-Sensitive Design (VSD) framework. During the studies, implications for research on and design of OSINT were identified. For example, the representative survey of the German population has shown that transparency of use while reducing mistrust is associated with higher acceptance of such systems. Additionally, it has been shown that data sparsity through the use of expert networks has many positive effects, not only improving the performance of the system, but is also preferable for legal and social reasons. Thus, the work contributes to the understanding of specific dual-use risks of AI, the regulation of AWS and cryptography, and the design of OSINT in cybersecurity. By combining concepts from CSS and participatory design methods in HCI, this work provides an interdisciplinary and multi-method contribution.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Riebe, Thea},
    year = {2023},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41667-6},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CYWARN, Dissertation},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Tobias Frey, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Multi-Level Fine-Tuning, Data Augmentation, and Few-Shot Learning for Specialized Cyber Threat Intelligence
    Computers & Security . doi:10.1016/j.cose.2023.103430
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A Design Science Artefact for Cyber Threat Detection and Actor Specific Communication

    @article{bayer_multi-level_2023,
    title = {Multi-{Level} {Fine}-{Tuning}, {Data} {Augmentation}, and {Few}-{Shot} {Learning} for {Specialized} {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence}},
    issn = {0167-4048},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_BayerFreyReuter_MultiLevelFineTuningForCyberThreatIntelligence_CS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.cose.2023.103430},
    abstract = {A Design Science Artefact for Cyber Threat Detection and Actor Specific Communication},
    journal = {Computers \& Security},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Frey, Tobias and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, David N. Relke, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Common vulnerability scoring system prediction based on open source intelligence information sources
    Computers & Security . doi:10.1016/j.cose.2023.103286
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The number of newly published vulnerabilities is constantly increasing. Until now, the information available when a new vulnerability is published is manually assessed by experts using a ()cvss vector and score. This assessment is time consuming and requires expertise. Various works already try to predict vectors or scores using machine learning based on the textual descriptions of the vulnerability to enable faster assessment. However, for this purpose, previous works only use the texts available in databases such as nvd. With this work, the publicly available web pages referenced in the nvd are analyzed and made available as sources of texts through web scraping. A dl based method for predicting the vector is implemented and evaluated. The present work provides a classification of the nvd’s reference texts based on the suitability and crawlability of their texts. While we identified the overall influence of the additional texts is negligible, we outperformed the state-of-the-art with our dl prediction models.

    @article{kuehn_common_2023,
    title = {Common vulnerability scoring system prediction based on open source intelligence information sources},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_KuehnRelkeReuter_CommonVulnerabilityScoringSystemOSINT_CompSec.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.cose.2023.103286},
    abstract = {The number of newly published vulnerabilities is constantly increasing. Until now, the information available when a new vulnerability is published is manually assessed by experts using a ()cvss vector and score. This assessment is time consuming and requires expertise. Various works already try to predict vectors or scores using machine learning based on the textual descriptions of the vulnerability to enable faster assessment. However, for this purpose, previous works only use the texts available in databases such as nvd. With this work, the publicly available web pages referenced in the nvd are analyzed and made available as sources of texts through web scraping. A dl based method for predicting the vector is implemented and evaluated. The present work provides a classification of the nvd’s reference texts based on the suitability and crawlability of their texts. While we identified the overall influence of the additional texts is negligible, we outperformed the state-of-the-art with our dl prediction models.},
    journal = {Computers \& Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Relke, David N. and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

    2022

  • Thea Riebe, Philipp Kuehn, Philipp Imperatori, Christian Reuter (2022)
    U.S. Security Policy: The Dual-Use Regulation of Cryptography and its Effects on Surveillance
    European Journal for Security Research (EJSR) . doi:10.1007/s41125-022-00080-0
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Cryptography has become ubiquitous in communication technology and is considered a necessary part of information security. However, both the regulation to restrict access to cryptography, as well as practices to weaken or break encryption, are part of the States’ security policies. The United States (U.S.) regulate cryptography for export in international trade as a dual-use good. However, the regulation has been increasingly loosened and transferred to bilateral agreements with Information and Communication Technology companies. At the same time, the National Security Agency attempted to implement a government encryption standard to guarantee itself easier access to data, thus progressively expanding surveillance on non-U.S. citizens. In this paper, using comparative policy analysis, we examine the evolution of both security policies by tracing the historical development of U.S. regulation of cryptography as a dual-use good, and surveillance technologies, and practices used from the 1990s to today. We conclude that the impact of the dual-use regulation has affected the efficiency of surveillance technology, by loosening regulations only for mass communication services, thereby supporting the proliferation of surveillance intermediaries, while working on strategies to collaborate and exploit their coverage.

    @article{riebe_us_2022,
    title = {U.{S}. {Security} {Policy}: {The} {Dual}-{Use} {Regulation} of {Cryptography} and its {Effects} on {Surveillance}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s41125-022-00080-0.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s41125-022-00080-0},
    abstract = {Cryptography has become ubiquitous in communication technology and is considered a necessary part of information security. However, both the regulation to restrict access to cryptography, as well as practices to weaken or break encryption, are part of the States’ security policies. The United States (U.S.) regulate cryptography for export in international trade as a dual-use good. However, the regulation has been increasingly loosened and transferred to bilateral agreements with Information and Communication Technology companies. At the same time, the National Security Agency attempted to implement a government encryption standard to guarantee itself easier access to data, thus progressively expanding surveillance on non-U.S. citizens. In this paper, using comparative policy analysis, we examine the evolution of both security policies by tracing the historical development of U.S. regulation of cryptography as a dual-use good, and surveillance technologies, and practices used from the 1990s to today. We conclude that the impact of the dual-use regulation has affected the efficiency of surveillance technology, by loosening regulations only for mass communication services, thereby supporting the proliferation of surveillance intermediaries, while working on strategies to collaborate and exploit their coverage.},
    journal = {European Journal for Security Research (EJSR)},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kuehn, Philipp and Imperatori, Philipp and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation. Routledge, , 48–63.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    isbn = {978-0-367-62674-7},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaAndFragmentation_Routledge.pdf},
    abstract = {Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Politics}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Transformations} and {Political} {Fragmentation}},
    publisher = {Routledge},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {48--63},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Dual-Use and Trustworthy? A Mixed Methods Analysis of AI Diffusion between Civilian and Defense R&D
    Science and Engineering Ethics ;28(12):1–23. doi:10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R&D.

