Jonas Franken, M.A.

franken(at)peasec.tu-darmstadt.de

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter / Doktorand

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachbereich Informatik,
Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC)
Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt, Raum 116

DE

Jonas Franken, M.A. ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter und Doktorand am Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) im Fachbereich Informatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Seine Forschungsinteressen sind im Nexus von Politik, Technologie und internationalem Recht verortet, wo er sich schwerpunktmäßig mit der Resilienz Kritischer Informationsinfrastrukturen zu Land und zu Wasser sowie aufkommenden Problemstellungen der Maritimen Sicherheit und zunehmend digitalisierter Kritischer Infrastruktur befasst. Als ehemaliger Tutor für quantitative und qualitative Methoden der Sozialwissenschaften interessieren ihn außerdem theoretisch-methodische Fragen interdisziplinärer Friedens-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung. Er studierte „Politik und Recht“ (B.A.) an der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster und hat seinen Master „Internationale Studien / Friedens- und Konfliktforschung“ (M.A.) an der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, der Technischen Universität Darmstadt und der University of Massachusetts Lowell im Sommer 2022 abgeschlossen. Seine Masterarbeit befasste sich mit Entscheidungsfaktoren beim Ausbau des globalen Seekabelnetzes. Der einstige Marineangehörige war außerdem lange in der zivilen Seenotrettung engagiert und setzt sich derzeit für internationale Kommunikation und Vernetzung in der Wissenschaft ein.

EN

Jonas Franken, M.A. is Ph.D. candidate at Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) in the Department of Computer Science at the Technical University of Darmstadt. His research interests are located within the nexus of policy, technology, and international law, focusing on the resilience of Critical Information Infrastructures on land and at sea, as well as emerging problems in Maritime Security and the digitalization of Critical Infrastructures. As a former tutor in quantitative and qualitative methods in the social sciences, he is also concerned with theoretical-methodological issues of interdisciplinary peace, conflict, and security research. He studied „Politics & Law“ (B.A.) at the University of Münster and completed his Master’s degree in „International Studies / Peace and Conflict Research“ (M.A.) at the Goethe University Frankfurt, the Technical University of Darmstadt, and the University of Massachusetts Lowell in 2022. His thesis focused on decision-making factors in the expansion of the global submarine cable network. The former member of the German Navy was for a long time engaged in civilian sea rescue and is currently committed to international communication and networking in science.

Publikationen

  • Christian Reuter, Jonas Franken, Anja-Liisa Gonsior, Laura Guntrum, Stefka Schmid, Thea Riebe (2024)
    An Overview and Introduction to Information Technology for Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.