    @article{schmid_dual-use_2022,
    title = {Dual-{Use} and {Trustworthy}? {A} {Mixed} {Methods} {Analysis} of {AI} {Diffusion} between {Civilian} and {Defense} {R}\&{D}},
    volume = {28},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchmidRiebeReuter_DualUseandTrustworthy_ScienceEngineeringEthics.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11948-022-00364-7},
    abstract = {Artificial Intelligence (AI) seems to be impacting all industry sectors, while becoming a motor for innovation. The diffusion of AI from the civilian sector to the defense sector, and AI’s dual-use potential has drawn attention from security and ethics scholars. With the publication of the ethical guideline Trustworthy AI by the European Union (EU), normative questions on the application of AI have been further evaluated. In order to draw conclusions on Trustworthy AI as a point of reference for responsible research and development (R\&D), we approach the diffusion of AI across both civilian and military spheres in the EU. We capture the extent of technological diffusion and derive European and German patent citation networks. Both networks indicate a low degree of diffusion of AI between civilian and defense sectors. A qualitative investigation of project descriptions of a research institute’s work in both civilian and military fields shows that military AI applications stress accuracy or robustness, while civilian AI reflects a focus on human-centric values. Our work represents a first approach by linking processes of technology diffusion with normative evaluations of R\&D.},
    number = {12},
    journal = {Science and Engineering Ethics},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {1--23},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Julian Bäumler, Christian Reuter (2022)
    The Implementation of Protective Measures and Communication of Cybersecurity Alerts in Germany – A Representative Survey of the Population
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws01-228
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Despite the merits of digitization in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly exposed to cyberattacks. We conducted a representative survey with German citizens (N=1,093) to examine how they assess the current and future cyber threat situation as well as possible protective measures in cyberspace. Furthermore, we asked what information and channels citizens need to be aware of cyber threats. Our findings indicate that large proportions of the German population feel inadequately informed about cyber threats and tend to only apply enforced security measures by programs (e.g., updates) and services (e.g., two-factor authentication). Furthermore, institutions such as state-level Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are relatively unknown among the population and respondents showed little confidence in German security authorities to cope with largescale attacks and ultimately protect citizens. Still, our participants prefer to receive cybersecurity information via installed security applications, television channels, or emergency warning apps.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_implementation_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {The {Implementation} of {Protective} {Measures} and {Communication} of {Cybersecurity} {Alerts} in {Germany} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {Population}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39061},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws01-228},
    abstract = {Despite the merits of digitization in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly exposed to cyberattacks. We conducted a representative survey with German citizens (N=1,093) to examine how they assess the current and future cyber threat situation as well as possible protective measures in cyberspace. Furthermore, we asked what information and channels citizens need to be aware of cyber threats. Our findings indicate that large proportions of the German population feel inadequately informed about cyber threats and tend to only apply enforced security measures by programs (e.g., updates) and services (e.g., two-factor authentication). Furthermore, institutions such as state-level Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are relatively unknown among the population and respondents showed little confidence in German security authorities to cope with largescale attacks and ultimately protect citizens. Still, our participants prefer to receive cybersecurity information via installed security applications, television channels, or emergency warning apps.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bäumler, Julian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Kaan Eyilmez, Marc Stöttinger, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cyber Threat Observatory: Design and Evaluation of an Interactive Dashboard for Computer Emergency Response Teams
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Timisoara, Romania.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and networking, societies are increasling exposed to cyberattacks. In Germany, Computer Emerrgency Response Teams (CERTs) of the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide preventative and reactive information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats is getting more complex by the increasing information quantity disseminated into relevant public channels. Using the lens of design science research, this paper contributes with the design and evaluation of a cross-platform cybersecurity dashboard for CERTs. Based on expert scenario-based walkthroughs in combination with semi-structured interviews (N=12), it discusses six design implications, including the customizability of data sources and filtering of displayed entities, modular integration of additional information sources, interrelation between different information feeds, intelligent algorithms for content assessment and filtering, integration with security software and systems, as well as export, sharing and communication of relevant data.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_cyber_2022,
    address = {Timisoara, Romania},
    title = {Cyber {Threat} {Observatory}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of an {Interactive} {Dashboard} for {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_KaufholdBasyurtEyilmezStoettingerReuter_CyberThreatObservatory_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and networking, societies are increasling exposed to cyberattacks. In Germany, Computer Emerrgency Response Teams (CERTs) of the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide preventative and reactive information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats is getting more complex by the increasing information quantity disseminated into relevant public channels. Using the lens of design science research, this paper contributes with the design and evaluation of a cross-platform cybersecurity dashboard for CERTs. Based on expert scenario-based walkthroughs in combination with semi-structured interviews (N=12), it discusses six design implications, including the customizability of data sources and filtering of displayed entities, modular integration of additional information sources, interrelation between different information feeds, intelligent algorithms for content assessment and filtering, integration with security software and systems, as well as export, sharing and communication of relevant data.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Eyilmez, Kaan and Stöttinger, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Julian Bäumler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2022)
    The Notion of Relevance in Cybersecurity: A Categorization of Security Tools and Deduction of Relevance Notions
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws01-220
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Proper cybersecurity requires timely information to defend the IT infrastructure. In a dynamic field like cybersecurity, gathering up-to-date information is usually a manual, time-consuming, and exhaustive task. Automatic and usable approaches are supposed to be a solution to this problem, but for this, they require a notion of information relevance to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information. First, on the basis of a literature review, this paper proposes a novel cybersecurity tool categorization based on corresponding tool types with their respective definitions and core features. Second, it elaborates information used in each category and deduces notions of relevance. Third, it outlines how these findings informed the design of a security dashboard to guide computer emergency response team staff in identifying current threats in open source intelligence sources while mitigating information overload.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_notion_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {The {Notion} of {Relevance} in {Cybersecurity}: {A} {Categorization} of {Security} {Tools} and {Deduction} of {Relevance} {Notions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39072},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws01-220},
    abstract = {Proper cybersecurity requires timely information to defend the IT infrastructure. In a dynamic field like cybersecurity, gathering up-to-date information is usually a manual, time-consuming, and exhaustive task. Automatic and usable approaches are supposed to be a solution to this problem, but for this, they require a notion of information relevance to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information. First, on the basis of a literature review, this paper proposes a novel cybersecurity tool categorization based on corresponding tool types with their respective definitions and core features. Second, it elaborates information used in each category and deduces notions of relevance. Third, it outlines how these findings informed the design of a security dashboard to guide computer emergency response team staff in identifying current threats in open source intelligence sources while mitigating information overload.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bäumler, Julian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Björn Buchhold, Marcel Keller, Jörg Dallmeyer, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Data Augmentation in Natural Language Processing: A Novel Text Generation Approach for Long and Short Text Classifiers
    International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics (IJMLC) . doi:10.1007/s13042-022-01553-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. Especially with regard to small data analytics, additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% and 3.56\% are achieved within a constructed low data regime, compared to the no augmentation baseline and another data augmentation technique. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1-score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives (in total 11 datasets), we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.

    @article{bayer_data_2022,
    title = {Data {Augmentation} in {Natural} {Language} {Processing}: {A} {Novel} {Text} {Generation} {Approach} for {Long} and {Short} {Text} {Classifiers}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13042-022-01553-3},
    doi = {10.1007/s13042-022-01553-3},
    abstract = {In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. Especially with regard to small data analytics, additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% and 3.56\% are achieved within a constructed low data regime, compared to the no augmentation baseline and another data augmentation technique. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1-score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives (in total 11 datasets), we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.},
    journal = {International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics (IJMLC)},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Buchhold, Björn and Keller, Marcel and Dallmeyer, Jörg and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Kaan Eyilmez, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Stefan Stieglitz, Christoph Fuchss, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Milad Mirabaie (2022)
    A Design Science Artefact for Cyber Threat Detection and Actor Specific Communication
    Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the past few decades, the number and variety of cyberattacks and malware patterns have increased immensely. As a countermeasure, computer emergency response teams were established with the responsibility of securing the cyber environment. However, recent studies revealed that currently performed manual processes and the unavailability of adequate tools impede the achievement of cybersecurity. To address these challenges, we followed the Design Science paradigm to develop an artefact that improves the evaluation of open-source intelligence obtained from Twitter as well as the actor-specific communication of cyber threat information. Subsequently, the implemented artefact will be evaluated through semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts. This research in progress article presents the identified research gap and describes the development process and the endeavor to contribute to the cybersecurity domain theoretically with design principles for the development of an instrument and practically by implementing an artefact that supports domain experts in their work.

    @inproceedings{eyilmez_design_2022,
    title = {A {Design} {Science} {Artefact} for {Cyber} {Threat} {Detection} and {Actor} {Specific} {Communication}},
    url = {https://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1049&context=acis2022},
    abstract = {Over the past few decades, the number and variety of cyberattacks and malware patterns have increased immensely. As a countermeasure, computer emergency response teams were established with the responsibility of securing the cyber environment. However, recent studies revealed that currently performed manual processes and the unavailability of adequate tools impede the achievement of cybersecurity. To address these challenges, we followed the Design Science paradigm to develop an artefact that improves the evaluation of open-source intelligence obtained from Twitter as well as the actor-specific communication of cyber threat information. Subsequently, the implemented artefact will be evaluated through semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts. This research in progress article presents the identified research gap and describes the development process and the endeavor to contribute to the cybersecurity domain theoretically with design principles for the development of an instrument and practically by implementing an artefact that supports domain experts in their work.},
    booktitle = {Australasian {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ACIS})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Eyilmez, Kaan and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Stieglitz, Stefan and Fuchss, Christoph and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Mirabaie, Milad},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Perceptions and Use of Warning Apps – Did Recent Crises Lead to Changes in Germany?
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband New York. doi:10.1145/3543758.3543770
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Warning and emergency apps are an integral part of crisis informatics and particularly relevant in countries that currently do not have cell broadcast, such as Germany. Previous studies have shown that such apps are regarded as relevant, but only around 16\% of German citizens used them in 2017 and 2019. With the COVID-19 pandemic and a devastating flash flood, Germany has recently experienced severe crisis-related losses. By comparing data from representative surveys from 2017, 2019 and 2021, this study investigates whether these events have changed the perceptions of warning apps and their usage patterns in Germany. The study shows that while multi-hazard emergency and warning apps have been easily surpassed in usage by COVID-19 contact tracing apps, the use of warning apps has also increased and the pandemic has added new desired features. While these have been little-used during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially non-users see smartphone messengers app channels as possible alternatives to warning apps. In addition, regional warning apps appear promising, possibly because they make choosing a warning app easier when there are several available on the market.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2022,
    address = {New York},
    title = {Perceptions and {Use} of {Warning} {Apps} – {Did} {Recent} {Crises} {Lead} to {Changes} in {Germany}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_WarningAppsChangesGermany_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3543758.3543770},
    abstract = {Warning and emergency apps are an integral part of crisis informatics and particularly relevant in countries that currently do not have cell broadcast, such as Germany. Previous studies have shown that such apps are regarded as relevant, but only around 16\% of German citizens used them in 2017 and 2019. With the COVID-19 pandemic and a devastating flash flood, Germany has recently experienced severe crisis-related losses. By comparing data from representative surveys from 2017, 2019 and 2021, this study investigates whether these events have changed the perceptions of warning apps and their usage patterns in Germany. The study shows that while multi-hazard emergency and warning apps have been easily surpassed in usage by COVID-19 contact tracing apps, the use of warning apps has also increased and the pandemic has added new desired features. While these have been little-used during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially non-users see smartphone messengers app channels as possible alternatives to warning apps. In addition, regional warning apps appear promising, possibly because they make choosing a warning app easier when there are several available on the market.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2022)
    Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    Darmstadt: TUprints.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigated the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @book{kaufhold_proceedings_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    title = {Proceedings of the 2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_KaufholdReuterComesMirbabaieStieglitz_Proceedings2ndWorkshopMobileResilience.pdf},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigated the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Ali Sercan Basyurt, Jennifer Fromm, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Milad Mirabaie (2022)
    Help Wanted – Challenges in Data Collection, Analysis and Communication of Cyber Threats in Security Operation Centers
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Nürnberg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Security Operation Centers are tasked with collecting and analyzing cyber threat data from multiple sources to communicate warning messages and solutions. These tasks are extensive and resource consuming, which makes supporting approaches valuable to experts. However, to implement such approaches, information about the challenges these experts face while performing these tasks is necessary. We therefore conducted semi-structured expert interviews to identify these challenges. By doing so, valuable insights into these challenges based on expert knowledge is acquired, which in return could be leveraged to develop automated approaches to support experts and address these challenges.

    @inproceedings{basyurt_help_2022,
    address = {Nürnberg},
    title = {Help {Wanted} - {Challenges} in {Data} {Collection}, {Analysis} and {Communication} of {Cyber} {Threats} in {Security} {Operation} {Centers}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_BasyourtFrommKuehnKaufholdMirabaie_HelpWantedChallengesDataCollectionAnalysisCommunication_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Security Operation Centers are tasked with collecting and analyzing cyber threat data from multiple sources to communicate warning messages and solutions. These tasks are extensive and resource consuming, which makes supporting approaches valuable to experts. However, to implement such approaches, information about the challenges these experts face while performing these tasks is necessary. We therefore conducted semi-structured expert interviews to identify these challenges. By doing so, valuable insights into these challenges based on expert knowledge is acquired, which in return could be leveraged to develop automated approaches to support experts and address these challenges.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Fromm, Jennifer and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Mirabaie, Milad},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Ranking-CORE-C, Security, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

    2021

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Perceptions of Police Technology Use and Attitudes Towards the Police – A Representative Survey of the German Population
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-255
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Perceptions of {Police} {Technology} {Use} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Police} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {German} {Population}},
    volume = {Mensch und Computer 2021 - Workshopband},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_PoliceTechnologyUseSurvey_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-255},
    abstract = {Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–17.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_einleitung_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {3--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Peace, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank FuchsKittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2021) . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuehnBayerWendelbornReuter_OVANAQualityVulnerabilityDatabases_ARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security} ({ARES} 2021)},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Ranking-CORE-B, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2021)
    8. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen: Ausnahmezustand
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Ingolstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Zentrum dieses Workshops steht die Interaktion von Mensch und Technik in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten. Hierzu zählen Anwendungsfelder, die bereits seit vielen Jahren Gegenstand der Forschung und Entwicklung sind. Beispiele sind Katastrophen-schutz oder Medizin, aber auch kritische Infrastrukturen. In die-sen und vielen weiteren Bereichen gilt, dass sichere Systemzu-stände nur durch die ganzheitliche Betrachtung von Mensch, Technik und Organisation gewährleistet bzw. schnellstmöglich wieder erreicht werden können. In diesem Zusammenhang ist der Workshop auch der Nutzbarkeit und Akzeptanz von Sicher-heitskonzepten sowie einer bewussteren Auseinandersetzung der Nutzenden mit diesem Thema gewidmet. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Themenkomplexe des Workshops, die angenommenen Bei-träge und das Organisationsteam vor.