    @incollection{reuter_overview_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {An {Overview} and {Introduction} to {Information} {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security}},
    abstract = {Technological and scientific progress, especially the rapid development in information technology (IT), plays a crucial role regarding questions of peace and security. This textbook addresses the significance, potentials and challenges of IT for peace and securi-ty. For this purpose, the book offers an introduction to peace, conflict, and security research, thereby focusing on natural science, technical and computer science perspec-tives. In the following, it sheds light on fundamentals (e.g. IT in peace, conflict and security, natural-science/technical peace research), cyber conflicts and war (e.g. infor-mation warfare, cyber espionage, cyber defence, Darknet), cyber peace (e.g. dual-use, technology assessment, confidence and security building measures), cyber arms control (e.g. arms control in the cyberspace, unmanned systems, verification), cyber attribution and infrastructures (e.g. attribution of cyber attacks, resilient infrastructures, secure critical information infrastructures), culture and interaction (e.g. safety and security, cultural violence, social media), before an outlook is given. This chapter provides an overview of all chapters in this book.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Franken, Jonas and Gonsior, Anja-Liisa and Guntrum, Laura and Schmid, Stefka and Riebe, Thea},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Jürgen Altmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Jonas Franken, Anja-Liisa Gonsior, Laura Gianna Guntrum, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Ingo Ruhmann, KlausPeter Saalbach, Lisa Schirch, Stefka Schmid, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2024)
    Outlook: The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_outlook_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Outlook: {The} {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Altmann, Jürgen and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Franken, Jonas and Gonsior, Anja-Liisa and Guntrum, Laura Gianna and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schirch, Lisa and Schmid, Stefka and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-CROSSING},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Secure Critical Infrastructures
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{franken_secure_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Secure {Critical} {Infrastructures}},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Infrastructure},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jonas Franken, Thomas Reinhold, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Katrin Hartwig, Tom Biselli, Stefka Schmid, Laura Guntrum, Steffen Haesler (2024)
    Informatik für den Frieden: Perspektive von PEASEC zu 40 Jahren FIfF
    FIfF-Kommunikation .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{reuter_informatik_2024,
    title = {Informatik für den {Frieden}: {Perspektive} von {PEASEC} zu 40 {Jahren} {FIfF}},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Franken, Jonas and Reinhold, Thomas and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Hartwig, Katrin and Biselli, Tom and Schmid, Stefka and Guntrum, Laura and Haesler, Steffen},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Buchrezension: Stahlhut, Björn/Lammert, Martin (Hrsg.): Gesamtstaatliche Sicherheitsvorsorge – gerüstet für den Ernstfall!?, 200 S., BWV, Berlin 2022.
    Neue Politische Literatur (NPL) . doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s42520-023-00496-5
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{franken_buchrezension_2023,
    title = {Buchrezension: {Stahlhut}, {Björn}/{Lammert}, {Martin} ({Hrsg}.): {Gesamtstaatliche} {Sicherheitsvorsorge} – gerüstet für den {Ernstfall}!?, 200 {S}., {BWV}, {Berlin} 2022.},
    issn = {2197-6082},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42520-023-00496-5},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s42520-023-00496-5},
    journal = {Neue Politische Literatur (NPL)},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

  • Marco Zivkovic, Jonas Franken, Nadja Thiessen, Jens Ivo Engels, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Infrastrukturen und historisches Wissen: Eine interdisziplinäre Analyse der Resilienz von Schienen- und Kabelnetzen
    Tagungsband Fachtagung Katastrophenforschung 2023 Leoben.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Forschungsprojekt “ Das Netz hat Geschichte: Netzwerk- und Vulnerabilitätsanalyse Kritischer Infrastrukturen am Beispiel IKT und Verkehr in Rhein/Main”“ wird das historische Wachstum von IKT- und Schieneninfrastrukturnetzen, sowie daraus erwachsene Konsequenzen für deren Vulnerabilitäten am Beispiel der Rhein-Main-Region interdisziplinär untersucht. Beide Infrastrukturnetze entstanden über Jahrzehnte hinweg und sind das Ergebnis verschiedener Interessen und technischer Entwicklungen aus unterschiedlichen Zeitschichten. Dies beeinflusst die Widerstandsfähigkeit der Netze und birgt potenzielle Risiken. Anhand von ca. 20 Expert:inneninterviews soll das Wissen von Praktiker:innen über das Alter, die Ausbreitung, technische Neuerungen und deren Auswirkungen analysiert werden. Die Forschung basiert auf dem Zeitschichtenmodell von Koselleck, das es ermöglicht, die verschiedenen zeitlichen Ebenen der Infrastrukturentwicklung zu analysieren. Die Ergebnisse der semi-strukturierten Interviewstudie zum impliziten Wissen der Befragten werden genutzt, um Hypothesen zu generieren, die später mittels Archivstudien und Netzwerkanalysen überprüft werden. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse können zur Stärkung der Resilienz von Infrastrukturen, insbesondere bei Katastrophenszenarien regionalen Ausmaßes, und zukünftigen Investitionsentscheidungen beitragen.