    @inproceedings{mentler_8_2021,
    address = {Ingolstadt},
    title = {8. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}: {Ausnahmezustand}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/37338},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117},
    abstract = {Im Zentrum dieses Workshops steht die Interaktion von Mensch und Technik in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten. Hierzu zählen Anwendungsfelder, die bereits seit vielen Jahren Gegenstand der Forschung und Entwicklung sind. Beispiele sind Katastrophen-schutz oder Medizin, aber auch kritische Infrastrukturen. In die-sen und vielen weiteren Bereichen gilt, dass sichere Systemzu-stände nur durch die ganzheitliche Betrachtung von Mensch, Technik und Organisation gewährleistet bzw. schnellstmöglich wieder erreicht werden können. In diesem Zusammenhang ist der Workshop auch der Nutzbarkeit und Akzeptanz von Sicher-heitskonzepten sowie einer bewussteren Auseinandersetzung der Nutzenden mit diesem Thema gewidmet. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Themenkomplexe des Workshops, die angenommenen Bei-träge und das Organisationsteam vor.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Design and Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Real-Time Credibility Assessment in Twitter
    30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN2021) Bratislava. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2021,
    address = {Bratislava},
    title = {Design and {Evaluation} of {Deep} {Learning} {Models} for {Real}-{Time} {Credibility} {Assessment} in {Twitter}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdBayerHartungReuter_DeepLearningCredibilityAssessmentTwitter_ICANN.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32},
    abstract = {Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.},
    booktitle = {30th {International} {Conference} on {Artificial} {Neural} {Networks} ({ICANN2021})},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jennifer Fromm, Thea Riebe, Milad Mirbabaie, Philipp Kuehn, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Markus Bayer, Marc Stöttinger, Kaan Eyilmez, Reinhard Möller, Christoph Fuchß, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CYWARN: Strategy and Technology Development for Cross-Platform Cyber Situational Awareness and Actor-Specific Cyber Threat Communication
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_cywarn_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {{CYWARN}: {Strategy} and {Technology} {Development} for {Cross}-{Platform} {Cyber} {Situational} {Awareness} and {Actor}-{Specific} {Cyber} {Threat} {Communication}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/server/api/core/bitstreams/8f470f6b-5050-4fb9-b923-d08cf84c17b7/content},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263},
    abstract = {Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Fromm, Jennifer and Riebe, Thea and Mirbabaie, Milad and Kuehn, Philipp and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Bayer, Markus and Stöttinger, Marc and Eyilmez, Kaan and Möller, Reinhard and Fuchß, Christoph and Stieglitz, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3447527.3474869
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    series = {{MobileHCI} '21 {Adjunct}},
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdReuterComesMirbabaieStieglitz_2ndWorkshopMobileResilience_MobileHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3447527.3474869},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, AuswahlKaufhold, Dissertation},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, AuswahlUsableSec, AuswahlKaufhold},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tristan Wirth, Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volker Knauthe, Stefan Guthe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CySecAlert: An Alert Generation System for Cyber Security Events Using Open Source Intelligence Data
    Information and Communications Security (ICICS) . doi:10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.

    @inproceedings{riebe_cysecalert_2021,
    title = {{CySecAlert}: {An} {Alert} {Generation} {System} for {Cyber} {Security} {Events} {Using} {Open} {Source} {Intelligence} {Data}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeWirthBayerKuehnKaufholdKnautheGutheReuter_CySecAlertOpenSourceIntelligence_ICICS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    abstract = {Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.},
    booktitle = {Information and {Communications} {Security} ({ICICS})},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Wirth, Tristan and Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Knauthe, Volker and Guthe, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {429--446},
    }

  • Rolf Egert, Nina Gerber, Jasmin Haunschild, Philipp Kuehn, Verena Zimmermann (2021)
    Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;20(2):161–175. doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0021
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers – capable of producing and consuming electricity – who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

    @article{egert_towards_2021,
    series = {i-com},
    title = {Towards {Resilient} {Critical} {Infrastructures} - {Motivating} {Users} to {Contribute} to {Smart} {Grid} {Resilience}},
    volume = {20},
    url = {https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/icom-2021-0021/html},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2021-0021},
    abstract = {Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers - capable of producing and consuming electricity - who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Egert, Rolf and Gerber, Nina and Haunschild, Jasmin and Kuehn, Philipp and Zimmermann, Verena},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {161--175},
    }

    2020

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In den letzten 20 Jahren haben sich mobile Technologien und soziale Medien nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in Krisensituationen etabliert. Insbesondere großflächige Ereignisse wie der Hurrikan Sandy (2012) oder das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser (2013) haben gezeigt, dass sich die Bevölkerung aktiv mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie (IKT) an der Schadensbewältigung beteiligt (Reuter, Hughes, et al., 2018). Daraus ist das Forschungsfeld der Kriseninformatik entstanden, welches Wissen der Informatik und Gesellschaftswissenschaften kombiniert und zudem in Disziplinen wie der MenschMaschine-Interaktion (HCI), Computerunterstützten Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) und Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) verankert ist. Während die Bevölkerung IKT einsetzt, um die Unsicherheiten in Krisen zu bewältigen, nutzen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), etwa Feuerwehr und Polizei, öffentliche Daten, um das Situationsbewusstsein und die Entscheidungsfindung für eine bessere Schadensbewältigung zu verbessern (Palen & Anderson, 2016). Noch größere Katastrophen wie die aktuelle COVID-19-Pandemie verstärken dabei die Herausforderungen der Kriseninformatik (Xie et al., 2020). Für BOS stellt die umfangreiche Menge heterogener und semantisch verknüpfter Daten, auch Social Big Data genannt (Olshannikova et al., 2017), eine große Herausforderung im Hinblick auf die Qualität, Quantität und den Zugriff auf relevante Informationen dar. Um ein Situationsbewusstsein und nutzbare Informationen, d. h. die richtigen Informationen zur richtigen Zeit bei der richtigen Person, zu erhalten (Zade et al., 2018), müssen Informationen auf die Bedingungen des Ereignisses, organisationale Anforderungen, soziale Rahmenbedingungen und technische Möglichkeiten verfeinert werden. Diese Dissertation kombiniert das methodische Framework der Designfallstudien (Wulf et al., 2011) mit den Prinzipien der Design-Science-Forschung (Hevner et al., 2004), um das Thema der Informationsverfeinerung (Information Refinement) in vier Phasen zu untersuchen, wovon jede unterschiedliche Forschungsbeiträge hervorbringt. Die Arbeit begutachtet zunächst Nutzungs-, Rollen- und Wahrnehmungsmuster in der Kriseninformatik und stellt die Potenziale sozialer Medien zur öffentlichen Teilhabe an der Krisenbewältigung heraus. Die empirische Studien mit der deutschen Bevölkerung zeigen die positiven Einstellungen und die steigende Nutzung mobiler und sozialer Technologien in Krisen, stellen aber auch Barrieren heraus und zeigen die Erwartung, dass BOS in soziale Medien aktiv sind. Die Ergebnisse fundieren das Design innovativer IKT-Artefakte, darunter visuelle Bevölkerungsrichtlinien für soziale Medien in Krisen (SMG), ein Web-Interface für BOS zur Aggregation mobiler und sozialer Daten (ESI), ein Algorithmus zur Extraktion relevanter Informationen in sozialen Medien (SMO), und eine mobile App für die bidirektionale Kommunikation zwischen BOS und Bevölkerung (112.social). Die Evaluation der Artefakte involviert EndnutzerInnen aus dem Anwendungsfeld des Krisenmanagements, um potenziale für Verbesserungen und zukünftige Forschung zu identifizieren. Die Arbeit schließt mit einem Framework zur Informationsverfeinerung für die Kriseninformatik ab, welche die event-, gesellschafts-, organisation- und technologiebasierte Perspektive integriert.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.26083/tuprints-00017474},
    abstract = {In den letzten 20 Jahren haben sich mobile Technologien und soziale Medien nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in Krisensituationen etabliert. Insbesondere großflächige Ereignisse wie der Hurrikan Sandy (2012) oder das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser (2013) haben gezeigt, dass sich die Bevölkerung aktiv mit Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie (IKT) an der Schadensbewältigung beteiligt (Reuter, Hughes, et al., 2018). Daraus ist das Forschungsfeld der Kriseninformatik entstanden, welches Wissen der Informatik und Gesellschaftswissenschaften kombiniert und zudem in Disziplinen wie der MenschMaschine-Interaktion (HCI), Computerunterstützten Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) und Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) verankert ist. Während die Bevölkerung IKT einsetzt, um die Unsicherheiten in Krisen zu bewältigen, nutzen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), etwa Feuerwehr und Polizei, öffentliche Daten, um das Situationsbewusstsein und die Entscheidungsfindung für eine bessere Schadensbewältigung zu verbessern (Palen \& Anderson, 2016). Noch größere Katastrophen wie die aktuelle COVID-19-Pandemie verstärken dabei die Herausforderungen der Kriseninformatik (Xie et al., 2020). Für BOS stellt die umfangreiche Menge heterogener und semantisch verknüpfter Daten, auch Social Big Data genannt (Olshannikova et al., 2017), eine große Herausforderung im Hinblick auf die Qualität, Quantität und den Zugriff auf relevante Informationen dar. Um ein Situationsbewusstsein und nutzbare Informationen, d. h. die richtigen Informationen zur richtigen Zeit bei der richtigen Person, zu erhalten (Zade et al., 2018), müssen Informationen auf die Bedingungen des Ereignisses, organisationale Anforderungen, soziale Rahmenbedingungen und technische Möglichkeiten verfeinert werden. Diese Dissertation kombiniert das methodische Framework der Designfallstudien (Wulf et al., 2011) mit den Prinzipien der Design-Science-Forschung (Hevner et al., 2004), um das Thema der Informationsverfeinerung (Information Refinement) in vier Phasen zu untersuchen, wovon jede unterschiedliche Forschungsbeiträge hervorbringt. Die Arbeit begutachtet zunächst Nutzungs-, Rollen- und Wahrnehmungsmuster in der Kriseninformatik und stellt die Potenziale sozialer Medien zur öffentlichen Teilhabe an der Krisenbewältigung heraus. Die empirische Studien mit der deutschen Bevölkerung zeigen die positiven Einstellungen und die steigende Nutzung mobiler und sozialer Technologien in Krisen, stellen aber auch Barrieren heraus und zeigen die Erwartung, dass BOS in soziale Medien aktiv sind. Die Ergebnisse fundieren das Design innovativer IKT-Artefakte, darunter visuelle Bevölkerungsrichtlinien für soziale Medien in Krisen (SMG), ein Web-Interface für BOS zur Aggregation mobiler und sozialer Daten (ESI), ein Algorithmus zur Extraktion relevanter Informationen in sozialen Medien (SMO), und eine mobile App für die bidirektionale Kommunikation zwischen BOS und Bevölkerung (112.social). Die Evaluation der Artefakte involviert EndnutzerInnen aus dem Anwendungsfeld des Krisenmanagements, um potenziale für Verbesserungen und zukünftige Forschung zu identifizieren. Die Arbeit schließt mit einem Framework zur Informationsverfeinerung für die Kriseninformatik ab, welche die event-, gesellschafts-, organisation- und technologiebasierte Perspektive integriert.},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Department of Computer Science, Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Dissertation},
    }

    ATHENE-SecAttack: Security of Urban Infrastructures Against Cyberattacks (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, BMBF+HMWK)

    ATHENE-SecUrban: Secure Urban Infrastructures  (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, BMBF+HMWK)ATHENE-SecAttack: Security of Urban Infrastructures Against Cyberattacks (1.1.2020-31.12.2023, BMBF+HMWK) – Website

    https://securban.athene-center.de/

    The project focuses on the use of malicious software (malware) employed as a cyberweapon for espionage or attacks against the highly connected, automated and interdependent infrastructures in urban areas and the according challenges and threats. With this focus, the project will render exploits, their impacts, their stockpiling and attribution characteristics measurable. It will then analyze the requirements that precondition effective regulation of different types of malware, such as attribution, oversight of stockpiling, delegation to independent experts for oversight or detection of indiscriminate malware in breach of international law and conventions. With a focus on urban infrastructures, SecAttack will provide tools for the detection and mitigation of cyber attacks as well as develop recommendations for decision makers and stakeholders to regulate and structure urban ICT infrastructures to prevent or disincentivized cyber attacks. Regarding the necessary regulation of such malicious tools, SecAttack will furthermore provide technical solutions for classifying types of malware as cyberweapons and contribute technical solutions to regulatory challenges of arms control and military risk prevention. In addition, the project will assess the necessary security of an organized development and stockpiling of malware and provide measures to reduce risks of inadvertent incidents, which is a common smallest denominator of state actors towards the security of national IT infrastructures and a possible basis for further interstate cooperation.