    @inproceedings{zivkovic_infrastrukturen_2023,
    address = {Leoben},
    title = {Infrastrukturen und historisches {Wissen}: {Eine} interdisziplinäre {Analyse} der {Resilienz} von {Schienen}- und {Kabelnetzen}},
    isbn = {978-3-900397-11-1},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ZivkovicFrankenThiessenEngelsReuter_InfrastrukturenHistorischesWissen_FKF23.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Forschungsprojekt " Das Netz hat Geschichte: Netzwerk- und Vulnerabilitätsanalyse Kritischer Infrastrukturen am Beispiel IKT und Verkehr in Rhein/Main”" wird das historische Wachstum von IKT- und Schieneninfrastrukturnetzen, sowie daraus erwachsene Konsequenzen für deren Vulnerabilitäten am Beispiel der Rhein-Main-Region interdisziplinär untersucht. Beide Infrastrukturnetze entstanden über Jahrzehnte hinweg und sind das Ergebnis verschiedener Interessen und technischer Entwicklungen aus unterschiedlichen Zeitschichten. Dies beeinflusst die Widerstandsfähigkeit der Netze und birgt potenzielle Risiken. Anhand von ca. 20 Expert:inneninterviews soll das Wissen von Praktiker:innen über das Alter, die Ausbreitung, technische Neuerungen und deren Auswirkungen analysiert werden. Die Forschung basiert auf dem Zeitschichtenmodell von Koselleck, das es ermöglicht, die verschiedenen zeitlichen Ebenen der Infrastrukturentwicklung zu analysieren. Die Ergebnisse der semi-strukturierten Interviewstudie zum impliziten Wissen der Befragten werden genutzt, um Hypothesen zu generieren, die später mittels Archivstudien und Netzwerkanalysen überprüft werden. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse können zur Stärkung der Resilienz von Infrastrukturen, insbesondere bei Katastrophenszenarien regionalen Ausmaßes, und zukünftigen Investitionsentscheidungen beitragen.},
    booktitle = {Tagungsband {Fachtagung} {Katastrophenforschung} 2023},
    publisher = {Disaster Competence Network Austria},
    author = {Zivkovic, Marco and Franken, Jonas and Thiessen, Nadja and Engels, Jens Ivo and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-NetzGeschichte},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Marco Zivkovic, Nadja Thiessen, Jens Ivo Engels, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Das Netz hat Geschichte: Historisch-technische Analyse der kritischen Infrastrukturen in der Region Rhein/Main
    In: : INFORMATIK 2023 – Designing Futures: Zukünfte gestalten. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V., , 1–6. doi:10.18420/inf2023_159
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kritische Infrastrukturen sind häufig über Jahrzehnte gewachsene, komplexe Netze. Dennoch fehlt derzeit die historische Perspektive auf die Aufschichtungstendenzen von Technologien in den Sektoren, die für die Gesellschaft essenzielle Dienste bereitstellen. Ein besseres Verständnis von Ausbreitungs-, Ausbau-, Ersatz- und Ausmusterungsprozessen kann Entscheidungshilfe und Orientierung für resilientere Versorgungsnetzarchitekturen in der Zukunft geben. Kompatibilitätsprobleme mit Legacy-Soft- und Hardware sind bekannte Phänomene in vielen KRITIS-Einrichtungen. Entsprechend gewinnen Wissens- und Erfahrungstransfers bei zunehmend komplexen, dennoch über Jahrzehnte verwendete Technologien in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben enorm an Bedeutung. Der Beitrag vollzieht die Konzeption und Fragestellungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts nach, in welchem die Verwundbarkeit der kritischen Infrastruktursektoren Verkehr und Kommunikation im Rhein-Main-Gebiet analysiert wird. Von den Leistungen beider Sektoren hängt die digitale Landwirtschaft stark ab. Insbesondere rurale, beim digitalen und Schienennetzausbau häufig vernachlässigte Gebiete werden dabei mittels explorativer Interviewstudie und anschließender archivbasierter, quantitativer Überprüfung der zuvor generierten Hypothesen aus einer raum-zeitlichen und technischen Perspektive untersucht.