    ATHENE-FANCY: Future Data Economy and Society (1.1.2019-31.12.2022, BMBF+HMWK)

    ATHENE-FANCY: Future Data Economy and Society  (1.4.2019-31.12.2022, BMBF+HMWK)

    Daten können einen hohen Wert für Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft haben. Analyse, Zusammenführung und Nutzung von Daten stellen neben dem hohen ökonomischen Wert auch einen hohen gesellschaftlichen Nutzen dar, man denke z. B. an die Medizin. Auch im Bereich der Künstlichen Intelligenz nimmt die Bedeutung der Daten­ökonomie zu, vor allem durch die vielfältigen Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Maschinellen Lernens. Durch solch selbstlernende Algorithmen ergibt sich ein potenzieller Vorteil bei der Analyse von großen Datenmengen, die oft menschliche Analysefähigkeiten an ihre Grenzen bringen. Demgegenüber stehen jedoch große Risiken für den Schutz der Privatsphäre jedes Einzelnen.

    Im Rahmen der ATHENE-Forschung erfolgt eine integrierte und interdisziplinäre Analyse des Trade-offs zwischen dem Wert von Daten einerseits und Privatsphäre-Risiken andererseits. Ein Schwerpunkt der For­schungs­arbeiten ist die gemeinsame Entwicklung von Privacy-Enhancing-Technologies (PETs), die einerseits die Kontrolle des Einzelnen über die eigenen persönlichen Daten erhöhen und andererseits die Analyse und Zusammenführung von großen Datenmengen ermöglichen. Auf dieser Grundlage werden Bausteine für faire und rechtskonforme digitale Ge­schäfts­modelle mithilfe von PETs entwickelt, die den Wert der Daten nutzen und gleichzeitig die Privatsphäre der Menschen schützen.

    2023

  • Laura Guntrum, Benjamin Güldenring, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Using Digitally Mediated Methods in Sensitive Contexts: A Threat Analysis and Critical Reflection on Security, Privacy, and Ethical Concerns in the Case of Afghanistan
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;11(2):95–128. doi:10.1007/s42597-022-00088-2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Given the lack of empirical examples of how research can be conducted via digital means in sensitive contexts, this paper provides a threat model using Afghanistan, where the Taliban took power in August 2021, as an example. Both technical and non-technical research-related risks are analyzed, paying attention to research ethics, data security, and privacy. We argue that any threat model and risk analysis is highly context-dependent. Our analysis reveals that in certain research processes, human security does not necessarily coincide with data security and that an ambivalence exists between privacy and usability. In addition to the concrete threat analysis, the paper identifies some general technical solutions (e.g., encryption methods, communication software) for different research steps to foster secure and ethically justifiable research.

    @article{guntrum_using_2023,
    title = {Using {Digitally} {Mediated} {Methods} in {Sensitive} {Contexts}: {A} {Threat} {Analysis} and {Critical} {Reflection} on {Security}, {Privacy}, and {Ethical} {Concerns} in the {Case} of {Afghanistan}},
    volume = {11},
    issn = {2524-6976},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42597-022-00088-2},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-022-00088-2},
    abstract = {Given the lack of empirical examples of how research can be conducted via digital means in sensitive contexts, this paper provides a threat model using Afghanistan, where the Taliban took power in August 2021, as an example. Both technical and non-technical research-related risks are analyzed, paying attention to research ethics, data security, and privacy. We argue that any threat model and risk analysis is highly context-dependent. Our analysis reveals that in certain research processes, human security does not necessarily coincide with data security and that an ambivalence exists between privacy and usability. In addition to the concrete threat analysis, the paper identifies some general technical solutions (e.g., encryption methods, communication software) for different research steps to foster secure and ethically justifiable research.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura and Güldenring, Benjamin and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian},
    month = oct,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {95--128},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tom Biselli, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Privacy Concerns and Acceptance Factors of OSINT for Cybersecurity: A Representative Survey
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (1):477–493. doi:https://doi.org/10.56553/popets-2023-0028
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) to monitor and detect cybersecurity threats is gaining popularity among Cybersecurity Emergency or Incident Response Teams (CERTs/CSIRTs). They increasingly use semi-automated OSINT approaches when monitoring cyber threats for public infrastructure services and incident response. Most of the systems use publicly available data, often focusing on social media due to timely data for situational assessment. As indirect and affected stakeholders, the acceptance of OSINT systems by users, as well as the conditions which influence the acceptance, are relevant for the development of OSINT systems for cybersecurity. Therefore, as part of the ethical and social technology assessment, we conducted a survey (N=1,093), in which we asked participants about their acceptance of OSINT systems, their perceived need for open source surveillance, as well as their privacy behavior and concerns. Further, we tested if the awareness of OSINT is an interactive factor that affects other factors. Our results indicate that cyber threat perception and the perceived need for OSINT are positively related to acceptance, while privacy concerns are negatively related. The awareness of OSINT, however, has only shown effects on people with higher privacy concerns. Here, particularly high OSINT awareness and limited privacy concerns were associated with higher OSINT acceptance. Lastly, we provide implications for further research and the use of OSINT systems for cybersecurity by authorities. As OSINT is a framework rather than a single technology, approaches can be selected and combined to adhere to data minimization and anonymization as well as to leverage improvements in privacy-preserving computation and machine learning innovations. Regarding the use of OSINT, the results suggest to favor approaches that provide transparency to users regarding the use of the systems and the data they gather.

    @article{riebe_privacy_2023,
    title = {Privacy {Concerns} and {Acceptance} {Factors} of {OSINT} for {Cybersecurity}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://petsymposium.org/popets/2023/popets-2023-0028.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.56553/popets-2023-0028},
    abstract = {The use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) to monitor and detect cybersecurity threats is gaining popularity among Cybersecurity Emergency or Incident Response Teams (CERTs/CSIRTs). They increasingly use semi-automated OSINT approaches when monitoring cyber threats for public infrastructure services and incident response. Most of the systems use publicly available data, often focusing on social media due to timely data for situational assessment. As indirect and affected stakeholders, the acceptance of OSINT systems by users, as well as the conditions which influence the acceptance, are relevant for the development of OSINT systems for cybersecurity. Therefore, as part of the ethical and social technology assessment, we conducted a survey (N=1,093), in which we asked participants about their acceptance of OSINT systems, their perceived need for open source surveillance, as well as their privacy behavior and concerns. Further, we tested if the awareness of OSINT is an interactive factor that affects other factors. Our results indicate that cyber threat perception and the perceived need for OSINT are positively related to acceptance, while privacy concerns are negatively related. The awareness of OSINT, however, has only shown effects on people with higher privacy concerns. Here, particularly high OSINT awareness and limited privacy concerns were associated with higher OSINT acceptance. Lastly, we provide implications for further research and the use of OSINT systems for cybersecurity by authorities. As OSINT is a framework rather than a single technology, approaches can be selected and combined to adhere to data minimization and anonymization as well as to leverage improvements in privacy-preserving computation and machine learning innovations. Regarding the use of OSINT, the results suggest to favor approaches that provide transparency to users regarding the use of the systems and the data they gather.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Biselli, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec},
    pages = {477--493},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2023)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2023,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    isbn = {978-1-00-905708-0},
    url = {https://www.cambridge.org/de/universitypress/subjects/psychology/applied-psychology/cambridge-handbook-cyber-behavior?format=WX&isbn=9781316616956},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Peace, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Tom Biselli, Sebastian Linsner, Franziska Herbert, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Privacy Perception and Behaviour in Safety-Critical Environments
    In: Nina Gerber, Alina Stöver, Karola Marky: Human Factors in Privacy Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing, , 237–251.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When considering privacy, context, and environmental circumstances can have a strong influence on individual decisions and user behavior. Especially in crises or threatening situations, privacy may conflict with other values, such as personal safety and health. In other cases, personal or public safety can also be dependent on privacy: the context of flight shows how, for those affected, the value of data protection can increase as a result of an increased threat situation. Thus, when individual sovereignty—the autonomous development of one’s own will—or safety is highly dependent on information flows, people tend to be more protective of their privacy in order to maintain their information sovereignty. But also, the context of agriculture, as part of the critical infrastructure, shows how privacy concerns can affect the adoption of digital tools. With these two examples, flight and migration as well as agriculture, this chapter presents some exemplary results that illustrate the importance of the influence of situational factors on perceived information sovereignty and the evaluation of privacy.

    @incollection{steinbrink_privacy_2023,
    address = {Cham},
    title = {Privacy {Perception} and {Behaviour} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Environments}},
    isbn = {978-3-031-28643-8},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28643-8_12},
    abstract = {When considering privacy, context, and environmental circumstances can have a strong influence on individual decisions and user behavior. Especially in crises or threatening situations, privacy may conflict with other values, such as personal safety and health. In other cases, personal or public safety can also be dependent on privacy: the context of flight shows how, for those affected, the value of data protection can increase as a result of an increased threat situation. Thus, when individual sovereignty—the autonomous development of one’s own will—or safety is highly dependent on information flows, people tend to be more protective of their privacy in order to maintain their information sovereignty. But also, the context of agriculture, as part of the critical infrastructure, shows how privacy concerns can affect the adoption of digital tools. With these two examples, flight and migration as well as agriculture, this chapter presents some exemplary results that illustrate the importance of the influence of situational factors on perceived information sovereignty and the evaluation of privacy.},
    booktitle = {Human {Factors} in {Privacy} {Research}},
    publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Biselli, Tom and Linsner, Sebastian and Herbert, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Gerber, Nina and Stöver, Alina and Marky, Karola},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {237--251},
    }

    2022

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Laura Guntrum, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Vision or Threat – Awareness for Dual-Use in the Development of Autonomous Driving
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society ;3(3):163–174. doi:10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.

    @article{schwartz_vision_2022,
    title = {Vision or {Threat} – {Awareness} for {Dual}-{Use} in the {Development} of {Autonomous} {Driving}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2637-6415},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_SchwartzGuntrumReuter_VisionorThreatAwarenessDualUseAutonomousDriving_IEEE-TTS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/TTS.2022.3182310},
    abstract = {In the digital age, the vision of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is vibrant. Research is being conducted worldwide to inte-grate AVs into our everyday lives in the future, spending consid-erable amounts of money in the development process. Actors from both engineering as well as social sciences are involved in this re-search, with technical disciplines strongly dominating. In addition to perceived progress of numerous newly developed technologies such as AVs, challenges should also be referred to. According to research analysis, the transferability of autonomous cars to the military sphere seems to be frequently forgotten or ignored (dual-use). Since not much research has been conducted in Germany on the potential deployment of autonomous driving development steps into military domains, 25 semi-structured interviews with de-velopers and researchers and actors involved in the field, were conducted in 2020. The paper identifies that the majority of re-spondents interviewed were aware of general existing dual-use de-bates, however, few had reflected about dual-use issues regarding a possible transfer of their own development processes in the con-text of autonomous driving to military applications, intensively. One reason is the small-scale nature of research, another is the complexity of the field, which enables the engineer’s alienation from their responsibility for the artefacts’ use. Moreover, it has become clear that hardly any conversations among colleagues oc-cur about possible misuse and that no standardized policy guide-lines exist, which provide information about possible risk. To raise dual-use awareness, scientific contributions, risk education, and interdisciplinary discussions are essential.},
    language = {en},
    number = {3},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Guntrum, Laura and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TraCe},
    pages = {163--174},
    }

  • Laura Guntrum (2022)
    Justice-oriented Research in Peace and Conflict Studies in Times of Social Distancing
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Darmstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-216
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only since the COVID-19 pandemic, many research processes had already been increasingly digitized to maintain global ex-change of information efficiently. For years, scientific empirical studies have been conducted in politically sensitive contexts using digitally mediated methods, entailing numerous risks as well as potentials. One goal of digital research is to also capture marginal-ized voices. With emerging risks related to digital research, such as digital surveillance and social media monitoring by adversaries (e.g., the military in Myanmar), research needs to be more thoughtfully conducted. Considering research ethics, an evolving discrepancy between security measures and values of social jus-tice, such as accessibility and representation, appears as most data-secure applications are not used widely and offers such as “Free Basics” entice people to use rather data-unsecure applica-tions. Reflecting on this existing discrepancy in ethical require-ments, I illustrate challenges of the German research context re-lated to digitally conducted research focusing on overt conflictive social contexts.

    @inproceedings{guntrum_justice-oriented_2022,
    address = {Darmstadt},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2022 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {Justice-oriented {Research} in {Peace} and {Conflict} {Studies} in {Times} of {Social} {Distancing}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/39092},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2022-mci-ws10-216},
    abstract = {Not only since the COVID-19 pandemic, many research processes had already been increasingly digitized to maintain global ex-change of information efficiently. For years, scientific empirical studies have been conducted in politically sensitive contexts using digitally mediated methods, entailing numerous risks as well as potentials. One goal of digital research is to also capture marginal-ized voices. With emerging risks related to digital research, such as digital surveillance and social media monitoring by adversaries (e.g., the military in Myanmar), research needs to be more thoughtfully conducted. Considering research ethics, an evolving discrepancy between security measures and values of social jus-tice, such as accessibility and representation, appears as most data-secure applications are not used widely and offers such as “Free Basics” entice people to use rather data-unsecure applica-tions. Reflecting on this existing discrepancy in ethical require-ments, I illustrate challenges of the German research context re-lated to digitally conducted research focusing on overt conflictive social contexts.},
    language = {en},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Guntrum, Laura},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

  • Tom Biselli, Enno Steinbrink, Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2022)
    On the Challenges of Developing a Concise Questionnaire to Identify Privacy Personas
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (4):645–669. doi:10.56553/popets-2022-0126
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Concise instruments to determine privacy personas – typical privacy-related user groups – are not available at present. Consequently, we aimed to identify them on a privacy knowledge–privacy behavior ratio based on a self-developed instrument. To achieve this, we conducted an item analysis (N = 820) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N = 656) of data based on an online study with German participants. Starting with 81 items, we reduced those to an eleven-item questionnaire with the two scales privacy knowledge and privacy behavior. A subsequent cluster analysis (N = 656) revealed three distinct user groups: (1) Fundamentalists scoring high in privacy knowledge and behavior, (2) Pragmatists scoring average in privacy knowledge and behavior and (3) Unconcerned scoring low in privacy knowledge and behavior. In a closer inspection of the questionnaire, the CFAs supported the model with a close global fit based on RMSEA in a training and to a lesser extent in a cross-validation sample. Deficient local fit as well as validity and reliability coefficients well below generally accepted thresholds, however, revealed that the questionnaire in its current form cannot be considered a suitable measurement instrument for determining privacy personas. The results are discussed in terms of related persona conceptualizations, the importance of a methodologically sound investigation of corresponding privacy dimensions and our lessons learned.