    @incollection{franken_netz_2023,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Das {Netz} hat {Geschichte}: {Historisch}-technische {Analyse} der kritischen {Infrastrukturen} in der {Region} {Rhein}/{Main}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_FrankenZivkovicThiessenEngelsReuter_NetzGeschichte_GI.pdf},
    abstract = {Kritische Infrastrukturen sind häufig über Jahrzehnte gewachsene, komplexe Netze. Dennoch fehlt derzeit die historische Perspektive auf die Aufschichtungstendenzen von Technologien in den Sektoren, die für die Gesellschaft essenzielle Dienste bereitstellen. Ein besseres Verständnis von Ausbreitungs-, Ausbau-, Ersatz- und Ausmusterungsprozessen kann Entscheidungshilfe und Orientierung für resilientere Versorgungsnetzarchitekturen in der Zukunft geben. Kompatibilitätsprobleme mit Legacy-Soft- und Hardware sind bekannte Phänomene in vielen KRITIS-Einrichtungen. Entsprechend gewinnen Wissens- und Erfahrungstransfers bei zunehmend komplexen, dennoch über Jahrzehnte verwendete Technologien in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben enorm an Bedeutung. Der Beitrag vollzieht die Konzeption und Fragestellungen eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekts nach, in welchem die Verwundbarkeit der kritischen Infrastruktursektoren Verkehr und Kommunikation im Rhein-Main-Gebiet analysiert wird. Von den Leistungen beider Sektoren hängt die digitale Landwirtschaft stark ab. Insbesondere rurale, beim digitalen und Schienennetzausbau häufig vernachlässigte Gebiete werden dabei mittels explorativer Interviewstudie und anschließender archivbasierter, quantitativer Überprüfung der zuvor generierten Hypothesen aus einer raum-zeitlichen und technischen Perspektive untersucht.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2023 - {Designing} {Futures}: {Zukünfte} gestalten},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Zivkovic, Marco and Thiessen, Nadja and Engels, Jens Ivo and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2023_159},
    keywords = {Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Franziska Schneider, Christian Reuter (2023)
    The Internet’s Plumbing Consists of Garden Hoses: A Critical Analysis of the Advantages and Pitfalls of Metaphors Use for Critical Maritime Infrastructures
    Dreizack 23 Kiel.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{franken_internets_2023,
    address = {Kiel},
    title = {The {Internet}’s {Plumbing} {Consists} of {Garden} {Hoses}: {A} {Critical} {Analysis} of the {Advantages} and {Pitfalls} of {Metaphors} {Use} for {Critical} {Maritime} {Infrastructures}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_FrankenSchneiderReuter_MetaphernMarKRITIS_Dreizack23.pdf},
    booktitle = {Dreizack 23},
    publisher = {The Kiel Seapower Series},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Schneider, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Schilling, Henrik},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-AgriRegio, Projekt-NetzGeschichte},
    pages = {1--8},
    }

  • Jonas Franken, Thomas Reinhold, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2022)
    The Digital Divide in State Vulnerability to Submarine Communications Cable Failure
    International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection (IJCIP) ;38(100522):1–15. doi:10.1016/j.ijcip.2022.100522
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The backbone network of submarine communication cables (SCC) carries 98\% of international internet traffic. Coastal and island states strongly depend on this physical internet infrastructure to provide internet connectivity. Although about 100 SCC breakdowns of human or natural origin occur at yearly average, a literature review reveals that there is no approach to assess individual state vulnerability to SCC failure in global comparison. In this article, the global SCC network is modeled based on publicly available data. Besides the analysis of the global network properties, a focus is put on remaining bandwidth capacities in three different failure scenario simulations of SCC breakdowns. As a result, this study identifies 15 highly vulnerable states and overseas territories, and another 28 territories that are classified as partially vulnerable to SCC failures. Since economic market decisions shape the structure of the SCC network, an uneven distribution of redundancies and the resulting vulnerability of disadvantaged economies can be confirmed. Therefore, the study’s findings may contribute to a better assessment of the necessity of preventive protection measures of critical telecommunication infrastructures in states and territories characterized by high and medium vulnerability.

    @article{franken_digital_2022,
    title = {The {Digital} {Divide} in {State} {Vulnerability} to {Submarine} {Communications} {Cable} {Failure}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_FrankenReinholdReichertReuter_DigitalDivideStateVulnerabilitySubmarineCommunicationsCable_IJCIP.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijcip.2022.100522},
    abstract = {The backbone network of submarine communication cables (SCC) carries 98\% of international internet traffic. Coastal and island states strongly depend on this physical internet infrastructure to provide internet connectivity. Although about 100 SCC breakdowns of human or natural origin occur at yearly average, a literature review reveals that there is no approach to assess individual state vulnerability to SCC failure in global comparison. In this article, the global SCC network is modeled based on publicly available data. Besides the analysis of the global network properties, a focus is put on remaining bandwidth capacities in three different failure scenario simulations of SCC breakdowns. As a result, this study identifies 15 highly vulnerable states and overseas territories, and another 28 territories that are classified as partially vulnerable to SCC failures. Since economic market decisions shape the structure of the SCC network, an uneven distribution of redundancies and the resulting vulnerability of disadvantaged economies can be confirmed. Therefore, the study's findings may contribute to a better assessment of the necessity of preventive protection measures of critical telecommunication infrastructures in states and territories characterized by high and medium vulnerability.},
    number = {100522},
    journal = {International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection (IJCIP)},
    author = {Franken, Jonas and Reinhold, Thomas and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, Student, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlPeace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {1--15},
    }

  • Christian Bueger, Tobias Liebetrau, Jonas Franken (2022)
    Security threats to undersea communications cables and infrastructure – consequences for the EU
    Brussels: European Parliament.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The EU’s subsea data cable network is both vital for global connectivity and vulnerable. This study provides a systematic review of the current security threats, as well as the actors at the origin of these threats. Building on reports and expert input, the paper takes stock of current awareness, preparedness and response mechanisms, both at the EU and Member State level. A number of recommendations suggest how to improve the resilience of the cable network. Proposals build on the need to enhance EU-wide awareness, improve coordination and share information across EU institutions and Member States. In addition, surveillance capabilities must be advanced, response and repair mechanisms strengthened, and the topic mainstreamed across external action.

    @book{bueger_security_2022,
    address = {Brussels},
    title = {Security threats to undersea communications cables and infrastructure – consequences for the {EU}},
    url = {https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/EXPO_IDA(2022)702557},
    abstract = {The EU’s subsea data cable network is both vital for global connectivity and vulnerable. This study provides a systematic review of the current security threats, as well as the actors at the origin of these threats. Building on reports and expert input, the paper takes stock of current awareness, preparedness and response mechanisms, both at the EU and Member State level. A number of recommendations suggest how to improve the resilience of the cable network. Proposals build on the need to enhance EU-wide awareness, improve coordination and share information across EU institutions and Member States. In addition, surveillance capabilities must be advanced, response and repair mechanisms strengthened, and the topic mainstreamed across external action.},
    publisher = {European Parliament},
    author = {Bueger, Christian and Liebetrau, Tobias and Franken, Jonas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Infrastructure, Cyberwar, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jonas Franken (2022)
    Seekabel als Maritime Kritische Infrastruktur
    Dreizack 21: Von historischen bis zukünftigen Herausforderungen im maritimen Raum Laboe/Kiel.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{franken_seekabel_2022,
    address = {Laboe/Kiel},
    title = {Seekabel als {Maritime} {Kritische} {Infrastruktur}},
    url = {https://www.kielseapowerseries.com/files/ispk/content/workshops/Dreizack/Sammelband zum Dreizack21.pdf},
    booktitle = {Dreizack 21: {Von} historischen bis zukünftigen {Herausforderungen} im maritimen {Raum}},
    author = {Franken, Jonas},
    editor = {Schilling, Henrik},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {22--25},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Franz Kuntke, Matthias Trapp, Christian Wied, Gerwin Brill, Georg Müller, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Daniel EberzEder, Wolfgang Schneider (2022)
    AgriRegio: Infrastruktur zur Förderung von digitaler Resilienz und Klimaresilienz im ländlichen Raum am Beispiel der Pilotregion Nahe-Donnersberg
    INFORMATIK 2022: 52. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2022_81
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet auch in der Landwirtschaft immer weiter voran. Vermehrt werden in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben sogenannte Smart Farming-Technologien eingesetzt, mit deren Hilfe verschiedenste Arbeitsabläufe automatisiert ablaufen, kontrolliert werden und mit anderen Betrieben ausgetauscht werden können. Durch die verfügbaren Daten und die Vernetzung mit anderen Betrieben, ergeben sich vielfältige neue Möglichkeiten in Bezug auf ressourcenschonendes, wirtschaftlicheres und kollaboratives Arbeiten. Problematiken ergeben sich mit Blick auf die Speicherung dieser sensiblen Betriebsdaten, vor allem, wenn hierfür nur einige wenige Anbieter zur Verfügung stehen. Das Forschungsprojekt „AgriRegio“ soll die digitalisierte Datenerfassung und -nutzung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben widerstandsfähiger machen und die sicherheitskritische Infrastruktur schützen. Sieben Projektpartner erproben dazu smarte Sensoren auf Basis standardisierter Open-Source-Technologien in der Landwirtschaft, bei denen die Betriebsdaten dezentral auf lokalen Servern gespeichert werden.

    @inproceedings{reuter_agriregio_2022,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{AgriRegio}: {Infrastruktur} zur {Förderung} von digitaler {Resilienz} und {Klimaresilienz} im ländlichen {Raum} am {Beispiel} der {Pilotregion} {Nahe}-{Donnersberg}},
    isbn = {978-3-88579-720-3},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/39588/rsflab_04.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2022_81},
    abstract = {Die Digitalisierung schreitet auch in der Landwirtschaft immer weiter voran. Vermehrt werden in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben sogenannte Smart Farming-Technologien eingesetzt, mit deren Hilfe verschiedenste Arbeitsabläufe automatisiert ablaufen, kontrolliert werden und mit anderen Betrieben ausgetauscht werden können. Durch die verfügbaren Daten und die Vernetzung mit anderen Betrieben, ergeben sich vielfältige neue Möglichkeiten in Bezug auf ressourcenschonendes, wirtschaftlicheres und kollaboratives Arbeiten. Problematiken ergeben sich mit Blick auf die Speicherung dieser sensiblen Betriebsdaten, vor allem, wenn hierfür nur einige wenige Anbieter zur Verfügung stehen. Das Forschungsprojekt „AgriRegio“ soll die digitalisierte Datenerfassung und -nutzung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben widerstandsfähiger machen und die sicherheitskritische Infrastruktur schützen. Sieben Projektpartner erproben dazu smarte Sensoren auf Basis standardisierter Open-Source-Technologien in der Landwirtschaft, bei denen die Betriebsdaten dezentral auf lokalen Servern gespeichert werden.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2022: 52. {Jahrestagung} der {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kuntke, Franz and Trapp, Matthias and Wied, Christian and Brill, Gerwin and Müller, Georg and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Schneider, Wolfgang},
    editor = {Demmler, D. and Krupka, D. and Federrath, H.},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, UsableSec, Security, RSF, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {961--972},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Franz Kuntke, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Supporting Users in Data Disclosure Scenarios in Agriculture through Transparency
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(10):2137–2159. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2068070
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business collaboration in the era of digital transformation requires the exchange of operational data. Since data are hardly controllable once they have been published or shared with others, it is highly important that users are clearly informed about who has access to which data and how certain settings can prevent the disclosure of sensitive data. However, giving end users more control over their data through increased transparency could also lead to information overload. This is particularly true in the field of agriculture, where tight schedules put pressure on employees of small enterprises. We conduct an empirical prestudy with 52 German farmers to investigate current data sharing scenarios. From these insights, we derive requirements and a concept for data sharing solutions providing data flow transparency for users. To investigate the behavior of users and the effects of transparent UI controls, we evaluate a prototype with 18 persons. Our evaluation shows that farmers demand flexible and secure tools that adjust to their workflows. Also, data should be stored and processed locally, granting farmers data sovereignty. Although the controls require additional effort, the evaluated transparent controls for data disclosure are easy to use and raise user awareness.

    @article{linsner_supporting_2022,
    title = {Supporting {Users} in {Data} {Disclosure} {Scenarios} in {Agriculture} through {Transparency}},
    volume = {41},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_LinsnerSteinbrinkKuntkeFrankenReuter_SupportingDataDisclosureScenariosAgriculture_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2022.2068070},
    abstract = {Business collaboration in the era of digital transformation requires the exchange of operational data. Since data are hardly controllable once they have been published or shared with others, it is highly important that users are clearly informed about who has access to which data and how certain settings can prevent the disclosure of sensitive data. However, giving end users more control over their data through increased transparency could also lead to information overload. This is particularly true in the field of agriculture, where tight schedules put pressure on employees of small enterprises. We conduct an empirical prestudy with 52 German farmers to investigate current data sharing scenarios. From these insights, we derive requirements and a concept for data sharing solutions providing data flow transparency for users. To investigate the behavior of users and the effects of transparent UI controls, we evaluate a prototype with 18 persons. Our evaluation shows that farmers demand flexible and secure tools that adjust to their workflows. Also, data should be stored and processed locally, granting farmers data sovereignty. Although the controls require additional effort, the evaluated transparent controls for data disclosure are easy to use and raise user awareness.},
    number = {10},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Kuntke, Franz and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, RSF, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {2137--2159},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Sebastian Linsner, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Resilience in Agriculture: Communication and Energy Infrastructure Dependencies of German Farmers
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (IJDRS) ;13(2):214–229. doi:10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Agriculture is subject to high demands regarding resilience as it is an essential component of the food production chain. In the agricultural sector, there is an increasing usage of digital tools that rely on communication and energy infrastructures. Should disruption occur, such strengthened dependencies on other infrastructures increase the probability of ripple effects. Thus, there is a need to analyze the resilience of the agricultural sector with a specific focus on the effects of digitalization. This study works out resilience capacities of the interconnected technologies used in farm systems based on the experiences and opinions of farmers. Information was gathered through focus group interviews with farmers (N = 52) and a survey with participants from the agricultural sector (N = 118). In particular, the focus is put on the digital tools and other information and communication technologies they use. Based on a definition of resilience capacities, we evaluate resilience regarding energy and communication demands in various types of farm systems. Especially important are the resilience aspects of modern systems’ digital communication as well as the poorly developed and nonresilient network infrastructure in rural areas that contrast with the claim for a resilient agriculture. The result is a low robustness capacity, as our analysis concludes with the risk of food production losses.

    @article{kuntke_resilience_2022,
    title = {Resilience in {Agriculture}: {Communication} and {Energy} {Infrastructure} {Dependencies} of {German} {Farmers}},
    volume = {13},
    issn = {2192-6395},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7},
    doi = {10.1007/s13753-022-00404-7},
    abstract = {Agriculture is subject to high demands regarding resilience as it is an essential component of the food production chain. In the agricultural sector, there is an increasing usage of digital tools that rely on communication and energy infrastructures. Should disruption occur, such strengthened dependencies on other infrastructures increase the probability of ripple effects. Thus, there is a need to analyze the resilience of the agricultural sector with a specific focus on the effects of digitalization. This study works out resilience capacities of the interconnected technologies used in farm systems based on the experiences and opinions of farmers. Information was gathered through focus group interviews with farmers (N = 52) and a survey with participants from the agricultural sector (N = 118). In particular, the focus is put on the digital tools and other information and communication technologies they use. Based on a definition of resilience capacities, we evaluate resilience regarding energy and communication demands in various types of farm systems. Especially important are the resilience aspects of modern systems’ digital communication as well as the poorly developed and nonresilient network infrastructure in rural areas that contrast with the claim for a resilient agriculture. The result is a low robustness capacity, as our analysis concludes with the risk of food production losses.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Science (IJDRS)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Linsner, Sebastian and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    month = apr,
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Selected, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-B, RSF, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-AgriRegio},
    pages = {214--229},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3):334–350. doi:10.2478/popets-2021-0050
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    doi = {10.2478/popets-2021-0050},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Selected, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {334--350},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebeetal_VDSinEuropa_DuD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Student, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {316--321},
    }