    @article{biselli_challenges_2022,
    title = {On the {Challenges} of {Developing} a {Concise} {Questionnaire} to {Identify} {Privacy} {Personas}},
    url = {https://petsymposium.org/2022/files/papers/issue4/popets-2022-0126.pdf},
    doi = {10.56553/popets-2022-0126},
    abstract = {Concise instruments to determine privacy personas – typical privacy-related user groups – are not available at present. Consequently, we aimed to identify them on a privacy knowledge–privacy behavior ratio based on a self-developed instrument. To achieve this, we conducted an item analysis (N = 820) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N = 656) of data based on an online study with German participants. Starting with 81 items, we reduced those to an eleven-item questionnaire with the two scales privacy knowledge and privacy behavior. A subsequent cluster analysis (N = 656) revealed three distinct user groups: (1) Fundamentalists scoring high in privacy knowledge and behavior, (2) Pragmatists scoring average in privacy knowledge and behavior and (3) Unconcerned scoring low in privacy knowledge and behavior. In a closer inspection of the questionnaire, the CFAs supported the model with a close global fit based on RMSEA in a training and to a lesser extent in a cross-validation sample. Deficient local fit as well as validity and reliability coefficients well below generally accepted thresholds, however, revealed that the questionnaire in its current form cannot be considered a suitable measurement instrument for determining privacy personas. The results are discussed in terms of related persona conceptualizations, the importance of a methodologically sound investigation of corresponding privacy dimensions and our lessons learned.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Steinbrink, Enno and Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    pages = {645--669},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Nudging Users Towards Better Security Decisions in Password Creation Using Whitebox-based Multidimensional Visualizations
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(7):1357–1380. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users‘ perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.

    @article{hartwig_nudging_2022,
    title = {Nudging {Users} {Towards} {Better} {Security} {Decisions} in {Password} {Creation} {Using} {Whitebox}-based {Multidimensional} {Visualizations}},
    volume = {41},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HartwigReuter_WhiteboxMultidimensionalNudges_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2021.1876167},
    abstract = {Nudging users to keep them secure online has become a growing research field in cybersecurity. While existing approaches are mainly blackbox based, showing aggregated visualisations as one-size-fits-all nudges, personalisation turned out promising to enhance the efficacy of nudges within the high variance of users and contexts. This article presents a disaggregated whitebox-based visualisation of critical information as a novel nudge. By segmenting users according to their decision-making and information processing styles, we investigate if the novel nudge is more effective for specific users than a common black-box nudge. Based on existing literature about critical factors in password security, we designed a dynamic radar chart and parallel coordinates as disaggregated visualisations. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness and users' perception of the nudges in a think-aloud prestudy and a representative online evaluation (N=1.012). Our findings suggest that dynamic radar charts present a moderately effective nudge towards stronger passwords regarding short-term efficacy and are appreciated particularly by players of role-playing games.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec},
    pages = {1357--1380},
    }

    2021

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Who Should Get My Private Data in Which Case? Evidence in the Wild
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband New York. doi:10.1145/3473856.3473879
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As a result of the ongoing digitalization of our everyday lives, the amount of data produced by everyone is steadily increasing. This happens through personal decisions and items, such as the use of social media or smartphones, but also through more and more data acquisition in public spaces, such as e.g., Closed Circuit Television. Are people aware of the data they are sharing? What kind of data do people want to share with whom? Are people aware if they have Wi-Fi, GPS, or Bluetooth activated as potential data sharing functionalities on their phone? To answer these questions, we conducted a representative online survey as well as face-to-face interviews with users in Germany. We found that most users wanted to share private data on premise with most entities, indicating that willingness to share data depends on who has access to the data. Almost half of the participants would be more willing to share data with specific entities (state bodies & rescue forces) in the event that an acquaintance is endangered. For Wi-Fi and GPS the frequencies of self-reported and actual activation on the smartphone are almost equal, but 17\% of participants were unaware of the Bluetooth status on their smartphone. Our research is therefore in line with other studies suggesting relatively low privacy awareness of users.

    @inproceedings{herbert_who_2021,
    address = {New York},
    title = {Who {Should} {Get} {My} {Private} {Data} in {Which} {Case}? {Evidence} in the {Wild}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Herbert_SchmidbauerWolfReuter_WhoShouldGetMyPrivateDateinWhichCase_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3473856.3473879},
    abstract = {As a result of the ongoing digitalization of our everyday lives, the amount of data produced by everyone is steadily increasing. This happens through personal decisions and items, such as the use of social media or smartphones, but also through more and more data acquisition in public spaces, such as e.g., Closed Circuit Television. Are people aware of the data they are sharing? What kind of data do people want to share with whom? Are people aware if they have Wi-Fi, GPS, or Bluetooth activated as potential data sharing functionalities on their phone? To answer these questions, we conducted a representative online survey as well as face-to-face interviews with users in Germany. We found that most users wanted to share private data on premise with most entities, indicating that willingness to share data depends on who has access to the data. Almost half of the participants would be more willing to share data with specific entities (state bodies \& rescue forces) in the event that an acquaintance is endangered. For Wi-Fi and GPS the frequencies of self-reported and actual activation on the smartphone are almost equal, but 17\% of participants were unaware of the Bluetooth status on their smartphone. Our research is therefore in line with other studies suggesting relatively low privacy awareness of users.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Lilian Reichert, Michelle Mende, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Digital Privacy Perceptions of Asylum Seekers in Germany – An Empirical Study about Smartphone Usage during the Flight
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479526
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.

    @article{steinbrink_digital_2021,
    title = {Digital {Privacy} {Perceptions} of {Asylum} {Seekers} in {Germany} - {An} {Empirical} {Study} about {Smartphone} {Usage} during the {Flight}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_SteinbrinkReichertMendeReuter_DigitalPrivacyPerceptionAsylumSeekers_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479526},
    abstract = {Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Reichert, Lilian and Mende, Michelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Student, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Tom Biselli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    On the Relationship between IT Privacy and Security Behavior: A Survey among German Private Users
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.

    @inproceedings{biselli_relationship_2021,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {On the {Relationship} between {IT} {Privacy} and {Security} {Behavior}: {A} {Survey} among {German} {Private} {Users}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BiselliReuter_RelationshipITPrivacyandSecurityBehavior_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Ranking-CORE-C, UsableSec, Security, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

    2020

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Differences in IT Security Behavior and Knowledge of Private Users in Germany
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate u