Das Open Data Observatory ist ein webbasiertes Tool zur medienübergreifenden Sammlung, Analyse und Visualisierung von Daten, welches vom Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt entwickelt und gepflegt wird.

Social Dashboard

  • Datensammlung in Facebook, Flickr, Reddit, Thumblr, Twitter und YouTube
  • Eingrenzung der Datensammlung nach Accounts, Keywords, Ort und Zeit möglich
  • Visualisierung von Datensätzen mit Karten- und Listendarstellung, Bildergalerie und Hashtagansicht
  • Interaktive Filterung der Ergebnisse nach Cluster, Medium, Sprache, Stimmung und Zeit
  • Unterstützung zur Annotation von Daten und Modellbildung zur Relevanzklassifikation

Während das Social Dashboard zur Unterstützung der Lagebeurteilung von Einsatzkräften (z.B. Feuerwehr, Polizei) konzipiert wurde, zielt das Security Dashboard darauf ab, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) bei der Analyse von Cyberangriffen und Schwachstellen zu unterstützen.

Security Dashboard

  • Sammlung von Security Advisories, Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) und Indicators of Compromise (IoC)
  • Quellenübergreifende Suche und Interaktive Filterung nach Malware, Quelle und Schweregrad von Schwachstellen
  • Pinfunktion zur Hervorhebung wichtiger Einträge für die Schadensbewältigung und das Reporting
  • Chat für den interorganisationalen Austausch zwischen Sicherheitsexpert*innen
  • Anlegen von Suchprofilen, um zielgruppenspezifische Gefahren- und Schwachstellenanalysen durchzuführen

Architektur

  • Responsives Frontenddesign zur Nutzung auf Desktop- oder Mobilsystemen
  • Modulare Backendarchitektur zur einfachen Ergänzung neuer offener und sozialer Datenquellen
  • Einmalige und intervallbasierte regelmäßige Suchen in angebundenen Datenquellen
  • Export der gesammelten Datensätze als CSV-, JSON- oder XLSX-Dateien
  • Einheitliche Speicherung und Verarbeitung der Daten im Austauschformat ActivityStreams 2.0

Publikationen

2024

  • Katrin Hartwig, Ruslan Sandler, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Navigating Misinformation in Voice Messages: Identification of User-Centered Features for Digital Interventions
    Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP) . doi:10.1002/rhc3.12296
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Misinformation presents a challenge to democracies, particularly in times of crisis. One way in which misinformation is spread is through voice messages sent via messenger groups, which enable members to share information on a larger scale. Gaining user perspectives on digital misinformation interventions as countermeasure after detection is crucial. In this paper, we extract potential features of misinformation in voice messages from literature, implement them within a program that automatically processes voice messages, and evaluate their perceived usefulness and comprehensibility as user-centered indicators.We propose 35 features extracted from audio files at the character, word, sentence, audio and creator levels to assist (1) private individuals in conducting credibility assessments, (2) government agencies faced with data overload during crises, and (3) researchers seeking to gather features for automatic detection approaches. We conducted a think-aloud study with laypersons (N = 20) to provide initial insight into how individuals autonomously assess the credibility of voice messages, as well as which automatically extracted features they find to be clear and convincing indicators of misinformation. Our study provides qualitative and quantitative insights into valuable indicators, particularly when they relate directly to the content or its creator, and uncovers challenges in user interface design.

    @article{hartwig_navigating_2024,
    title = {Navigating {Misinformation} in {Voice} {Messages}: {Identification} of {User}-{Centered} {Features} for {Digital} {Interventions}},
    issn = {1944-4079},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2024/2024_HartwigSandlerReuter_NavigatingMisinfoVoiceMessages_RiskHazards.pdf},
    doi = {10.1002/rhc3.12296},
    abstract = {Misinformation presents a challenge to democracies, particularly in times of crisis. One way in which misinformation is spread is through voice messages sent via messenger groups, which enable members to share information on a larger scale. Gaining user perspectives on digital misinformation interventions as countermeasure after detection is crucial. In this paper, we extract potential features of misinformation in voice messages from literature, implement them within a program that automatically processes voice messages, and evaluate their perceived usefulness and comprehensibility as user-centered indicators.We propose 35 features extracted from audio files at the character, word, sentence, audio and creator levels to assist (1) private individuals in conducting credibility assessments, (2) government agencies faced with data overload during crises, and (3) researchers seeking to gather features for automatic detection approaches. We conducted a think-aloud study with laypersons (N = 20) to provide initial insight into how individuals autonomously assess the credibility of voice messages, as well as which automatically extracted features they find to be clear and convincing indicators of misinformation. Our study provides qualitative and quantitative insights into valuable indicators, particularly when they relate directly to the content or its creator, and uncovers challenges in user interface design.},
    journal = {Risk, Hazards, \& Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Sandler, Ruslan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    note = {Publisher: John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Cyberwar, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE, Projekt-ATHENE},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Stefka Schmid, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Misleading Information in Crises: Exploring Content-specific Indicators for Misleading Information on Twitter from a User Perspective
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{hartwig_misleading_2024,
    title = {Misleading {Information} in {Crises}: {Exploring} {Content}-specific {Indicators} for {Misleading} {Information} on {Twitter} from a {User} {Perspective}},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Schmid, Stefka and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-ATHENE-PriVis},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Laura Guntrum, Sofía Cerrillo, Franziska Bujara, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Towards a Digitally Mediated Transitional Justice Process? An Analysis of Colombian Transitional Justice Organisations’ Posting Behaviour on Facebook
    Peace and Conflict Studies ;30(2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In Colombia, Transitional Justice (TJ) institutions were established after years of violent conflict as part of the 2016 peace agreement between the FARC and the Colombian government. By analysing the posting behaviour of the government-appointed TJ institutions on Facebook, we show how general TJ aims and opportunities for citizen participation were promoted in 2019. Our analysis reveals that the organisations rarely address topics related to reconciliation and that active online participation and two-way communication are rather scarce. Instead, Facebook is mainly used by the TJ organisations to increase solidarity with victims and disseminate information about their work and the TJ process. Reflecting on existing literature on TJ and social media participation, we identify great potential for expanding TJ goals and community engagement on social media, to use it as a resource for facilitating the TJ processes, creating exchange, and enabling participation.

    @article{haunschild_towards_2024,
    title = {Towards a {Digitally} {Mediated} {Transitional} {Justice} {Process}? {An} {Analysis} of {Colombian} {Transitional} {Justice} {Organisations}’ {Posting} {Behaviour} on {Facebook}},
    volume = {30},
    abstract = {In Colombia, Transitional Justice (TJ) institutions were established after years of violent conflict as part of the 2016 peace agreement between the FARC and the Colombian government. By analysing the posting behaviour of the government-appointed TJ institutions on Facebook, we show how general TJ aims and opportunities for citizen participation were promoted in 2019. Our analysis reveals that the organisations rarely address topics related to reconciliation and that active online participation and two-way communication are rather scarce. Instead, Facebook is mainly used by the TJ organisations to increase solidarity with victims and disseminate information about their work and the TJ process. Reflecting on existing literature on TJ and social media participation, we identify great potential for expanding TJ goals and community engagement on social media, to use it as a resource for facilitating the TJ processes, creating exchange, and enabling participation.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Peace and Conflict Studies},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Guntrum, Laura and Cerrillo, Sofía and Bujara, Franziska and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, Student},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2024)
    Cultural Violence and Peace Interventions in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2024,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} {Interventions} in {Social} {Media}},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Cody Buntain (2024)
    Combating Information Warfare: State and Trends in User-Centered Countermeasures against Fake News and Misinformation
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) .
    [BibTeX]

    @article{reuter_combating_2024,
    title = {Combating {Information} {Warfare}: {State} and {Trends} in {User}-{Centered} {Countermeasures} against {Fake} {News} and {Misinformation}},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Buntain, Cody},
    year = {2024},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Cody Buntain (2024)
    Special Issue on Combating Information Warfare: User-Centered Countermeasures against Fake News and Misinformation – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{reuter_special_2024,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Combating} {Information} {Warfare}: {User}-{Centered} {Countermeasures} against {Fake} {News} and {Misinformation} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Buntain, Cody},
    year = {2024},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Peace},
    }

    2023

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Countering Fake News Technically – Detection and Countermeasure Approaches to Support Users
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Truth and Fake in the Post-Factual Digital Age: Distinctions in the Humanities and IT Sciences. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, , 131–147. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-40406-2_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing with fake newsfake news has increased in both political and social contexts: While existing studies mainly focus on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to help users make their own assessments are largely lacking. This article presents existing black-boxblack box and white-boxwhite box approaches and compares advantages and disadvantages. In particular, white-box approaches show promise in counteracting reactance, while black-box approaches detect fake news with much greater accuracy. We also present the browser plugin TrustyTweetTrustyTweet, which we developed to help users evaluate tweets on Twitter by displaying politically neutral and intuitive warnings without generating reactance.

    @incollection{hartwig_countering_2023,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News} {Technically} – {Detection} and {Countermeasure} {Approaches} to {Support} {Users}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-40406-2},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_HartwigReuter_CounteringFakeNews_TruthFakePostTruth.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing with fake newsfake news has increased in both political and social contexts: While existing studies mainly focus on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to help users make their own assessments are largely lacking. This article presents existing black-boxblack box and white-boxwhite box approaches and compares advantages and disadvantages. In particular, white-box approaches show promise in counteracting reactance, while black-box approaches detect fake news with much greater accuracy. We also present the browser plugin TrustyTweetTrustyTweet, which we developed to help users evaluate tweets on Twitter by displaying politically neutral and intuitive warnings without generating reactance.},
    booktitle = {Truth and {Fake} in the {Post}-{Factual} {Digital} {Age}: {Distinctions} in the {Humanities} and {IT} {Sciences}},
    publisher = {Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-40406-2_7},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE},
    pages = {131--147},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tom Biselli, Helene Pleil (2023)
    Increasing Adoption Despite Perceived Limitations of Social Media in Emergencies: Representative Insights on German Citizens’ Perception and Trends from 2017 to 2021
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;96. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.

    @article{reuter_increasing_2023,
    title = {Increasing {Adoption} {Despite} {Perceived} {Limitations} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {Representative} {Insights} on {German} {Citizens}’ {Perception} and {Trends} from 2017 to 2021},
    volume = {96},
    issn = {2212-4209},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2023/2023_ReuterKaufholdBiselliPleil_SocialMediaEmergenciesSurvey_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2023.103880},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events, participants, and states is now well-examined in crisis informatics research. Previous research has contributed to the state of the art with empirical insights on the use of social media, approaches for the gathering and processing of big social data, the design and evaluation of information systems, and the analysis of cumulative and longitudinal data. While some studies examined social media use representatively for their target audience, these usually only comprise a single point of inquiry and do not allow for a trend analysis. This work provides results (1) of a representative survey with German citizens from 2021 on use patterns, perceptions, and expectations regarding social media during emergencies. Furthermore, it (2) compares these results to previous surveys and provides insights on temporal changes and trends from 2017, over 2019 to 2021. Our findings highlight that social media use in emergencies increased in 2021 and 2019 compared to 2017. Between 2019 and 2021, the amount of information shared on social media remained on a similar level, while the perceived disadvantages of social media in emergencies significantly increased. In light of demographic variables, the results of the 2021 survey confirm previous findings, according to which older individuals (45+ years) use social media in emergencies less often than younger individuals (18-24 years). Furthermore, while the quicker availability of information was one of the reasons for social media use, especially the potential information overload was a key factor for not using social media in emergencies. The results are discussed in light of the dynamic nature of attitudes regarding social media in emergencies and the need to account for heterogeneity in user expectations to build trustworthy information ecosystems in social media.},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Biselli, Tom and Pleil, Helene},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-NEBULA, Projekt-CYLENCE},
    }

  • Stefka Schmid, Laura Guntrum, Steffen Haesler, Lisa Schultheiß, Christian Reuter (2023)
    Digital Volunteers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Care Work on Social Media for Socio-technical Resilience
    Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society ;3(1). doi:10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.

    @article{schmid_digital_2023,
    title = {Digital {Volunteers} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}: {Care} {Work} on {Social} {Media} for {Socio}-technical {Resilience}},
    volume = {3},
    issn = {2748-5625},
    url = {https://ojs.weizenbaum-institut.de/index.php/wjds/article/view/78},
    doi = {10.34669/WI.WJDS/3.3.6},
    abstract = {Like past crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has also activated individual volunteers to help to respond to the crisis. This includes digital volunteers, who have organized physical aid and conducted activities on social media. Analyzing German volunteering support groups on Facebook and related Reddit threads in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we {\textbackslash}updatedshow what type of help is offered and how social media users interact with each other, trying to cope with the situation. We reveal that most users offering help online conduct mostly typical care work, such as buying groceries or giving advice. Crucially, volunteering is characterized by relationships of care and thus builds on affirmative interactions. Albeit some misdirected offers and regressive interruptions, people use the possibility to make their voices heard and, showing empathy, help each other to cope with crisis. Social media like Facebook mediate societal structures, including relationships of care, offering a space for continuous, cumulatively resilient conduct of care work. Reflecting on the traditional division of labor in crisis volunteering and counter-productive dynamics of care and empathy, we aim for feminist ethics of care which allows for interactions on social media that foster generative computer-supported collaboration.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Weizenbaum Journal of the Digital Society},
    author = {Schmid, Stefka and Guntrum, Laura and Haesler, Steffen and Schultheiß, Lisa and Reuter, Christian},
    month = may,
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Projekt-TraCe},
    }

    2022

  • Sabrina Gabel, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Discussing Conflict in Social Media – The Use of Twitter in the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict
    Media, War & Conflict ;15(4):1–26.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.

    @article{gabel_discussing_2022,
    title = {Discussing {Conflict} in {Social} {Media} – {The} {Use} of {Twitter} in the {Jammu} and {Kashmir} {Conflict}},
    volume = {15},
    url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635220970997},
    abstract = {Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani's impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Media, War \& Conflict},
    author = {Gabel, Sabrina and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation. Routledge, , 48–63.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    isbn = {978-0-367-62674-7},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2022/2022_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaAndFragmentation_Routledge.pdf},
    abstract = {Mobile technologies and social media services are among the socio-technological innovations that have an enormous impact transforming modern culture and political processes. Social media are often defined as a “group of internet-based applications […] that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010). Shaping opinions, politics, participation, and protest (Wulf et al. 2013), they are used by citizens for news consumption and social exchange (Robinson et al. 2017); by journalists for reporting, analyzing, and collecting information (Stieglitz et al. 2018a); and by organizations to monitor crises, emergencies, customer feedback, and sentiment, among others (Haunschild et al. 2020). Large-scale international events, such as the 2010 Arab Spring, showcased the potential of socio-technological transformations: Citizens were not passive victims but active and autonomous participants utilizing social media to coordinate protest and for crisis response (Reuter and Kaufhold 2018). However, in other cases, citizens’ activities coordinated via social media also increased the complexity of tasks and pressure for formal authorities, since the lack of state control has not had only empowering or benign effects. Instead, on social media, false information spreads fast and it is easy for groups to find an audience there, either to enhance their profit or to target vulnerable groups with dangerous ideology.},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Politics}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Transformations} and {Political} {Fragmentation}},
    publisher = {Routledge},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {48--63},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Luigi Lo Iacono, Alexander Benlian (2022)
    Special Issue on Usable Security and Privacy with User-Centered Interventions and Transparency Mechanisms – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2022,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Usable} {Security} and {Privacy} with {User}-{Centered} {Interventions} and {Transparency} {Mechanisms} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/41/10?nav=tocList},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Benlian, Alexander},
    year = {2022},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Luigi Lo Iacono, Alexander Benlian (2022)
    A Quarter Century of Usable Security and Privacy Research: Transparency, Tailorability, and the Road Ahead
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;41(10):2035–2048. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2022.2080908
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In the last decades, research has shown that both technical solutions and user perceptions are important to improve security and privacy in the digital realm. The field of ‘usable security’ already started to emerge in the mid-90s, primarily focussed on password and email security. Later on, the research field of ”usable security and privacy” evolved and broadened the aim to design concepts and tools to assist users in enhancing their behaviour with regard to both privacy and security. Nevertheless, many user interventions are not as effective as desired. Because of highly diverse usage contexts, leading to different privacy and security requirements and not always to one-size-fits-all approaches, tailorability is necessary to address this issue. Furthermore, transparency is a crucial requirement, as providing comprehensible information may counter reactance towards security interventions. This article first provides a brief history of the research field in its first quarter-century and then highlights research on the transparency and tailorability of user interventions. Based on this, this article then presents six contributions with regard to (1) privacy concerns in times of COVID-19, (2) authentication on mobile devices, (3) GDPR-compliant data management, (4) privacy notices on websites, (5) data disclosure scenarios in agriculture, as well as (6) rights under data protection law and the concrete process should data subjects want to claim those rights. This article concludes with several research directions on user-centred transparency and tailorability.

    @article{reuter_quarter_2022,
    title = {A {Quarter} {Century} of {Usable} {Security} and {Privacy} {Research}: {Transparency}, {Tailorability}, and the {Road} {Ahead}},
    volume = {41},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/41/10},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2022.2080908},
    abstract = {In the last decades, research has shown that both technical solutions and user perceptions are important to improve security and privacy in the digital realm. The field of ‘usable security’ already started to emerge in the mid-90s, primarily focussed on password and email security. Later on, the research field of ”usable security and privacy” evolved and broadened the aim to design concepts and tools to assist users in enhancing their behaviour with regard to both privacy and security. Nevertheless, many user interventions are not as effective as desired. Because of highly diverse usage contexts, leading to different privacy and security requirements and not always to one-size-fits-all approaches, tailorability is necessary to address this issue. Furthermore, transparency is a crucial requirement, as providing comprehensible information may counter reactance towards security interventions. This article first provides a brief history of the research field in its first quarter-century and then highlights research on the transparency and tailorability of user interventions. Based on this, this article then presents six contributions with regard to (1) privacy concerns in times of COVID-19, (2) authentication on mobile devices, (3) GDPR-compliant data management, (4) privacy notices on websites, (5) data disclosure scenarios in agriculture, as well as (6) rights under data protection law and the concrete process should data subjects want to claim those rights. This article concludes with several research directions on user-centred transparency and tailorability.},
    number = {10},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Benlian, Alexander},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban},
    pages = {2035--2048},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2022)
    A European Perspective on Crisis Informatics: Citizens‘ and Authorities‘ attitudes towards Social Media for Public Safety and Security
    1 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-39720-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.

    @book{reuter_european_2022,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {1},
    title = {A {European} {Perspective} on {Crisis} {Informatics}: {Citizens}' and {Authorities}' attitudes towards {Social} {Media} for {Public} {Safety} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-39719-7},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-658-39720-3},
    abstract = {Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.},
    language = {en},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-39720-3},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2022)
    A European Perspective on Crisis Informatics: Citizens‘ and Authorities‘ attitudes towards Social Media for Public Safety and Security
    Nijmegen: The Radboud University Thesis Repository.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.

    @book{reuter_european_2022-1,
    address = {Nijmegen},
    title = {A {European} {Perspective} on {Crisis} {Informatics}: {Citizens}' and {Authorities}' attitudes towards {Social} {Media} for {Public} {Safety} and {Security}},
    url = {https://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/253000},
    abstract = {Mobilising helpers in the event of a flood or letting friends know that you are okay in the event of a terrorist attack – more and more people are using social media in emergency, crisis or disaster situations. Storms, floods, attacks or pandemics (esp. COVID-19) show that citizens use social media to inform themselves or to coordinate. This thesis presents qualitative and quantitative studies on the attitudes of emergency services and citizens in Europe towards social media in emergencies. Across the individual sub-studies, almost 10,000 people are surveyed including representative studies in the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Italy. The work empirically shows that social media is increasingly important for emergency services, both for prevention and during crises; that private use of social media is a driving force in shaping opinions for organisational use; and that citizens have high expectations towards authorities, especially monitoring social media is expected, and sometimes responses within one hour. Depending on the risk culture, the data show further differences, e.g. whether the state (Germany) or the individual (Netherlands) is seen as primarily responsible for coping with the situation.},
    publisher = {The Radboud University Thesis Repository},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, Dissertation},
    }

    2021

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Fake News technisch begegnen – Detektions- und Behandlungsansätze zur Unterstützung von NutzerInnen
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Wahrheit und Fake News im postfaktischen Zeitalter. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 133–150.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.

    @incollection{hartwig_fake_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    series = {ars digitalis},
    title = {Fake {News} technisch begegnen – {Detektions}- und {Behandlungsansätze} zur {Unterstützung} von {NutzerInnen}},
    volume = {3},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32956-3},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_FakeNewstechnischbegegnen_WahrheitundFake.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Wahrheit und {Fake} {News} im postfaktischen {Zeitalter}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {133--150},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Infrastructure, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank FuchsKittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CYWARN},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2021)
    Resilienz durch Kooperationstechnologien
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 473–493. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anfor-derungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an ge-änderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechni-sches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteur*innen. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt dieses Kapitel anhand von prakti-schen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_resilienz_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Resilienz durch {Kooperationstechnologien}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReuterLudwigPipek_ResilienzKooperationstechnologien_SecMCI-Kap22.pdf},
    abstract = {Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anfor-derungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an ge-änderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechni-sches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteur*innen. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt dieses Kapitel anhand von prakti-schen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_22},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {473--493},
    }

    2020

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management (IPM) ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management (IPM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Security, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Peace},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Conflicts and Crises – Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT)
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @book{reuter_special_2020,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Conflicts} and {Crises} - {Behaviour} \& {Information} {Technology} ({BIT})},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/39/3},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Quo Vadis? Digitalisierung und Social Media im Bevölkerungsschutz
    In: Sandra Ückert, Hasan Sürgit, Gerd Diesel: Digitalisierung als Erfolgsfaktor für das Sozial- und Wohlfahrtswesen. Nomos, , 311–318.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.

    @incollection{reuter_quo_2020,
    title = {Quo {Vadis}? {Digitalisierung} und {Social} {Media} im {Bevölkerungsschutz}},
    isbn = {978-3-8487-6250-7},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Reuter_QuoVadisDigitalisierungSocialMediaBevoelkerungsschutz_DigitalisierungSozialWohlfahrtswesen.pdf},
    abstract = {Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisierung als {Erfolgsfaktor} für das {Sozial}- und {Wohlfahrtswesen}},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ückert, Sandra and Sürgit, Hasan and Diesel, Gerd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {311--318},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSpahrSpielhoferHahne_EmergencyServiceSocialMediaAttitude20142017_IJDRR.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Sohaib S. Hassan, Christian Reuter, Levan Bzhalava (2020)
    Perception or capability? – An empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in German SMEs
    International Journal of Innovation Management ;2150002:1–26. doi:10.1142/S136391962150002X
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and public cloud computing (SM&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker’s perception-related and SME’s capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.

    @article{s_hassan_perception_2020,
    title = {Perception or capability? – {An} empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in {German} {SMEs}},
    volume = {2150002},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HassanReuterBzhalava_AdoptionSocialMediaSME_IJIM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S136391962150002X},
    abstract = {Social media and public cloud computing (SM\&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM\&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM\&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker's perception-related and SME's capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM\&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM\&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.},
    journal = {International Journal of Innovation Management},
    author = {S. Hassan, Sohaib and Reuter, Christian and Bzhalava, Levan},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

    2019

  • Larissa Aldehoff, Meri Dankenbring, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Renouncing Privacy in Crisis Management? People’s View on Social Media Monitoring and Surveillance
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people’s views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.

    @inproceedings{aldehoff_renouncing_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Renouncing {Privacy} in {Crisis} {Management}? {People}'s {View} on {Social} {Media} {Monitoring} and {Surveillance}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_AldehoffDankenbringReuter_RenouncingPrivacyCrisisManagement_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is used during crises and disasters by state authorities and citizens to communicate and provide, gain and analyze information. Monitoring of platforms in such cases is both a well-established practice and a research area. The question, whether people are willing to renounce privacy in social media during critical incidents, or even allow surveillance in order to contribute to public security, remains unanswered. Our survey of 1,024 German inhabitants is the first empirical study on people's views on social media monitoring and surveillance in crisis management. We find the willingness to share data during an imminent threat depends mostly on the type of data: a majority (63\% and 67\%, respectively) would give access to addresses and telephone numbers, whereas the willingness to share content of chats or telephone calls is significantly lower (27\%). Our analysis reveals diverging opinions among participants and some effects of sociodemographic variables on the acceptance of invasions into privacy.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Aldehoff, Larissa and Dankenbring, Meri and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, UsableSec, Security, Peace, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-DualUse, Projekt-CROSSING, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1184--1197},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fighting Misinformation on Twitter: The Plugin based approach TrustyTweet
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_fighting_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Fighting {Misinformation} on {Twitter}: {The} {Plugin} based approach {TrustyTweet}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Finding a responsible way to address fake news on social media has become an urgent matter both in political and social contexts. Existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news. However, approaches to assist users in making their own assessments are largely missing. In this article we present a study on how an indicator-based white-box approach can support Twitter-users in assessing tweets. In a first step, we identified indicators for fake news that have shown to be promising in previous studies and that are suitable for our idea of a white-box approach. Building on that basis of indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrustyTweet, which aims to assist users on Twitter in assessing tweets by showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we present the findings of our evaluations carried out with a total of 27 participants, which result in further design implications for approaches to assist users in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {67--69},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2019)
    TrustyTweet: An Indicator-based Browser-Plugin to Assist Users in Dealing with Fake News on Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users’assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_trustytweet_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {{TrustyTweet}: {An} {Indicator}-based {Browser}-{Plugin} to {Assist} {Users} in {Dealing} with {Fake} {News} on {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_HartwigReuter_TrustyTweet_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The importance of dealing withfake newsonsocial mediahas increased both in political and social contexts.While existing studies focus mainly on how to detect and label fake news, approaches to assist usersin making their own assessments are largely missing. This article presents a study on how Twitter-users'assessmentscan be supported by an indicator-based white-box approach.First, we gathered potential indicators for fake news that have proven to be promising in previous studies and that fit our idea of awhite-box approach. Based on those indicators we then designed and implemented the browser-plugin TrusyTweet, which assists users on Twitterin assessing tweetsby showing politically neutral and intuitive warnings without creating reactance. Finally, we suggest the findings of our evaluations with a total of 27 participants which lead to further design implicationsfor approachesto assistusers in dealing with fake news.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1858--1869},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Cross-Media Usage of Social Big Data for Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities: Approaches, Development and Challenges of Multi-Platform Social Media Services
    2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.

    @techreport{kaufhold_cross-media_2019,
    title = {Cross-{Media} {Usage} of {Social} {Big} {Data} for {Emergency} {Services} and {Volunteer} {Communities}: {Approaches}, {Development} and {Challenges} of {Multi}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Services}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07725.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.},
    institution = {arXiv},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Arne Schmidt, Fabienne Seifert, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    SentiNet: Twitter-basierter Ansatz zur kombinierten Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalyse in Katastrophenlagen
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_sentinet_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{SentiNet}: {Twitter}-basierter {Ansatz} zur kombinierten {Netzwerk}- und {Stimmungsanalyse} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25149/133-04.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04},
    abstract = {Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmidt, Arne and Seifert, Fabienne and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {297--308},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Cultural Violence and Peace in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 361–381. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} in {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-CRISP},
    pages = {361--381},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Social Media Misuse: Cultural Violence, Peace and Security in Digital Networks
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Misuse}: {Cultural} {Violence}, {Peace} and {Security} in {Digital} {Networks}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {61--66},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Alexis Gizikis, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank, Margarita Grinko (2019)
    Avoiding Chaotic Use of Social Media before, during, and after Emergencies: Design and Evaluation of Citizens‘ Guidelines
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;27(3):198–213. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12249
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens‘ guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.

    @article{kaufhold_avoiding_2019,
    title = {Avoiding {Chaotic} {Use} of {Social} {Media} before, during, and after {Emergencies}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of {Citizens}' {Guidelines}},
    volume = {27},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGizikisReuterHabdankGrinko_DesignEvaluationCitizenGuidelines_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12249},
    abstract = {Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens' guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Gizikis, Alexis and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias and Grinko, Margarita},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KontiKat, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {198--213},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

  • Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elena Runft, Christian Reuter, Margarita Grinko, Volkmar Pipek (2019)
    Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.

    @inproceedings{langer_counter_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Counter {Narratives} in {Social} {Media}: {An} {Empirical} {Study} on {Combat} and {Prevention} of {Terrorism}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Langeretal_Counternarratives_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Runft, Elena and Reuter, Christian and Grinko, Margarita and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace},
    pages = {746--755},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2019)
    Fake News und manipulierte Meinungsbildung
    In: Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer: Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation: Gesellschaftliche Trends und der Wandel von Organisationen. Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme, , 15–19.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.

    @incollection{reuter_fake_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Fake {News} und manipulierte {Meinungsbildung}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47852/PolicyPaper5_Digitalisierung_Kommunikation_deutsch.pdf},
    abstract = {Konsequentes Vorgehen von Behörden gegen gezielte Falschnachrichten – das wünscht sich laut einer repräsentativen Studie eine große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung in Deutschland. Das Fachgebiet Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt fragte unter anderem danach, wie Bürgerinnen und Bürger Fake News wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren und welche Gegenmaßnahmen als sinnvoll erachtet werden.},
    booktitle = {Die {Digitalisierung} der {Kommunikation}: {Gesellschaftliche} {Trends} und der {Wandel} von {Organisationen}},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {15--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer (2019)
    Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation: Gesellschaftliche Trends und der Wandel von Organisationen
    Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits seit den 80er-Jahren erleben wir die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation. Mit dem Siegeszug des Internets in den 90er-Jahren intensivierte sich dieser Prozess und erreichte ab Mitte der 2000er mit der Verbreitung sozialer Medien und Smartphones eine neue Dimension. Neue technische Möglichkeiten haben neue gesellschaftliche Trends hervorgebracht bzw. verstärkt. Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation verändert aber auch traditionelle Organisationsformen in atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit. Diese Publikation bietet einen Überblick zu diesen beiden Entwicklungen: gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen wie die Auflösung von realer und digitaler Welt, ständige Vernetztheit, Fake News und Shitstorm auf der einen Seite und die Auswirkungen dieser Prozesse auf traditionelle Medien, Arbeitswelt, Schulen, Nichtregierungsorganisationen und den Sportsektor auf der anderen Seite.

    @book{reuter_digitalisierung_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Die {Digitalisierung} der {Kommunikation}: {Gesellschaftliche} {Trends} und der {Wandel} von {Organisationen}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47852/PolicyPaper5_Digitalisierung_Kommunikation_deutsch.pdf},
    abstract = {Bereits seit den 80er-Jahren erleben wir die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation. Mit dem Siegeszug des Internets in den 90er-Jahren intensivierte sich dieser Prozess und erreichte ab Mitte der 2000er mit der Verbreitung sozialer Medien und Smartphones eine neue Dimension. Neue technische Möglichkeiten haben neue gesellschaftliche Trends hervorgebracht bzw. verstärkt. Die Digitalisierung der Kommunikation verändert aber auch traditionelle Organisationsformen in atemberaubender Geschwindigkeit. Diese Publikation bietet einen Überblick zu diesen beiden Entwicklungen: gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen wie die Auflösung von realer und digitaler Welt, ständige Vernetztheit, Fake News und Shitstorm auf der einen Seite und die Auswirkungen dieser Prozesse auf traditionelle Medien, Arbeitswelt, Schulen, Nichtregierungsorganisationen und den Sportsektor auf der anderen Seite.},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tanjev Schultz, Christian Stegbauer (2019)
    Digitalisation and Communication: Societal Trends and the Change in Organisations
    Frankfurt am Main: Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The digitalisation of communication started as early as the 1980s. With the rise of the internet in the mid-90s the digitalisation process intensified; then it took on another dimension with the spread of social media and smartphones in the mid noughties. These new technologies are providing new possibilities that are unveiling, or rather, strengthening societal trends. What’s more, traditional forms of organisation are also being transformed at breakneck speed. This publication provides an overview of both developments: On the one hand we have societal developments such as the blurring of boundaries between real and digital worlds, constant connectivity, fake news, and social media outrage. On the other, we have the effects on traditional media, the workplace, schools, non-governmental organisations and sports.

    @book{reuter_digitalisation_2019,
    address = {Frankfurt am Main},
    title = {Digitalisation and {Communication}: {Societal} {Trends} and the {Change} in {Organisations}},
    url = {http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/opus4/files/47853/SPPaper6_Digitalisation_Communication_English.pdf},
    abstract = {The digitalisation of communication started as early as the 1980s. With the rise of the internet in the mid-90s the digitalisation process intensified; then it took on another dimension with the spread of social media and smartphones in the mid noughties. These new technologies are providing new possibilities that are unveiling, or rather, strengthening societal trends. What's more, traditional forms of organisation are also being transformed at breakneck speed. This publication provides an overview of both developments: On the one hand we have societal developments such as the blurring of boundaries between real and digital worlds, constant connectivity, fake news, and social media outrage. On the other, we have the effects on traditional media, the workplace, schools, non-governmental organisations and sports.},
    publisher = {Mercator Science-Policy Fellowship-Programme},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schultz, Tanjev and Stegbauer, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katrin Hartwig, Jan Kirchner, Noah Schlegel (2019)
    Fake News Perception in Germany: A Representative Study of People’s Attitudes and Approaches to Counteract Disinformation
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people’s attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news

    @inproceedings{reuter_fake_2019-2,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Fake {News} {Perception} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Study} of {People}'s {Attitudes} and {Approaches} to {Counteract} {Disinformation}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterHartwigKirchnerSchlegel_FakeNewsPerceptionGermany_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Fake news has become an important topic in our social and political environment. While research is coming up for the U.S. and European countries, many aspects remain uncovered as long as existing work only marginally inves-tigates people's attitudes towards fake news. In this work, we present the results of a representative study (N=1023) in Germany asking participants about their attitudes towards fake news and approaches to counteract disinformation. More than 80\% of the participants agree that fake news poses a threat. 78\% see fake news as harming democracy. Even though about half of the respondents (48\%) have noticed fake news, most participants stated to have never liked, shared or commented on fake news. Regarding demographic factors, our findings support the view of younger and relatively educated people being more informed about fake news. Concerning ideological motives, the evaluation suggests left-wing or liberal respondents to be more critical of fake news},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hartwig, Katrin and Kirchner, Jan and Schlegel, Noah},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace},
    pages = {1069--1083},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Student, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_SpielhoferHahneReuterKaufholdSchmid_SocialMediaCrisesUK_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

    2018

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank FuchsKittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2018)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 621–630. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {621--630},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2018)
    Studie: Wie sehen Mitarbeiter von Feuerwehr und THW den Einsatz sozialer Medien in Gefahrenlagen?
    Crisis Prevention: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{reuter_studie_2018,
    address = {Crisis Prevention},
    title = {Studie: {Wie} sehen {Mitarbeiter} von {Feuerwehr} und {THW} den {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Gefahrenlagen}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_FeuerwehrTHWSozialeMedienGefahrenlagen_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {64--66},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2018)
    Soziale Medien und Apps in Notsituationen: Eine repräsentative Studie über die Wahrnehmung in Deutschland
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.

    @techreport{reuter_soziale_2018,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} und {Apps} in {Notsituationen}: {Eine} repräsentative {Studie} über die {Wahrnehmung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SozialeMedienAppsNotsituationen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {22--24},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gerhard Backfried, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr (2018)
    ISCRAM turns 15: A Trend Analysis of Social Media Papers 2004-2017
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Rochester, New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_iscram_2018,
    address = {Rochester, New York, USA},
    title = {{ISCRAM} turns 15: {A} {Trend} {Analysis} of {Social} {Media} {Papers} 2004-2017},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterBackfriedKaufholdSpahn_15YearsISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Backfried, Gerhard and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian},
    editor = {Boersma, Kees and Tomaszewski, Brian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {1--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Editorial of the Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):277–279. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2018,
    title = {Editorial of the {Special} {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesHiltzImranPlotnik_EditorialSpecialIssueSocialMediaCrisisManagement_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427833},
    abstract = {Social media is gaining more and more importance in crisis management: “Social media continue to evolve, and so does their use in emergency and crisis events” (Reuter et al., 2018). Related research is sometimes called “crisis informatics” (Palen et al., 2009). This special issue was initiated based on the track “Social Media Studies” at previous ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) conferences. It is usually one of the tracks with the most submissions, however we (successfully) aimed to also invite scholars from other venues to contribute.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-KontiKat, Ranking-CORE-B, RSF},
    pages = {277--279},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Muhammad Imran, Linda Plotnick (2018)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Crisis Management – International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)
    .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Crisis} {Management} - {International} {Journal} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} ({IJHCI})},
    volume = {34},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/hihc20/34/4?nav=tocList},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Imran, Muhammad and Plotnick, Linda},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-KontiKat, Ranking-CORE-B},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2018)
    Resilienz durch Kooperationstechnologien
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 443–465. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anforderungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteure. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt unser Kapitel anhand von praktischen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_resilienz_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Resilienz durch {Kooperationstechnologien}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22},
    abstract = {Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anforderungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an geänderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechnisches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteure. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt unser Kapitel anhand von praktischen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_22},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {443--465},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 379–402. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {379--402},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Einleitung und Überblick
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–14. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} – {Einleitung} und Überblick},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung zunehmendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einführung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nachschlagewerk für Wissenschaftler, Designer und Entwickler dienen. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Kata-strophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_1},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {3--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler (2018)
    Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems – Editorial
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):2–3. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12192
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reuter_human-computer-interaction_2018,
    title = {Human-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} – {Editorial}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-5973.12192/abstract},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12192},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {2--3},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Erste Auflage)
    Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Erste} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19522-9},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658195229},
    abstract = {Dieses Lehr- und Fachbuch gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie Soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety- bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Infrastructure, RSF, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2018)
    Special Issue on Human-Computer-Interaction and Social Media in Safety-Critical Systems – Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)
    Wiley.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2018-2,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human}-{Computer}-{Interaction} and {Social} {Media} in {Safety}-{Critical} {Systems} - {Journal} of {Contingencies} and {Crisis} {Management} ({JCCM})},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jccm.2018.26.issue-1/issuetoc},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Wiley},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    note = {Publication Title: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Security, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace, Projekt-CRISP},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Simon Scholl, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    SocialML: EUD im Maschine Learning zur Analyse sozialer Medien
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.

    @inproceedings{scholl_socialml_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {{SocialML}: {EUD} im {Maschine} {Learning} zur {Analyse} sozialer {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16668/Beitrag_347_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Scholl, Simon and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {443--446},
    }

    2017

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    The Impact of Social Media for Emergency Situations: A Case Study with the Fire Department of Frankfurt
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_impact_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {The {Impact} of {Social} {Media} for {Emergency} {Situations}: {A} {Case} {Study} with the {Fire} {Department} of {Frankfurt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_ImpactSocialMediaFrankfurt_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {603--612},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Simon Scholl (2017)
    Social Media Analytics: Eine Marktstudie im Krisenmanagement
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Gesellschaft für Informatik Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Social {Media} {Analytics}: {Eine} {Marktstudie} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuterLudwigScholl_SocialMediaAnalytcisMarktstudie_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik}},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {1325--1338},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Marvin Stefan (2017)
    Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_gesellschaftliche_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Gesellschaftliche {Herausforderungen} des {Missbrauchs} von {Bots} und sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3236/2017_WS01_386.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Stefan, Marvin},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace},
    pages = {51--58},
    }

  • Gaia Mosconi, Matthias Korn, Christian Reuter, Peter Tolmie, Maurizio Teli, Volkmar Pipek (2017)
    From Facebook to the Neighbourhood: Infrastructuring of Hybrid Community Engagement
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;26(4-6):959–1003. doi:10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In recent years, social media have increased the resources that individuals and organizations are able to mobilize for the development of socially innovative practices. In this article, we engage with a naturally occurring development in a Trentinian neighbourhood to examine the cooperative interactions amongst members of a local community. The first author and local residents of the neighbourhood participated in online discussions, decision making, and physical activities that led to material changes in the area. The interventions are motivated by and based on the concept of Social Street that combines online interactions in a closed Facebook group with face-to-face meetings seeking to practically engage the collective in accomplishing certain immediate or ongoing needs. Over the course of two years, we studied this local instantiation of Social Street in Trento, Italy by way of an action-oriented (digital) ethnography. Through this work, we demonstrate how urban neighbourhoods might benefit from hybrid forms of community engagement that are enacted through a constant back and forth between online and face-to-face interactions. We further argue that the infrastructuring of local urban collectives should follow strategies that pay attention to the multiple issues in urban neighbourhoods and people’s attachments to them. Overall, the paper reflects upon the challenges and configurations of participation that this form of community-work entails.

    @article{mosconi_facebook_2017,
    title = {From {Facebook} to the {Neighbourhood}: {Infrastructuring} of {Hybrid} {Community} {Engagement}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-017-9291-z},
    abstract = {In recent years, social media have increased the resources that individuals and organizations are able to mobilize for the development of socially innovative practices. In this article, we engage with a naturally occurring development in a Trentinian neighbourhood to examine the cooperative interactions amongst members of a local community. The first author and local residents of the neighbourhood participated in online discussions, decision making, and physical activities that led to material changes in the area. The interventions are motivated by and based on the concept of Social Street that combines online interactions in a closed Facebook group with face-to-face meetings seeking to practically engage the collective in accomplishing certain immediate or ongoing needs. Over the course of two years, we studied this local instantiation of Social Street in Trento, Italy by way of an action-oriented (digital) ethnography. Through this work, we demonstrate how urban neighbourhoods might benefit from hybrid forms of community engagement that are enacted through a constant back and forth between online and face-to-face interactions. We further argue that the infrastructuring of local urban collectives should follow strategies that pay attention to the multiple issues in urban neighbourhoods and people's attachments to them. Overall, the paper reflects upon the challenges and configurations of participation that this form of community-work entails.},
    number = {4-6},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Mosconi, Gaia and Korn, Matthias and Reuter, Christian and Tolmie, Peter and Teli, Maurizio and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-KOKOS, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {959--1003},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    IT for Peace? Fighting Against Terrorism in Social Media – An Explorative Twitter Study
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;16(2):181–195. doi:10.1515/icom-2017-0013
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.

    @article{reuter_it_2017,
    title = {{IT} for {Peace}? {Fighting} {Against} {Terrorism} in {Social} {Media} – {An} {Explorative} {Twitter} {Study}},
    volume = {16},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_ITforPeaceTerrorismSocialMedia_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2017-0013},
    abstract = {The Internet and especially social media are not only used for supposedly good purposes. For example, the recruitment of new members and the dissemination of ideologies of terrorism also takes place in the media. However, the fight against terrorism also makes use of the same tools. The type of these countermeasures, as well as the methods, are covered in this work. In the first part, the state of the art is summarized. The second part presents an explorative empirical study of the fight against terrorism in social media, especially on Twitter. Different, preferably characteristic forms are structured within the scope with the example of Twitter. The aim of this work is to approach this highly relevant subject with the goal of peace, safety and safety from the perspective of information systems. Moreover, it should serve following researches in this field as basis and starting point.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace},
    pages = {181--195},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Spielhofer (2017)
    Towards Social Resilience: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey on Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media in Emergencies in Europe
    Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC) ;121:168–180. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.038
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is increasingly being used during emergencies. Most available studies are focused on how citizens and/or authorities use these technologies in concrete events. However, larger quantitative studies with significant results on attitudes, needs and future plans of citizens in such events are not available – especially such of a comparative nature related to emergency services. As part of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ this article presents the findings of a survey of 1034 citizens across 30 European countries conducted between February and June 2015 to explore citizens‘ attitudes towards the use of social media for private purposes and in emergency situations. The article briefly compares these findings with a second survey conducted with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The aim of the overall study is to discuss citizens‘ attitudes towards social media in emergencies in order to derive challenges and opportunities for social resilience.

    @article{reuter_towards_2017,
    title = {Towards {Social} {Resilience}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} on {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies} in {Europe}},
    volume = {121},
    url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162516301986},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2016.07.038},
    abstract = {Social media is increasingly being used during emergencies. Most available studies are focused on how citizens and/or authorities use these technologies in concrete events. However, larger quantitative studies with significant results on attitudes, needs and future plans of citizens in such events are not available - especially such of a comparative nature related to emergency services. As part of the EU project ‘EmerGent' this article presents the findings of a survey of 1034 citizens across 30 European countries conducted between February and June 2015 to explore citizens' attitudes towards the use of social media for private purposes and in emergency situations. The article briefly compares these findings with a second survey conducted with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The aim of the overall study is to discuss citizens' attitudes towards social media in emergencies in order to derive challenges and opportunities for social resilience.},
    journal = {Journal Technological Forecasting and Social Change (TFSC)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, RSF},
    pages = {168--180},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Ludwig (2017)
    End-User Development and Social Big Data – Towards Tailorable Situation Assessment with Social Media
    In: Fabio Paternò, Volker Wulf: New Perspectives in End-User Development. Springer, , 307–332. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.

    @incollection{reuter_end-user_2017,
    title = {End-{User} {Development} and {Social} {Big} {Data} - {Towards} {Tailorable} {Situation} {Assessment} with {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-319-60290-5},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    abstract = {The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.},
    booktitle = {New {Perspectives} in {End}-{User} {Development}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Paternò, Fabio and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {307--332},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler (2017)
    4. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_4_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {4. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3170/2017_WS01_380.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0380},
    abstract = {Die Interaktion und Kooperation zwischen Mensch und Computer in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und Gestaltungsaufgabe. Sicherheitskritische Anwendungsfelder sind vielfältig und umfassen verschiedene Branchen und Bereiche, beispielsweise Produktion, Medizin, Katastrophenschutz oder Verkehr. Neben stationären Rechnern und Maschinen haben mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Medien bereits seit einigen Jahren an Bedeutung enorm zugenommen. Die spezifischen Herausforderungen der MCI in solchen sicherheitskritischen Kontexten bedürfen einer Diskussion in Bezug auf die Entwicklung bzw. Adaption von Methoden und Prozessen, aber auch auf Ergebnisse der Systementwicklung. Diese gilt es im Rahmen des Workshops zu adressieren, jedoch weniger im Hinblick auf die isolierten Technologien, sondern mit deutliche r Fokussierung auf das Zusammenwirken von Mensch, Technik und Organisation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {5--8},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Julian Hupertz (2017)
    Social Media Resilience during Infrastructure Breakdowns using Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
    Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics – Proceedings of the 30th EnviroInfo Conference Berlin, Germany. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2017,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Resilience} during {Infrastructure} {Breakdowns} using {Mobile} {Ad}-{Hoc} {Networks}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_Reuteretal_SocialMediaResilienceMANET_EnviroInfo.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7},
    abstract = {Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.},
    booktitle = {Advances and {New} {Trends} in {Environmental} {Informatics} - {Proceedings} of the 30th {EnviroInfo} {Conference}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, V. and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Security, Projekt-KOKOS, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {75--88},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, René Steinfort (2017)
    Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information’s believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rumors_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {Rumors, {Fake} {News} and {Social} {Bots} in {Conflicts} and {Emergencies}: {Towards} a {Model} for {Believability} in {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSteinfort_RumorsFakeNewsBotsBelievability_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information's believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Steinfort, René},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-KontiKat, Peace},
    pages = {583--591},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Marén Schorch, Jan Gerwinski, Christian Soost, Sohaib S. Hassan, Gebhard Rusch, Petra Moog, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2017)
    Digitalisierung und Zivile Sicherheit: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität in Katastrophenlagen (KontiKat)
    In: Gero Hoch, Hildegard Schröteler von Brandt, Volker Stein, Angela Schwarz: Sicherheit (DIAGONAL Jahrgang 38). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, , 207–224. doi:10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.

    @incollection{reuter_digitalisierung_2017,
    address = {Göttingen},
    title = {Digitalisierung und {Zivile} {Sicherheit}: {Zivilgesellschaftliche} und betriebliche {Kontinuität} in {Katastrophenlagen} ({KontiKat})},
    isbn = {978-3-8471-0739-2},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSchorchetal_DigitalisierungSicherheitKontiKat_Diagonal.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheit ({DIAGONAL} {Jahrgang} 38)},
    publisher = {Vandenhoeck \& Ruprecht},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schorch, Marén and Gerwinski, Jan and Soost, Christian and Hassan, Sohaib S. and Rusch, Gebhard and Moog, Petra and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Hoch, Gero and Schröteler von Brandt, Hildegard and Stein, Volker and Schwarz, Angela},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, UsableSec, Projekt-KontiKat, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {207--224},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2017)
    Social Media in Emergencies: A Representative Study on Citizens‘ Perception in Germany
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;1(2):1–19. doi:10.1145/3134725
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones‘ weather and first aid apps.

    @article{reuter_social_2017-1,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Representative} {Study} on {Citizens}' {Perception} in {Germany}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SocialMediaEmergenciesGermany_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3134725},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens' perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones' weather and first aid apps.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Place: New York, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-KontiKat},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2017)
    Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer Medien – ein explorativer Einblick am Beispiel von Twitter
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorbekampfung_2017,
    address = {St. Gallen, Switzerland},
    title = {Terrorbekämpfung mithilfe sozialer {Medien} – ein explorativer {Einblick} am {Beispiel} von {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterPaetschRunft_TerrorbekaempfungSozialeMedien_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien werden bekanntermaßen nicht nur zu vermeintlich guten Zwecken genutzt. So findet die Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und die Verbreitung von Ideologien des Terrorismus ebenfalls über dieses Medium statt. Aber auch die Terrorismusbekämpfung bedient sich gleicher Werkzeuge. Die Art und Weise dieser Gegenmaßnahmen sowie die Vorgehensweisen sollen in diesem Artikel thematisiert werden. Im ersten Teil wird der Forschungsstand zusammengefasst. Der zweite Teil stellt eine explorative empirische Studie der Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien, insbesondere in Twitter, dar. Verschiedene, möglichst charakteristische Formen werden in diesem Rahmen am Beispiel von Twitter strukturiert. Ziel ist es, sich diesem hochrelevanten Gebiet mit dem Ziel von Frieden und Sicherheit aus Perspektive der Wirtschaftsinformatik zu nähern und weiteren Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Gebiet als Grundlage und Ausgangspunkt dienen zu können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Leimeister, J.M. and Brenner, W.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace},
    pages = {649--663},
    }

    2016

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2016)
    The Self-Organization of Digital Volunteers across Social Media: The Case of the 2013 European Floods in Germany
    Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM) ;13(1):137–166. doi:10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.

    @article{kaufhold_self-organization_2016,
    title = {The {Self}-{Organization} of {Digital} {Volunteers} across {Social} {Media}: {The} {Case} of the 2013 {European} {Floods} in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_KaufholdReuter_SelfOrganizationDigitalVolunteersEuropeanFloods_JHSEM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063},
    abstract = {For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {137--166},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    From Publics to Communities: Researching the Path of Shared Issues Through ICT
    Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW) ;25(2-3):193–225. doi:10.1007/s10606-016-9252-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In recent years, citizens‘ movements such as the Arab Spring or Euromaidan protests have clearly shown that, whenever affected — whether negatively or positively — by the state and government decisions, citizens act to deal with the shared issues. Groups of people who organize themselves to address (mainly political) issues were defined as a `public‘ by the philosopher John Dewey. He believed it is necessary to improve communication to create a `Great Community‘ as a cohesive group of a public. Although information and communication technologies (ICT) lead to ambivalent effects on pursuing this goal and often distract the mass of people from discussing these issues, we argue that nowadays ICT can improve communication and has the potential to foster the detection of issues and therefore promote the (trans-)formation of a public into an issue-based community. As our foundation we took a literature study covering the formation of publics and their potential to evolve into communities, as well as their interplay with technology. This formed the basis for the development of our operational model that `follows the issues‘ for capturing the (trans-)formation of a public. Based on our model, we outline different perspectives on detecting shared issues as early indicators for publics based on ICT and derive implications for researching this process from a practical perspective.

    @article{ludwig_publics_2016,
    title = {From {Publics} to {Communities}: {Researching} the {Path} of {Shared} {Issues} {Through} {ICT}},
    volume = {25},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_ludwigreuterpipek_frompublicstocommunities_jcscw.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s10606-016-9252-y},
    abstract = {In recent years, citizens' movements such as the Arab Spring or Euromaidan protests have clearly shown that, whenever affected — whether negatively or positively — by the state and government decisions, citizens act to deal with the shared issues. Groups of people who organize themselves to address (mainly political) issues were defined as a `public' by the philosopher John Dewey. He believed it is necessary to improve communication to create a `Great Community' as a cohesive group of a public. Although information and communication technologies (ICT) lead to ambivalent effects on pursuing this goal and often distract the mass of people from discussing these issues, we argue that nowadays ICT can improve communication and has the potential to foster the detection of issues and therefore promote the (trans-)formation of a public into an issue-based community. As our foundation we took a literature study covering the formation of publics and their potential to evolve into communities, as well as their interplay with technology. This formed the basis for the development of our operational model that `follows the issues' for capturing the (trans-)formation of a public. Based on our model, we outline different perspectives on detecting shared issues as early indicators for publics based on ICT and derive implications for researching this process from a practical perspective.},
    number = {2-3},
    journal = {Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing (JCSCW)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    note = {Place: Norwell, MA, USA
    Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {193--225},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Kotthaus, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elmar von Radziewski, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    Big Data in a Crisis? Creating Social Media Datasets for Emergency Management Research
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;15(3):249–264. doi:10.1515/icom-2016-0036
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed) data, such as Facebook or Google+. Based on the experience gained from a research project on social media in emergencies and our task to collect social media data sets for other partners, we present the design and evaluation of a graphical user interface that supports those stakeholders (such as emergency services or researchers) that are interested in creating social media datasets for further crisis management research. We do not specifically focus on the analysis of social media data. Rather we aim to support the gathering process and how actors without sophisticated technical skills can be supported to get what they want and especially need: relevant social media data. Within this article, we present a practice-oriented approach and implications for designing tools that support the collection of social media data as well as future work.

    @article{reuter_big_2016,
    title = {Big {Data} in a {Crisis}? {Creating} {Social} {Media} {Datasets} for {Emergency} {Management} {Research}},
    volume = {15},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_Reuteretal_BigDatainCrisisDatasets_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2016-0036},
    abstract = {A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed) data, such as Facebook or Google+. Based on the experience gained from a research project on social media in emergencies and our task to collect social media data sets for other partners, we present the design and evaluation of a graphical user interface that supports those stakeholders (such as emergency services or researchers) that are interested in creating social media datasets for further crisis management research. We do not specifically focus on the analysis of social media data. Rather we aim to support the gathering process and how actors without sophisticated technical skills can be supported to get what they want and especially need: relevant social media data. Within this article, we present a practice-oriented approach and implications for designing tools that support the collection of social media data as well as future work.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kotthaus, Christoph and Kaufhold, Marc-André and von Radziewski, Elmar and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {249--264},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2016)
    Aktuelle Ansätze zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0000
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zunehmende Durchdringung der Lebenswelt mit IT macht auch nicht vor sicherheitskritischen Systemen halt. Anwendungsfelder betreffen kritische Infrastrukturen, Leitstellensysteme, Fahrzeug- und Verkehrsführungssoftware, Prozessführungssysteme, Produktionstechnologien, Anwendung der Medizintechnik, des Krisenmanagements, der Gefahrenabwehr oder des Terrorismus. Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in solchen sicherheitskritischen Systemen und Anwendungsfeldern ist eine Herausforderung nicht nur für die Informatik, sondern eine interdisziplinäre Aufgabe an der Schnittstelle vieler Disziplinen. Zunehmend müssen auch mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Netzwerke in die Betrachtungen einbezogen werden.

    @inproceedings{reuter_aktuelle_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Aktuelle {Ansätze} zur {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/314/bitstream_9083.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0000},
    abstract = {Die zunehmende Durchdringung der Lebenswelt mit IT macht auch nicht vor sicherheitskritischen Systemen halt. Anwendungsfelder betreffen kritische Infrastrukturen, Leitstellensysteme, Fahrzeug- und Verkehrsführungssoftware, Prozessführungssysteme, Produktionstechnologien, Anwendung der Medizintechnik, des Krisenmanagements, der Gefahrenabwehr oder des Terrorismus. Die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in solchen sicherheitskritischen Systemen und Anwendungsfeldern ist eine Herausforderung nicht nur für die Informatik, sondern eine interdisziplinäre Aufgabe an der Schnittstelle vieler Disziplinen. Zunehmend müssen auch mobile Kontexte und Endgeräte sowie soziale Netzwerke in die Betrachtungen einbezogen werden.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger (2016)
    Informelle E-Partizipation in Parteien
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-mci-0215
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Politische Partizipation im Internet hat zunehmenden Einfluss auf reale politische Willensbildungsprozesse. Parteien, die ein Kernelement des politischen Systems in Deutschland bilden, stehen vor einer wichtigen Gestaltungsaufgabe, wenn sie den Strukturwandel der politischen Kommunikation erfolgreich bewältigen möchten. Ziel unseres Beitrags ist es, Erkenntnisse für diese Gestaltungsaufgabe zu liefern. Dafür wurden 91 Vorschläge von CDU-Mitgliedern ausgewertet und ergänzende Interviews geführt, um Praktiken der (E-)Partizipation sowie ihre Defizite und Bedingungen zu identifizieren. Aus den Ergebnissen leiten wir die Notwendigkeit von insbesondere informellen E-Partizipations-und Vernetzungs-Technologien für den Einsatz in der CDU, potentiell aber auch anderen Parteien, ab

    @inproceedings{reuter_informelle_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Informelle {E}-{Partizipation} in {Parteien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/182/bitstream_8804.pdf},
    doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-mci-0215},
    abstract = {Politische Partizipation im Internet hat zunehmenden Einfluss auf reale politische Willensbildungsprozesse. Parteien, die ein Kernelement des politischen Systems in Deutschland bilden, stehen vor einer wichtigen Gestaltungsaufgabe, wenn sie den Strukturwandel der politischen Kommunikation erfolgreich bewältigen möchten. Ziel unseres Beitrags ist es, Erkenntnisse für diese Gestaltungsaufgabe zu liefern. Dafür wurden 91 Vorschläge von CDU-Mitgliedern ausgewertet und ergänzende Interviews geführt, um Praktiken der (E-)Partizipation sowie ihre Defizite und Bedingungen zu identifizieren. Aus den Ergebnissen leiten wir die Notwendigkeit von insbesondere informellen E-Partizipations-und Vernetzungs-Technologien für den Einsatz in der CDU, potentiell aber auch anderen Parteien, ab},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, SocialMedia, Student},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2016)
    Warum Katastrophenschutzbehörden soziale Medien nicht nutzen wollen
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold & Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_warum_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Warum {Katastrophenschutzbehörden} soziale {Medien} nicht nutzen wollen},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/174/bitstream_8783.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205},
    abstract = {In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold \& Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Christoph Amelunxen, Matthias Moi (2016)
    Semi-Automatic Alerts and Notifications for Emergency Services based on Cross-Platform Social Media Data –Evaluation of a Prototype
    Informatik 2016: von Menschen für Menschen, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Klagenfurt.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The convergence of social networking and mobile media technology is shifting the way how people communicate and gain or share information. People are using social media to a greater extent, also in emergency situations. During disasters throughout the world, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2013 European floods, or the terror attacks 2015 in Paris and 2016 in Brussels, this has been illustrated again. Often information about disasters even finds its way faster to social media than it reaches regular news companies and emergency services. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced have even more potential. Yet many emergency services still have not found a way to put this potential to an effective use. Within our project EmerGent we are developing a system to process and analyse information from social media particularly tailored for the specific needs of emergency services. The aim is to transform the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. In the first part of this paper we present our approach from a user interface perspective. The second part deals with the evaluation of the approach and the derivation of future potentials of the approach.

    @inproceedings{reuter_semi-automatic_2016,
    address = {Klagenfurt},
    title = {Semi-{Automatic} {Alerts} and {Notifications} for {Emergency} {Services} based on {Cross}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Data} –{Evaluation} of a {Prototype}},
    url = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings259/P-259.pdf#page=1806},
    abstract = {The convergence of social networking and mobile media technology is shifting the way how people communicate and gain or share information. People are using social media to a greater extent, also in emergency situations. During disasters throughout the world, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the 2013 European floods, or the terror attacks 2015 in Paris and 2016 in Brussels, this has been illustrated again. Often information about disasters even finds its way faster to social media than it reaches regular news companies and emergency services. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced have even more potential. Yet many emergency services still have not found a way to put this potential to an effective use. Within our project EmerGent we are developing a system to process and analyse information from social media particularly tailored for the specific needs of emergency services. The aim is to transform the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. In the first part of this paper we present our approach from a user interface perspective. The second part deals with the evaluation of the approach and the derivation of future potentials of the approach.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2016: von {Menschen} für {Menschen}, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Amelunxen, Christoph and Moi, Matthias},
    editor = {Mayr, Heinrich C. and Pinzger, Martin},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C},
    pages = {1805--1818},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gordian Geilen, Robin Gellert (2016)
    Sicherheit vs. Privatsphäre: Zur Akzeptanz von Überwachung in sozialen Medien im Kontext von Terrorkrisen
    Informatik 2016: von Menschen für Menschen Klagenfurt.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nach den terroristischen Anschlägen in Paris 2015 und Brüssel 2016 wurde das Bedürfnis nach mehr Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet laut. Als Folge der Enthüllungen der Überwachungs- und Spionagetechniken der National Security Agency (NSA) durch Edward Snowden 2013 konnte in der Bevölkerung aber auch ein Aufschrei nach erhöhtem Schutz der Privatsphäre im Internet wahrgenommen werden. Die geschilderten Ereignisse verdeutlichen die gegensätzlichen Wünsche nach Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet sowie Schutz der Privatsphäre. Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags stellen wir den Stand der Forschung im Bereich Terror, Sicherheit und Privatsphäre in sozialen Medien dar. Im zweiten Teil führen wir eine explorative Studie durch, um zu beleuchten, ob Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Krisenzeiten bereit wären, ihre Privatsphäre im Internet, vor allem in sozialen Netzwerken, zugunsten von Sicherheit zu reduzieren. Basierend auf qualitativen Daten zeigt diese Arbeit Meinungscluster und Tendenzen in Bezug auf das Nullsummenspiel „Sicherheit und Privatsphäre“.

    @inproceedings{reuter_sicherheit_2016,
    address = {Klagenfurt},
    title = {Sicherheit vs. {Privatsphäre}: {Zur} {Akzeptanz} von Überwachung in sozialen {Medien} im {Kontext} von {Terrorkrisen}},
    url = {http://subs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings259/P-259.pdf#page=1760},
    abstract = {Nach den terroristischen Anschlägen in Paris 2015 und Brüssel 2016 wurde das Bedürfnis nach mehr Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet laut. Als Folge der Enthüllungen der Überwachungs- und Spionagetechniken der National Security Agency (NSA) durch Edward Snowden 2013 konnte in der Bevölkerung aber auch ein Aufschrei nach erhöhtem Schutz der Privatsphäre im Internet wahrgenommen werden. Die geschilderten Ereignisse verdeutlichen die gegensätzlichen Wünsche nach Sicherheit und Überwachung im Internet sowie Schutz der Privatsphäre. Im ersten Teil dieses Beitrags stellen wir den Stand der Forschung im Bereich Terror, Sicherheit und Privatsphäre in sozialen Medien dar. Im zweiten Teil führen wir eine explorative Studie durch, um zu beleuchten, ob Bürgerinnen und Bürger in Krisenzeiten bereit wären, ihre Privatsphäre im Internet, vor allem in sozialen Netzwerken, zugunsten von Sicherheit zu reduzieren. Basierend auf qualitativen Daten zeigt diese Arbeit Meinungscluster und Tendenzen in Bezug auf das Nullsummenspiel „Sicherheit und Privatsphäre“.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2016: von {Menschen} für {Menschen}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Geilen, Gordian and Gellert, Robin},
    editor = {Mayr, Heinrich C. and Pinzger, Martin},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, UsableSec, Security, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Julian Hupertz (2016)
    Sozial auch ohne Netz – Soziale Medien bei Infrastrukturproblemen
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Aachen, Germany. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Menschen tauschen sich aus und gerade in schwierigen Situationen ist Kommunikation sehr wichtig. In Katastrophenlagen, wie schweren Unwettern, sind jedoch teilweise zentrale Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen betroffen durch der durch Kommunikationsmedien unterstützte Informationsaustausch naturgemäß schwerer möglich als in Zeiten ohne solche Ausfälle. In jenen Fällen ist Kreativität erforderlich. Den Ansatz des Infrastructuring, d.h. der Re-Konzeptualisierung der eigenen Arbeit im Kontext bestehender und potentieller Werkzeuge, aufgreifend werden in diesem Artikel Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten in solchen Fällen untersucht. Basierend auf der Analyse der Verfügbarkeit von Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen wird betrachtet, welche Ansätze zur Kommunikation basierend auf alternativen und dezentralen Infrastrukturen wie MANETs, Wi-Fi und Bluetooth existieren und mithilfe von Smartphones nutzbar gemacht werden können.

    @inproceedings{reuter_sozial_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Sozial auch ohne {Netz} – {Soziale} {Medien} bei {Infrastrukturproblemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/287},
    doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.18420/muc2016-ws01-0004},
    abstract = {Menschen tauschen sich aus und gerade in schwierigen Situationen ist Kommunikation sehr wichtig. In Katastrophenlagen, wie schweren Unwettern, sind jedoch teilweise zentrale Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen betroffen durch der durch Kommunikationsmedien unterstützte Informationsaustausch naturgemäß schwerer möglich als in Zeiten ohne solche Ausfälle. In jenen Fällen ist Kreativität erforderlich. Den Ansatz des Infrastructuring, d.h. der Re-Konzeptualisierung der eigenen Arbeit im Kontext bestehender und potentieller Werkzeuge, aufgreifend werden in diesem Artikel Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten in solchen Fällen untersucht. Basierend auf der Analyse der Verfügbarkeit von Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen wird betrachtet, welche Ansätze zur Kommunikation basierend auf alternativen und dezentralen Infrastrukturen wie MANETs, Wi-Fi und Bluetooth existieren und mithilfe von Smartphones nutzbar gemacht werden können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Weyers, B. and Dittmar, A.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, Infrastructure, RSF},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Robin Gellert, Gordian Geilen (2016)
    Reception of Terror in Germany – Security, Privacy and Social Media
    Environmental Informatics – Stability, Continuity, Innovation. Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. Adjunct Proceedings of the EnviroInfo 2016 conference Berlin.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{reuter_reception_2016,
    address = {Berlin},
    title = {Reception of {Terror} in {Germany} – {Security}, {Privacy} and {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_ReuterGeilenGellert_ReceptionTerrorGermany-SecurityPrivacySocialMedia_EnviroInfo_selbst.pdf},
    booktitle = {Environmental {Informatics} – {Stability}, {Continuity}, {Innovation}. {Current} trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. {Adjunct} {Proceedings} of the {EnviroInfo} 2016 conference},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Gellert, Robin and Geilen, Gordian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, Volker and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {SocialMedia, UsableSec, Security, Peace, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Katja Pätsch, Elena Runft (2016)
    Terrorismus und soziale Medien – Propaganda und Gegenpropaganda
    Mensch und Computer – Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0209
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der Terrorismus nutzt das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien bereits seit einiger Zeit zur Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und zur Verbreitung ihrer Ideologie. Aber auch deren Gegner nutzen das Internet zur Terrorbekämpfung. Auch wenn es zum Einsatz sozialer Medien in Krisen bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen gibt, wurde deren Einsatz im Terrorismus, einer besonderen Art der Krise, insbesondere in der digitalen Terrorbekämpfung, noch weniger betrachtet. Dieser Artikel fasst im ersten Teil den Stand der Forschung in jenem Bereich zusammen. Im zweiten Teil stellt er eine explorative empirische Studie zur Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien dar. Hierzu werden verschiedene, möglichst repräsentative Formen am Beispiel von Twitter analysiert und gegliedert. Ziel ist die Schaffung eines Überblicks, der weiteren Forschungsarbeiten als Grundlage dienen kann.

    @inproceedings{reuter_terrorismus_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Terrorismus und soziale {Medien} – {Propaganda} und {Gegenpropaganda}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/178/bitstream_8792.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0209},
    abstract = {Der Terrorismus nutzt das Internet und insbesondere soziale Medien bereits seit einiger Zeit zur Rekrutierung neuer Mitglieder und zur Verbreitung ihrer Ideologie. Aber auch deren Gegner nutzen das Internet zur Terrorbekämpfung. Auch wenn es zum Einsatz sozialer Medien in Krisen bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen gibt, wurde deren Einsatz im Terrorismus, einer besonderen Art der Krise, insbesondere in der digitalen Terrorbekämpfung, noch weniger betrachtet. Dieser Artikel fasst im ersten Teil den Stand der Forschung in jenem Bereich zusammen. Im zweiten Teil stellt er eine explorative empirische Studie zur Terrorismusbekämpfung in sozialen Medien dar. Hierzu werden verschiedene, möglichst repräsentative Formen am Beispiel von Twitter analysiert und gegliedert. Ziel ist die Schaffung eines Überblicks, der weiteren Forschungsarbeiten als Grundlage dienen kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Pätsch, Katja and Runft, Elena},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {SocialMedia, Student, Peace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2016)
    Emergency Services Attitudes towards Social Media: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey across Europe
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;95:96–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2016,
    title = {Emergency {Services} {Attitudes} towards {Social} {Media}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} across {Europe}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2016/2016_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_EmergencyServicesAttiudesSurveySocialMedia_IJHCS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005},
    abstract = {Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent' with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {96--111},
    }

    2015

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2015)
    Konzept und Evaluation einer Facebook-Applikation zur crossmedialen Selbstorganisation freiwilliger Helfer
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Osnabrück, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_konzept_2015,
    address = {Osnabrück, Germany},
    title = {Konzept und {Evaluation} einer {Facebook}-{Applikation} zur crossmedialen {Selbstorganisation} freiwilliger {Helfer}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_KaufholdReuter_CrossmedialeSelbstorganisation_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1844--1858},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Ralf Heukäufer (2015)
    CoTable: Collaborative Social Media Analysis with Multi-Touch Tables
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Kristiansand, Norway.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    To be able to take efficient measures in crisis management, it is essential for emergency services to get as much details about an actual situation on-site as possible. Currently content from social media plays an important role since those platforms are used to spread crisis-relevant data within the population. Our contribution presents a concept which supports the situation assessment practices of emergency services by collaboratively evaluating and by analyzing citizen-generated content from social media using a multi-touch table. The concept was implemented based on a Microsoft PixelSense and evaluated with 14 participants. The results reveal the impact of subjectivity of the participants, their positioning around the table as well as the uniqueness of social media posts on the collaborative situation assessment with multi-touch tables

    @inproceedings{ludwig_cotable_2015,
    address = {Kristiansand, Norway},
    title = {{CoTable}: {Collaborative} {Social} {Media} {Analysis} with {Multi}-{Touch} {Tables}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreuterheukaeuferpipek_cotable_iscram.pdf},
    abstract = {To be able to take efficient measures in crisis management, it is essential for emergency services to get as much details about an actual situation on-site as possible. Currently content from social media plays an important role since those platforms are used to spread crisis-relevant data within the population. Our contribution presents a concept which supports the situation assessment practices of emergency services by collaboratively evaluating and by analyzing citizen-generated content from social media using a multi-touch table. The concept was implemented based on a Microsoft PixelSense and evaluated with 14 participants. The results reveal the impact of subjectivity of the participants, their positioning around the table as well as the uniqueness of social media posts on the collaborative situation assessment with multi-touch tables},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Heukäufer, Ralf},
    editor = {Palen, Leysia and Büscher, Monika and Comes, Tina and Hughes, Amanda Lee},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    Social Haystack: Dynamic Quality Assessment of Citizen-Generated Content during Emergencies
    ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) ;21(4):Article 17. doi:10.1145/2749461
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People all over the world are regularly affected by disasters and emergencies. Besides official emergency services, ordinary citizens are getting increasingly involved in crisis response work. They are usually present on-site at the place of incident and use social media to share information about the event. For emergency services, the large amount of citizen-generated content in social media, however, means that finding high-quality information is similar to “finding a needle in a haystack”. This article presents an approach to how a dynamic and subjective quality assessment of citizen-generated content could support the work of emergency services. First, we present results of our empirical study concerning the usage of citizen-generated content by emergency services. Based on our literature review and empirical study, we derive design guidelines and describe a concept for dynamic quality measurement that is implemented as a service-oriented web-application “Social Haystack.” Finally, we outline findings of its evaluation and implications thereof.

    @article{ludwig_social_2015,
    title = {Social {Haystack}: {Dynamic} {Quality} {Assessment} of {Citizen}-{Generated} {Content} during {Emergencies}},
    volume = {21},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ludwigreuterpipek_socialhaystack_tochi.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2749461},
    abstract = {People all over the world are regularly affected by disasters and emergencies. Besides official emergency services, ordinary citizens are getting increasingly involved in crisis response work. They are usually present on-site at the place of incident and use social media to share information about the event. For emergency services, the large amount of citizen-generated content in social media, however, means that finding high-quality information is similar to “finding a needle in a haystack”. This article presents an approach to how a dynamic and subjective quality assessment of citizen-generated content could support the work of emergency services. First, we present results of our empirical study concerning the usage of citizen-generated content by emergency services. Based on our literature review and empirical study, we derive design guidelines and describe a concept for dynamic quality measurement that is implemented as a service-oriented web-application “Social Haystack.” Finally, we outline findings of its evaluation and implications thereof.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {Article 17},
    }

  • Matthias Moi, Therese Friberg, Robin Marterer, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Deborah Markham, Mike Hewlett, Andrew Muddiman (2015)
    Strategy for Processing and Analyzing Social Media Data Streams in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Disaster Management (ICT-DM) Brest, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People are using social media to a greater extent, particularly in emergency situations. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced currently lag far behind. In this paper we discuss important steps, and the associated challenges, for processing and analyzing social media in emergencies. In our research project EmerGent, a huge volume of low-quality messages will be continuously gathered from a variety of social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. Our aim is to design a software system that will process and analyze social media data, transforming the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. Therefore, suitable techniques are needed to extract and condense key information from raw social media data, allowing detection of relevant events and generation of alerts pertinent to emergency personnel.

    @inproceedings{moi_strategy_2015,
    address = {Brest, France},
    title = {Strategy for {Processing} and {Analyzing} {Social} {Media} {Data} {Streams} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7402055},
    abstract = {People are using social media to a greater extent, particularly in emergency situations. However, approaches for processing and analyzing the vast quantities of data produced currently lag far behind. In this paper we discuss important steps, and the associated challenges, for processing and analyzing social media in emergencies. In our research project EmerGent, a huge volume of low-quality messages will be continuously gathered from a variety of social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. Our aim is to design a software system that will process and analyze social media data, transforming the high volume of noisy data into a low volume of rich content that is useful to emergency personnel. Therefore, suitable techniques are needed to extract and condense key information from raw social media data, allowing detection of relevant events and generation of alerts pertinent to emergency personnel.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Information} and {Communication} {Technologies} for {Disaster} {Management} ({ICT}-{DM})},
    author = {Moi, Matthias and Friberg, Therese and Marterer, Robin and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Markham, Deborah and Hewlett, Mike and Muddiman, Andrew},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Julian Schröter (2015)
    Microblogging during the European Floods 2013: What Twitter May Contribute in German Emergencies
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(1):22–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is becoming more and more important in crisis management. However its analysis by emergency services still bears unaddressed challenges and the majority of studies focus on the use of social media in the USA. In this paper German tweets of the European Flood 2013 are therefore captured and analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data coding, and computational algorithms. Our work illustrates that this event provided sufficient German traffic and geo-locations as well as enough original data (not derivative). However, up-to-date Named Entity Recognizer (NER) with German classifier could not recognize German rivers and highways satisfactorily. Furthermore our analysis revealed pragmatic (linguistic) barriers resulting from irony, wordplay, and ambiguity, as well as in retweet-behavior. To ease the analysis of data we suggest a retweet ratio, which is illustrated to be higher with important tweets and may help selecting tweets for mining. We argue that existing software has to be adapted and improved for German language characteristics, also to detect markedness, seriousness and truth

    @article{reuter_microblogging_2015,
    title = {Microblogging during the {European} {Floods} 2013: {What} {Twitter} {May} {Contribute} in {German} {Emergencies}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterSchroeter_MicrobloggingEuropeanFloods_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media is becoming more and more important in crisis management. However its analysis by emergency services still bears unaddressed challenges and the majority of studies focus on the use of social media in the USA. In this paper German tweets of the European Flood 2013 are therefore captured and analyzed using descriptive statistics, qualitative data coding, and computational algorithms. Our work illustrates that this event provided sufficient German traffic and geo-locations as well as enough original data (not derivative). However, up-to-date Named Entity Recognizer (NER) with German classifier could not recognize German rivers and highways satisfactorily. Furthermore our analysis revealed pragmatic (linguistic) barriers resulting from irony, wordplay, and ambiguity, as well as in retweet-behavior. To ease the analysis of data we suggest a retweet ratio, which is illustrated to be higher with important tweets and may help selecting tweets for mining. We argue that existing software has to be adapted and improved for German language characteristics, also to detect markedness, seriousness and truth},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Schröter, Julian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2015)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fachbereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_proceedings_2015,
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}"},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_Reuteretal_Proc-KritischeMCI_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fachbereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Weisbecker, Anette and Burmester, Michael and Schmidt, Albrecht},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Der Einsatz sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    Crisis Prevention – Fachmagazin für Innere Sicherheit, Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe ;5(4):43–44.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Der umfassende Einsatz sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen wurde in Deutschland erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers im Frühjahr 2013 von einer breiten Öffentlichkeit wahrgenommen. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und unterstützten den Katastrophenschutz. Zahlreiche Medien berichteten über dieses Phänomen. Dieser Artikel soll einen kleinen Überblick über das Thema geben.

    @article{reuter_einsatz_2015,
    title = {Der {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_dereinsatzsozialermedieninkatastrophenlagen_crisisprevention.pdf},
    abstract = {Der umfassende Einsatz sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen wurde in Deutschland erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers im Frühjahr 2013 von einer breiten Öffentlichkeit wahrgenommen. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und unterstützten den Katastrophenschutz. Zahlreiche Medien berichteten über dieses Phänomen. Dieser Artikel soll einen kleinen Überblick über das Thema geben.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {Crisis Prevention – Fachmagazin für Innere Sicherheit, Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {43--44},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2015)
    Editorial: Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fach-bereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_editorial_2015,
    title = {Editorial: {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuteretal_editorial-kritischehci_muc.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen ist ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen in der Bedeutung weiter zunehmendes Thema. Dieser Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe „Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen“ innerhalb des Fach-bereichs Mensch-Computer-Interaktion soll aktuelle Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen offenlegen und neue Impulse für das Forschungsgebiet geben.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Schmidt, Albrecht and Weisbecke, Anette and Burmester, Michael},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {3--9},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems II: Authorities and Industry
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(3):iv–vi.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.

    @article{reuter_guest_2015,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {II}: {Authorities} and {Industry}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_editorial-specialissue-hci-criticalsystems-ii.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {iv--vi},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Timo Funke, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    SOMAP: Network Independent Social-Offline-Map-Mashup
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Kristiansand, Norway.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Maps, showing the tactical or the administrative situation at any particular time, play a central role in disaster management. They can be realized as interactive map mashups. In addition to classical information (weather, water levels, energy network, forces), they can also be used to present a view on citizen-generated content, e.g. from social media. In this paper we offer insights into how mobile map mashups can assist citizens during infrastructure failures that often occur in large-scale emergencies. Based on a review of approaches and mobile applications from literature and especially from practice, we present SOMAP (social offline map), a mobile app we developed in Android. It offers offline map functionality in terms of (A) pro-active loading and storing of potentially needed maps of the respective area as well as (B) the possibility of exchanging information from social media using Bluetooth. The application was evaluated qualitatively, to gain insights into the potential of such applications.

    @inproceedings{reuter_somap_2015,
    address = {Kristiansand, Norway},
    title = {{SOMAP}: {Network} {Independent} {Social}-{Offline}-{Map}-{Mashup}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuterludwigfunkepipek_somap-socialofflinemap_iscram.pdf},
    abstract = {Maps, showing the tactical or the administrative situation at any particular time, play a central role in disaster management. They can be realized as interactive map mashups. In addition to classical information (weather, water levels, energy network, forces), they can also be used to present a view on citizen-generated content, e.g. from social media. In this paper we offer insights into how mobile map mashups can assist citizens during infrastructure failures that often occur in large-scale emergencies. Based on a review of approaches and mobile applications from literature and especially from practice, we present SOMAP (social offline map), a mobile app we developed in Android. It offers offline map functionality in terms of (A) pro-active loading and storing of potentially needed maps of the respective area as well as (B) the possibility of exchanging information from social media using Bluetooth. The application was evaluated qualitatively, to gain insights into the potential of such applications.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Funke, Timo and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Palen, Leysia and Büscher, Monika and Comes, Tina and Hughes, Amanda Lee},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent, UsableSec, Security, Infrastructure},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Emergente Kollaborationsinfrastrukturen – Technologiegestaltung am Beispiel des inter-organisationalen Krisenmanagements
    In: Steffen Hölldobler: Ausgezeichnete Informatikdissertationen 2014. GI- Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), D-14. Bonner Köllen Verlag, , 209–218.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements untersucht die hier vorgestellte Dissertation die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten der Technologiegestaltung für emergente, d.h. dynamische und nicht vorhersehbare, Kontexte. Hierfür wird empirisch die kollaborative Arbeit von Polizei, Feuerwehr, Energienetzbetreibern und Bürgern im inter-organisationalen Katastrophenschutz erforscht, um exemplarische Kollaborationspraktiken zu ermitteln, die Limitationen der Arbeitsinfrastruktur aufdecken. Hierauf aufbauend werden neuartige Konzepte und IT-Artefakte gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, die emergente Kollaboration ermöglichen sollen. Neben der Erforschung potentieller organisationaler Effekte auf die Fähigkeit mit Emergenz umzugehen, werden methodische Implikationen für die Technologiegestaltung abgeleitet.

    @incollection{reuter_emergente_2015,
    title = {Emergente {Kollaborationsinfrastrukturen} – {Technologiegestaltung} am {Beispiel} des inter-organisationalen {Krisenmanagements}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_emergentekollaborationstechnologien_gi-dissertationspreis.pdf},
    abstract = {Am Beispiel des Krisenmanagements untersucht die hier vorgestellte Dissertation die Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten der Technologiegestaltung für emergente, d.h. dynamische und nicht vorhersehbare, Kontexte. Hierfür wird empirisch die kollaborative Arbeit von Polizei, Feuerwehr, Energienetzbetreibern und Bürgern im inter-organisationalen Katastrophenschutz erforscht, um exemplarische Kollaborationspraktiken zu ermitteln, die Limitationen der Arbeitsinfrastruktur aufdecken. Hierauf aufbauend werden neuartige Konzepte und IT-Artefakte gestaltet, implementiert und evaluiert, die emergente Kollaboration ermöglichen sollen. Neben der Erforschung potentieller organisationaler Effekte auf die Fähigkeit mit Emergenz umzugehen, werden methodische Implikationen für die Technologiegestaltung abgeleitet.},
    booktitle = {Ausgezeichnete {Informatikdissertationen} 2014. {GI}- {Edition}-{Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {D}-14},
    publisher = {Bonner Köllen Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Hölldobler, Steffen},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF},
    pages = {209--218},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler (2015)
    Guest Editorial Preface: Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems I: Citizen and Volunteers
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(2):i–ix.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.

    @article{reuter_guest_2015-1,
    title = {Guest {Editorial} {Preface}: {Special} {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {I}: {Citizen} and {Volunteers}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuter_editorial-specialissue-hci-criticalsystems-i.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {i--ix},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Michael Ritzkatis, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    Social-QAS: Tailorable Quality Assessment Service for Social Media Content
    Proceedings of the International Symposium on End-User Development (IS-EUD). Lecture Notes in Computer Science . doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_11
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    More than 3 billion people use the Internet, many of whom also use social media services such as the social network Facebook with about 1.35 billion active users monthly or the microblogging platform Twitter numbering approximately 284 million active users monthly. This paper researches how a tailorable quality assessment service can assist the use of citizen-generated content from social media. In particular, we want to study how users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately. A presentation of related work is followed by an empirical study on the use of social media in the field of emergency management, focusing on situation assessment practices by the emergency services. Based on this, we present the tailorable quality assessment service (QAS) for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an existing application for both volunteers and the emergency services.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social-qas_2015,
    title = {Social-{QAS}: {Tailorable} {Quality} {Assessment} {Service} for {Social} {Media} {Content}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-18425-8_11},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-18425-8_11},
    abstract = {More than 3 billion people use the Internet, many of whom also use social media services such as the social network Facebook with about 1.35 billion active users monthly or the microblogging platform Twitter numbering approximately 284 million active users monthly. This paper researches how a tailorable quality assessment service can assist the use of citizen-generated content from social media. In particular, we want to study how users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately. A presentation of related work is followed by an empirical study on the use of social media in the field of emergency management, focusing on situation assessment practices by the emergency services. Based on this, we present the tailorable quality assessment service (QAS) for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an existing application for both volunteers and the emergency services.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Symposium} on {End}-{User} {Development} ({IS}-{EUD}). {Lecture} {Notes} in {Computer} {Science}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Ritzkatis, Michael and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {156--170},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Therese Friberg, Sylvia PratzlerWanczura, Alexis Gizikis (2015)
    Social Media and Emergency Services? Interview Study on Current and Potential Use in 7 European Countries
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;7(2):36–58. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015040103
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies. Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service’s participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.

    @article{reuter_social_2015,
    title = {Social {Media} and {Emergency} {Services}? {Interview} {Study} on {Current} and {Potential} {Use} in 7 {European} {Countries}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_reuteretal_socialmediaemergencyservices-interview-study_ijiscram.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2015040103},
    abstract = {Social media is much just used for private as well as business purposes, obviously, also during emergencies. Emergency services are often confronted with the amount of information from social media and might consider using them – or not using them. This article highlights the perception of emergency services on social media during emergencies. Within their European research project EMERGENT, the authors therefore conducted an interview study with emergency service staff (N=11) from seven European countries and eight different cities. Their results highlight the current and potential use of social media, the emergency service's participation in research on social media as well as current challenges, benefits and future plans.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Friberg, Therese and Pratzler-Wanczura, Sylvia and Gizikis, Alexis},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {36--58},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Stefan Geisler (2015)
    Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems I: Citizen and Volunteers – International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)
    IGI Global.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.

    @book{reuter_special_2015,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {I}: {Citizen} and {Volunteers} - {International} {Journal} of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({IJISCRAM})},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ijiscram-specialissue_hci-criticalsystems-i.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for citizen and volunteers in emergencies.},
    number = {2},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Geisler, Stefan},
    year = {2015},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2015)
    Special Issue on Human Computer Interaction in Critical Systems II: Authorities and Industry – International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)
    IGI Global.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.

    @book{reuter_special_2015-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Human} {Computer} {Interaction} in {Critical} {Systems} {II}: {Authorities} and {Industry} - {International} {Journal} of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({IJISCRAM})},
    volume = {7},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2015/2015_ijiscram-specialissue_hci-criticalsystems-ii.pdf},
    abstract = {Human computer interaction in security and time-critical systems is an interdisciplinary challenge at the seams of human factors, engineering, information systems and computer science. Application fields include control systems, critical infrastructures, vehicle and traffic management, production technology, business continuity management, medical technology, crisis management and civil protection. Nowadays in many areas mobile and ubiquitous computing as well as social media and collaborative technologies also plays an important role. The specific challenges require the discussion and development of new methods and approaches in order to design information systems. These are going to be addressed in this special issue with a particular focus on technologies for critical practices for authorities and industry.},
    number = {3},
    publisher = {IGI Global},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    note = {Publication Title: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    XHELP: Design of a Cross-Platform Social-Media Application to Support Volunteer Moderators in Disasters
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702171
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with „digital volunteers“ such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application „XHELP“, which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.

    @inproceedings{reuter_xhelp_2015,
    address = {Seoul, Korea},
    title = {{XHELP}: {Design} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Social}-{Media} {Application} to {Support} {Volunteer} {Moderators} in {Disasters}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterLudwigKaufholdPipek_XHELP_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2702123.2702171},
    abstract = {Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with "digital volunteers" such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application "XHELP", which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A*, Ranking-WKWI-A, AuswahlKaufhold},
    pages = {4093--4102},
    }

    2014

  • Reynold Greenlaw, Andrew Muddiman, Therese Friberg, Matthias Moi, Massimo Cristaldi, Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter (2014)
    The EmerGent project: Emergency Management in Social Media Generation – Dealing with Big Data from Social Media Data Stream
    Workshop on Big Data, Intelligence Management and Analytics Workshop. 7th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC) London, United Kingdom. doi:10.1109/UCC.2014.111
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This paper describes EmerGent which is a new EU FP7 project currently engaging with users, gathering requirements and writing initial technical specifications and deals with the impact of social media in emergency management. This paper describes the overall objectives of the project and the plans to create an online big data semantic store of social media will be outlined.

    @inproceedings{greenlaw_emergent_2014,
    address = {London, United Kingdom},
    title = {The {EmerGent} project: {Emergency} {Management} in {Social} {Media} {Generation} – {Dealing} with {Big} {Data} from {Social} {Media} {Data} {Stream}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_emergentbigdata_ucc.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/UCC.2014.111},
    abstract = {This paper describes EmerGent which is a new EU FP7 project currently engaging with users, gathering requirements and writing initial technical specifications and deals with the impact of social media in emergency management. This paper describes the overall objectives of the project and the plans to create an online big data semantic store of social media will be outlined.},
    booktitle = {Workshop on {Big} {Data}, {Intelligence} {Management} and {Analytics} {Workshop}. 7th {IEEE}/{ACM} {International} {Conference} on {Utility} and {Cloud} {Computing} ({UCC})},
    author = {Greenlaw, Reynold and Muddiman, Andrew and Friberg, Therese and Moi, Matthias and Cristaldi, Massimo and Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {687--689},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Vernetzte Selbsthilfe in Sozialen Medien am Beispiel des Hochwassers 2013 / Linked Self-Help in Social Media using the example of the Floods 2013 in Germany
    i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien ;13(1):20–28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @article{kaufhold_vernetzte_2014,
    title = {Vernetzte {Selbsthilfe} in {Sozialen} {Medien} am {Beispiel} des {Hochwassers} 2013 / {Linked} {Self}-{Help} in {Social} {Media} using the example of the {Floods} 2013 in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_kaufholdreuter_vernetzteselbsthilfehochwasser_icom.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004},
    abstract = {Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {20--28},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis, Thomas Ludwig (2014)
    Entwicklung eines SOA-basierten und anpassbaren Bewertungsdienstes für Inhalte aus sozialen Medien
    Informatik 2014 – Big Data – Komplexität meistern Stuttgart, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Beitrag soll aufzeigen, wie ein anpassbarer Bewertungsdienst die Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien unterstützen kann. Dabei soll insbesondere geklärt werden, wie dieser gestaltet werden kann und wie Nutzer die Qualitätskriterien angemessen artikulieren können. Nach einer Darstellung von Grundlagen und verwandten Arbeiten wird anhand einer empirischen Vorstudie der Umgang von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit bürgergenerierten Informationen betrachtet. Basierend auf den dort gewonnen Erkenntnissen wurde ein service-orientierter Bewertungsdienst entwickelt und in eine Anwendung integriert, welche so den Zugang zu bürgergenerierten Informationen aus verschiedenen sozialen Medien inklusive einer anpassbaren Qualitätsbewertung ermöglicht. Eine abschließende Evaluation illustriert deren mögliche Anwendung in der Praxis.

    @inproceedings{reuter_entwicklung_2014,
    address = {Stuttgart, Germany},
    title = {Entwicklung eines {SOA}-basierten und anpassbaren {Bewertungsdienstes} für {Inhalte} aus sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_reuterritzkatisludwig-soabewertungsozialemedien_inf.pdf},
    abstract = {Dieser Beitrag soll aufzeigen, wie ein anpassbarer Bewertungsdienst die Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien unterstützen kann. Dabei soll insbesondere geklärt werden, wie dieser gestaltet werden kann und wie Nutzer die Qualitätskriterien angemessen artikulieren können. Nach einer Darstellung von Grundlagen und verwandten Arbeiten wird anhand einer empirischen Vorstudie der Umgang von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit bürgergenerierten Informationen betrachtet. Basierend auf den dort gewonnen Erkenntnissen wurde ein service-orientierter Bewertungsdienst entwickelt und in eine Anwendung integriert, welche so den Zugang zu bürgergenerierten Informationen aus verschiedenen sozialen Medien inklusive einer anpassbaren Qualitätsbewertung ermöglicht. Eine abschließende Evaluation illustriert deren mögliche Anwendung in der Praxis.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2014 - {Big} {Data} - {Komplexität} meistern},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Plöderereder, E. and Grunske, L. and Schneider, E. and Ull, D.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, UsableSec},
    pages = {977--988},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis (2014)
    Adaptierbare Bewertung bürgergenerierter Inhalte aus sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Interaktiv unterwegs – Freiräume gestalten München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zwei Drittel aller Internetnutzer in Deutschland nutzen soziale Medien. Neben der Kommunikation mit eigenen Kontakten werden dort auch vermehrt Fotos, Filme und Inhalte ganz bewusst öffentlich geteilt. Vergangene Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa im Juni 2013, haben gezeigt, dass diese alltäglichen Verhaltensweisen ebenso in Ausnahmesituationen fortgeführt werden und bürgergenierte Inhalte auch dann beispielsweise über Facebook und Twitter verbreitet werden. Diese werden in Teilen von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie der Polizei und Feuerwehr, ausgewertet und für die Lagebeurteilung genutzt. Dieser Beitrag stellt, basierend auf einer Analyse verwandter Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte und die Bedingungen für deren Integration in die Lagebeurteilung durch BOS dar. Die hieraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in Anforderungen an einen adaptierbaren Bewertungsmechanismus für bürgergenerierte Inhalte aus sozialen Medien.

    @inproceedings{reuter_adaptierbare_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Adaptierbare {Bewertung} bürgergenerierter {Inhalte} aus sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/7536/Reuter_Ritzkatis_2014.pdf},
    abstract = {Zwei Drittel aller Internetnutzer in Deutschland nutzen soziale Medien. Neben der Kommunikation mit eigenen Kontakten werden dort auch vermehrt Fotos, Filme und Inhalte ganz bewusst öffentlich geteilt. Vergangene Ereignisse, wie das Hochwasser in Mitteleuropa im Juni 2013, haben gezeigt, dass diese alltäglichen Verhaltensweisen ebenso in Ausnahmesituationen fortgeführt werden und bürgergenierte Inhalte auch dann beispielsweise über Facebook und Twitter verbreitet werden. Diese werden in Teilen von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie der Polizei und Feuerwehr, ausgewertet und für die Lagebeurteilung genutzt. Dieser Beitrag stellt, basierend auf einer Analyse verwandter Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Nutzung bürgergenerierter Inhalte und die Bedingungen für deren Integration in die Lagebeurteilung durch BOS dar. Die hieraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse münden in Anforderungen an einen adaptierbaren Bewertungsmechanismus für bürgergenerierte Inhalte aus sozialen Medien.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Interaktiv} unterwegs – {Freiräume} gestalten},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {115--124},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Simon Scholl (2014)
    Technical Limitations for Designing Applications for Social Media
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media content is used in various applications for businesses, organizations and citizens. However, there are technical limitations for analyzing content from social media; these include the way how data can be gained and which safety regulations as well as query limitations have to be considered. They are of specific importance when designing applications for time critical scenarios, such as crisis management. This paper analyzes these limitations (in June 2014) for the most important social media. The selection of social media is based on the Monthly Active Users (MAU), which counts unique users over 30 days. Besides the identification of various limitations, this paper outlines ap proaches to access the data and summarizes design considerations.

    @inproceedings{reuter_technical_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Technical {Limitations} for {Designing} {Applications} for {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2014/2014_ReuterScholl_TechnicalLimitationsSocialMedia_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Social media content is used in various applications for businesses, organizations and citizens. However, there are technical limitations for analyzing content from social media; these include the way how data can be gained and which safety regulations as well as query limitations have to be considered. They are of specific importance when designing applications for time critical scenarios, such as crisis management. This paper analyzes these limitations (in June 2014) for the most important social media. The selection of social media is based on the Monthly Active Users (MAU), which counts unique users over 30 days. Besides the identification of various limitations, this paper outlines ap proaches to access the data and summarizes design considerations.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Koch, M. and Butz, A. and Schlichter, J.},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {SocialMedia, Student, Infrastructure},
    pages = {131--140},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2014)
    Emergent Collaboration Infrastructures: Technology Design for Inter-Organizational Crisis Management (Ph.D. Thesis)
    University of Siegen, Institute for Information Systems, Germany: Springer Gabler. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-08586-5
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Using the domain of crisis management, Christian Reuter explores challenges and opportunities for technology design in emergent environments. He therefore empirically analyzes collaborative work in inter-organizational crisis – such as the police, fire departments, energy network operators and citizens – in order to identify collaboration practices that reveal work infrastructure limitations. He also designs, implements and evaluates novel concepts and ICT artifacts towards the support of emergent collaboration. Besides the discovery of potential organizational effects on the ability to deal with emergence he presents methodological implications for technology design.

    @book{reuter_emergent_2014,
    address = {University of Siegen, Institute for Information Systems, Germany},
    title = {Emergent {Collaboration} {Infrastructures}: {Technology} {Design} for {Inter}-{Organizational} {Crisis} {Management} ({Ph}.{D}. {Thesis})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-08585-8},
    url = {http://www.springer.com/springer+gabler/bwl/wirtschaftsinformatik/book/978-3-658-08585-8},
    abstract = {Using the domain of crisis management, Christian Reuter explores challenges and opportunities for technology design in emergent environments. He therefore empirically analyzes collaborative work in inter-organizational crisis – such as the police, fire departments, energy network operators and citizens – in order to identify collaboration practices that reveal work infrastructure limitations. He also designs, implements and evaluates novel concepts and ICT artifacts towards the support of emergent collaboration. Besides the discovery of potential organizational effects on the ability to deal with emergence he presents methodological implications for technology design.},
    publisher = {Springer Gabler},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-08586-5},
    note = {Backup Publisher: University of Siegen},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Selected, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, UsableSec, Infrastructure, AuswahlUsableSec, Dissertation},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek, Michael Herczeg, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Johannes Sautter (2014)
    Proceedings des Workshops „Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing in Krisensituationen“
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing spielen auch in Krisensituationen eine große Rolle. Durch die größere Verbreitung mobiler und ubiquitärer Technologien sowie die zunehmende Durchdringung sozialer und kooperativer Medien im Alltag haben sich auch im Bereich des Krisenmanagements und der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung neue Möglichkeiten und Potenziale, aber auch Problembereiche entwickelt, die besonderer Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Neue Ansätze und Prototypen adressieren Interaktionen und Kooperationen innerhalb und zwischen klassischen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), aber zunehmend auch die Einbeziehung der von der Krise betroffenen Akteure aus den Bereichen der Industrie und der Bürger, die eine Rolle als aktive Krisenmanager wahrnehmen und BOS unterstützen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_proceedings_2014,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Proceedings des {Workshops} "{Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion} und {Social} {Computing} in {Krisensituationen}"},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2014/2014_Reuteretal_Eds_KrisenMCI_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und Social Computing spielen auch in Krisensituationen eine große Rolle. Durch die größere Verbreitung mobiler und ubiquitärer Technologien sowie die zunehmende Durchdringung sozialer und kooperativer Medien im Alltag haben sich auch im Bereich des Krisenmanagements und der zivilen Sicherheitsforschung neue Möglichkeiten und Potenziale, aber auch Problembereiche entwickelt, die besonderer Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Neue Ansätze und Prototypen adressieren Interaktionen und Kooperationen innerhalb und zwischen klassischen Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), aber zunehmend auch die Einbeziehung der von der Krise betroffenen Akteure aus den Bereichen der Industrie und der Bürger, die eine Rolle als aktive Krisenmanager wahrnehmen und BOS unterstützen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar and Herczeg, Michael and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Sautter, Johannes},
    editor = {Koch, Michael and Butz, Andreas and Schlichter, Johann},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {99--140},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2014)
    Emergent Collaboration Infrastructures: Technology Design for Inter-Organizational Crisis Management (Ph.D. Thesis)
    University of Siegen, Institute for Information Systems, Germany: Universitätsbibliothek Siegen.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The complexity and interconnectedness of current working environments encourages organizations, businesses and individuals to collaborate beyond spatial, temporal as well as organizational boundaries. These collaborations are potentially supported by information and communication technology (ICT) among mobile and ubiquitous systems. The academic field Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is primarily recognized for focusing on ICT support for collaboration practices as opposed to the computerizing of formal procedures. ICT, in this view, needs to reflect the dynamic nature of cooperation and collaboration. The notion emergence as coined by Lewes (1875) and interpreted by Goldstein (1999) refers to dynamic contexts that cannot be anticipated in their full extent before they actually occur. Emergent collaboration refers to the need for spontaneous collaboration in novel and changing structures and occurs in application fields such as inter-organizational crisis and emergency management, which by definition contain the unforeseeable. This dissertation contributes to research into infrastructures for emergent collaboration. Using the example of crisis management, it addresses (1) emergent collaboration practices and how they reveal work infrastructure limitations, (2) novel concepts and artifacts to support emergent collaboration, (3) their effects on the ability to deal with emergent situations and (4) methodological implications for technology design for emergent collaboration infrastructures in inter-organizational settings. Design case studies (Wulf et al., 2011), inspired by action research (Lewin, 1958) and following Hevner and Chatterjee’s suggestion (2010) to integrate action research with design research, are applied as a practice oriented research method. They contain three phases: an empirical analysis of the practices in the field, the development of innovative ICT artifacts with continuous participation of end-users related to the empirical findings and the evaluation of their appropriation (Pipek, 2005) in practice. In the case reported here, the empirical study on emergent collaboration by police and fire services, aid agencies, energy network operators and citizens in emergencies in two counties in Germany outlined the importance of improvisation work in situation assessment as well as mobile collaboration and reporting practices. The ICT design aimed towards the support of these emergent practices, illustrated by various concepts and prototypes. They comprise (1) an inter-organizational social network for emergency management (SiRena), (2) an inter-organizational situation assessment client (ISAC) aswell as mobile applications for (3) the ad hoc participation in mobile collaboration (MoCo) and (4) the articulation of information needs in mobile reporting (MoRep). Based on the empirical, technical and practical findings, the subsequent analysis uses the concept of infrastructuring (Pipek & Wulf, 2009), the integrated perspective on the design and use of information systems, and derives implications for emergent collaboration infrastructures, which contribute overall to the academic fields CSCW, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Information Systems (IS).

    @book{reuter_emergent_2014-1,
    address = {University of Siegen, Institute for Information Systems, Germany},
    title = {Emergent {Collaboration} {Infrastructures}: {Technology} {Design} for {Inter}-{Organizational} {Crisis} {Management} ({Ph}.{D}. {Thesis})},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.25819/ubsi/10370},
    abstract = {The complexity and interconnectedness of current working environments encourages organizations, businesses and individuals to collaborate beyond spatial, temporal as well as organizational boundaries. These collaborations are potentially supported by information and communication technology (ICT) among mobile and ubiquitous systems. The academic field Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is primarily recognized for focusing on ICT support for collaboration practices as opposed to the computerizing of formal procedures. ICT, in this view, needs to reflect the dynamic nature of cooperation and collaboration. The notion emergence as coined by Lewes (1875) and interpreted by Goldstein (1999) refers to dynamic contexts that cannot be anticipated in their full extent before they actually occur. Emergent collaboration refers to the need for spontaneous collaboration in novel and changing structures and occurs in application fields such as inter-organizational crisis and emergency management, which by definition contain the unforeseeable.
    This dissertation contributes to research into infrastructures for emergent collaboration. Using the example of crisis management, it addresses (1) emergent collaboration practices and how they reveal work infrastructure limitations, (2) novel concepts and artifacts to support emergent collaboration, (3) their effects on the ability to deal with emergent situations and (4) methodological implications for technology design for emergent collaboration infrastructures in inter-organizational settings.
    Design case studies (Wulf et al., 2011), inspired by action research (Lewin, 1958) and following Hevner and Chatterjee’s suggestion (2010) to integrate action research with design research, are applied as a practice oriented research method. They contain three phases: an empirical analysis of the practices in the field, the development of innovative ICT artifacts with continuous participation of end-users related to the empirical findings and the evaluation of their appropriation (Pipek, 2005) in practice. In the case reported here, the empirical study on emergent collaboration by police and fire services, aid agencies, energy network operators and citizens in emergencies in two counties in Germany outlined the importance of improvisation work in situation assessment as well as mobile collaboration and reporting practices. The ICT design aimed towards the support of these emergent practices, illustrated by various concepts and prototypes. They comprise (1) an inter-organizational social network for emergency management (SiRena), (2) an inter-organizational situation assessment client (ISAC) aswell as mobile applications for (3) the ad hoc participation in mobile collaboration (MoCo) and (4) the articulation of information needs in mobile reporting (MoRep).
    Based on the empirical, technical and practical findings, the subsequent analysis uses the concept of infrastructuring (Pipek \& Wulf, 2009), the integrated perspective on the design and use of information systems, and derives implications for emergent collaboration infrastructures, which contribute overall to the academic fields CSCW, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Information Systems (IS).},
    publisher = {Universitätsbibliothek Siegen},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Dissertation},
    }

    2013

  • Désirée Christofzik, Christian Reuter (2013)
    The Aggregation of Information Qualities in Collaborative Software
    International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing (IJEV) ;5(3):257–271.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Collaborative software supports teams involved in a common task in generating and sharing information over geographic distances. Such software is used in the cooperation between organisations, companies or individuals. The overall quality of the resulting information product depends on the quality of the individual contributions as well as on an underlying consolidation process. We therefore present different ‘composition functions‘ indicating how the qualities of the contributions by single actors (qi) influence the quality of the aggregated information product (Q). Based upon a qualitative empirical study of inter-organizational crisis management in Germany we match use cases with those composition functions and derive implications for the design of collaborative software.

    @article{christofzik_aggregation_2013,
    title = {The {Aggregation} of {Information} {Qualities} in {Collaborative} {Software}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ChristofzikReuter_InformationQualities_IJEV.pdf},
    abstract = {Collaborative software supports teams involved in a common task in generating and sharing information over geographic distances. Such software is used in the cooperation between organisations, companies or individuals. The overall quality of the resulting information product depends on the quality of the individual contributions as well as on an underlying consolidation process. We therefore present different ‘composition functions' indicating how the qualities of the contributions by single actors (qi) influence the quality of the aggregated information product (Q). Based upon a qualitative empirical study of inter-organizational crisis management in Germany we match use cases with those composition functions and derive implications for the design of collaborative software.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing (IJEV)},
    author = {Christofzik, Désirée and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B},
    pages = {257--271},
    }

  • Oliver Heger, Christian Reuter (2013)
    IT-basierte Unterstützung virtueller und realer Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Leipzig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social Media wird zunehmend von Betroffenen und Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen genutzt. In diesem Beitrag werden Studien zu ‚virtuellen‘ und ‚realen‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten dargestellt. Untersucht wurden zum einen ‚virtuelle‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten in Twitter während der Tornadokatastrophe in den USA am 27./28.4.2011 mit besonderem Fokus auf die zeitlichen Verläufe und Nutzergruppen; zum anderen ‚reale‘ Selbsthilfe anhand Interviews mit Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS). Hierauf aufbauend werden Gestaltungsaspekte und Anforderungen für Social Media zur Unterstützung von Krisenhelfern bzw. Selbst- und Nachbarschafts- hilfe und zur Kombination von virtuellen und realen Aktivitäten im Katastrophenmanagement diskutiert.

    @inproceedings{heger_it-basierte_2013,
    address = {Leipzig, Germany},
    title = {{IT}-basierte {Unterstützung} virtueller und realer {Selbsthilfegemeinschaften} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_HegerReuter_IT-Selbsthilfegemeinschaften_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Social Media wird zunehmend von Betroffenen und Selbsthilfegemeinschaften in Katastrophenlagen genutzt. In diesem Beitrag werden Studien zu ‚virtuellen‘ und ‚realen‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten dargestellt. Untersucht wurden zum einen ‚virtuelle‘ Selbsthilfeaktivitäten in Twitter während der Tornadokatastrophe in den USA am 27./28.4.2011 mit besonderem Fokus auf die zeitlichen Verläufe und Nutzergruppen; zum anderen ‚reale‘ Selbsthilfe anhand Interviews mit Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS). Hierauf aufbauend werden Gestaltungsaspekte und Anforderungen für Social Media zur Unterstützung von Krisenhelfern bzw. Selbst- und Nachbarschafts- hilfe und zur Kombination von virtuellen und realen Aktivitäten im Katastrophenmanagement diskutiert.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Heger, Oliver and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Rainer and Franczyk, Bogdan},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1861--1875},
    }

  • Thomas Ludwig, Christian Reuter, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Mobiler Reporting-Mechanismus für örtlich verteilte Einsatzkräfte
    Mensch & Computer 2013: Interaktive Vielfalt Bremen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen eine aktuelle und akkurate Informationsbasis. Einige dieser Informationen, z.B. Wetterinformationen, können über externe Dienste in Leitstellensystemen visualisiert werden. Andere müssen seitens der zuständigen Einheiten vor Ort via Funk gemeldet werden. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie wurden die Kommunikationspraktiken von Polizei und Feuerwehr untersucht. Darauf aufbauend wurde ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen erstellt, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag illustriert, wie zielgerichtete Informationsanfragen unter Berück-sichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Reporting örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.

    @inproceedings{ludwig_mobiler_2013,
    address = {Bremen, Germany},
    title = {Mobiler {Reporting}-{Mechanismus} für örtlich verteilte {Einsatzkräfte}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_LudwigReuterPipek_MobileReporting_MenschComputer.pdf},
    abstract = {Die im Katastrophenschutz beteiligten Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) benötigen für Entscheidungen eine aktuelle und akkurate Informationsbasis. Einige dieser Informationen, z.B. Wetterinformationen, können über externe Dienste in Leitstellensystemen visualisiert werden. Andere müssen seitens der zuständigen Einheiten vor Ort via Funk gemeldet werden. Unsere Design-Fallstudie untersucht interaktive Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten dieser Reporting-Prozesse: In einer qualitativen empirischen Studie wurden die Kommunikationspraktiken von Polizei und Feuerwehr untersucht. Darauf aufbauend wurde ein Konzept zur semi-strukturierten Artikulation von Informationsbedarfen erstellt, welches als mobile Android Applikation implementiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Unser Beitrag illustriert, wie zielgerichtete Informationsanfragen unter Berück-sichtigung angemessener Metadaten das Reporting örtlich verteilter Einsatzkräfte unterstützen können.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2013: {Interaktive} {Vielfalt}},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Ludwig, Thomas and Reuter, Christian and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Boll, Susanne and Maaß, Susanne and Malaka, Rainer},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, UsableSec},
    pages = {317--320},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2013)
    Combining Real and Virtual Volunteers through Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Baden-Baden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.

    @inproceedings{reuter_combining_2013,
    address = {Baden-Baden, Germany},
    title = {Combining {Real} and {Virtual} {Volunteers} through {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterHegerPipek_RealVirtualVolunteersSocialMedia_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {Recent studies have called attention to the improvement of “collaborative resilience” by fostering the collaboration potentials of public and private stakeholders during disasters. With our research we consider real and virtual volunteers in order to detect conditions for cooperation among those citizen groups through social media. Therefore we analysed the usage of Twitter during a tornado crisis to look for role patterns and aspects that helped volunteer groups in the virtual to emerge, and matched the data with an interview study on experiences, attitudes, concerns and potentials professional emergency services recounted in the emergence of volunteer groups in the real. While virtual groups seem to easily form and collaborate, the engagement of real volunteers is decreasing according to the perception of professionals. We discuss the dynamics in both tendencies and suggest design implications (use of existing social networks, promotion and awareness, connection among volunteers, connection to emergency services and systems) to support both types of volunteer groups, which lead to a software prototype.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Comes, T. and Fiedrich, F. and Fortier, S. and Geldermann, J. and Müller, Tim},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Selected, SocialMedia, Student},
    pages = {780--790},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2013)
    Anforderungen und technische Konzepte der Krisenkommunikation bei Stromausfall
    Informatik 2013 – Informatik angepasst an Mensch, Organisation und Umwelt Koblenz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Falle von Stromausfällen kommt der Kommunikation von Stromnetzbetreibern bzw. Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit der Bevölkerung eine besondere Bedeutung zu, da durch strombezogene Ausfälle vieler Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen die klassischen Kommunikationsmedien oftmals nicht in ihrer Gänze genutzt werden können. In diesem Beitrag werden technische Alternativkonzepte zur Unterstützung der Krisenkommunikation bei Ausfall der Stromversorgung untersucht. Hierzu werden zuerst die Wahrnehmung von Stromausfällen durch Bürger und deren Informationsbedarfe dargestellt und anschließend Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen sowie deren Verfügbarkeit in verschiedenen Stromausfallszenarien analysiert. Hierauf aufbauend wird das Konzept einer Smartphone-Applikation vorgestellt, welches die Zeit zwischen Eintreten des Stromausfalls und einer möglichen oder zeitweisen Überlastung des Mobilfunknetzes adressiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Ziel war es, Erkenntnisse über mögliche mobilfunkbasierte Unterstützungskonzepte zu gewinnen und Design-Vorschläge zur Umsetzung solcher Konzepte zu geben.

    @inproceedings{reuter_anforderungen_2013,
    address = {Koblenz, Germany},
    title = {Anforderungen und technische {Konzepte} der {Krisenkommunikation} bei {Stromausfall}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterLudwig_KrisenkommunikationStromausfall_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Falle von Stromausfällen kommt der Kommunikation von Stromnetzbetreibern bzw. Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) mit der Bevölkerung eine besondere Bedeutung zu, da durch strombezogene Ausfälle vieler Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen die klassischen Kommunikationsmedien oftmals nicht in ihrer Gänze genutzt werden können. In diesem Beitrag werden technische Alternativkonzepte zur Unterstützung der Krisenkommunikation bei Ausfall der Stromversorgung untersucht. Hierzu werden zuerst die Wahrnehmung von Stromausfällen durch Bürger und deren Informationsbedarfe dargestellt und anschließend Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen sowie deren Verfügbarkeit in verschiedenen Stromausfallszenarien analysiert. Hierauf aufbauend wird das Konzept einer Smartphone-Applikation vorgestellt, welches die Zeit zwischen Eintreten des Stromausfalls und einer möglichen oder zeitweisen Überlastung des Mobilfunknetzes adressiert und mit potentiellen Nutzern evaluiert wurde. Ziel war es, Erkenntnisse über mögliche mobilfunkbasierte Unterstützungskonzepte zu gewinnen und Design-Vorschläge zur Umsetzung solcher Konzepte zu geben.},
    booktitle = {Informatik 2013 - {Informatik} angepasst an {Mensch}, {Organisation} und {Umwelt}},
    publisher = {GI-Edition-Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Hornbach, Matthias},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Infrastructure},
    pages = {1604--1618},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Michael Ritzkatis (2013)
    Unterstützung mobiler Geo-Kollaboration zur Lageeinschätzung von Feuerwehr und Polizei
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Leipzig, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Aufgrund komplexer und dringlicher Aufgaben steht die Zusammenarbeit über örtliche und organisationale Grenzen hinweg bei Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie Feuerwehr und Polizei, an der Tagesordnung. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu untersuchen, wie die Kollaboration von Einsatzkräften vor Ort und jenen in der Leitstelle durch mobile Geokollaborationssysteme unterstützt werden kann. Nach einer Darstellung verwandter Arbeiten werden anhand einer qualitativen empirischen Studie die Informations- und Kommunikationspraktiken mobiler Einsatzkräfte vorgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend folgt die Konzeptionierung und Umsetzung eines mobilen Geokolla- borationssystems, welches an ein bestehendes Krisenmanagementsystem und Geoinformationssystem (GIS) angebunden ist und als Android-App realisiert wurde. Abschließend werden die Evaluationsergebnisse dieses Systems im Anwendungsfeld vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_unterstutzung_2013,
    address = {Leipzig, Germany},
    title = {Unterstützung mobiler {Geo}-{Kollaboration} zur {Lageeinschätzung} von {Feuerwehr} und {Polizei}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2013/2013_ReuterRitzkatis_MobileGeoKollaboration_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {Aufgrund komplexer und dringlicher Aufgaben steht die Zusammenarbeit über örtliche und organisationale Grenzen hinweg bei Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS), wie Feuerwehr und Polizei, an der Tagesordnung. Ziel dieses Beitrags ist es zu untersuchen, wie die Kollaboration von Einsatzkräften vor Ort und jenen in der Leitstelle durch mobile Geokollaborationssysteme unterstützt werden kann. Nach einer Darstellung verwandter Arbeiten werden anhand einer qualitativen empirischen Studie die Informations- und Kommunikationspraktiken mobiler Einsatzkräfte vorgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend folgt die Konzeptionierung und Umsetzung eines mobilen Geokolla- borationssystems, welches an ein bestehendes Krisenmanagementsystem und Geoinformationssystem (GIS) angebunden ist und als Android-App realisiert wurde. Abschließend werden die Evaluationsergebnisse dieses Systems im Anwendungsfeld vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ritzkatis, Michael},
    editor = {Alt, Rainer and Franczyk, Bogdan},
    year = {2013},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, UsableSec, Ranking-WKWI-A},
    pages = {1877--1891},
    }

    2012

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Crisis Management 2.0: Towards a Systematization of Social Software Use in Crisis Situations
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;4(1):1–16. doi:10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software‘ we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.

    @article{reuter_crisis_2012,
    title = {Crisis {Management} 2.0: {Towards} a {Systematization} of {Social} {Software} {Use} in {Crisis} {Situations}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterMarxPipek_CrisisManagement20-SystematizationSocialSoftware_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/jiscrm.2012010101},
    abstract = {The contribution of this paper is to propose a systematization of social software use in crisis situations pointing out different types of cooperation and its challenges. We will discuss how the organizational actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, organizations etc.) and the affected citizens are communicating and can communicate and collaborate through the use of social software. After defining the term ‘social software' we will outline the state-of-the-art about its use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we have examined the use of social software in 2010: first during the disruption of air travel caused by the eruptions of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland and second during the mass panic at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. Based on both previous work and case studies we will discuss potentials and weaknesses and propose a classification matrix for different types of cooperation as a step towards a systematization of social software use in crisis situations.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {AuswahlCrisis, Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, Selected, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Oliver Heger, Volkmar Pipek (2012)
    Social Media for Supporting Emergent Groups in Crisis Management
    Proceedings of the CSCW Workshop on Collaboration and Crisis Informatics, International Reports on Socio Informatics Bonn, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The great importance of Social Media for our today’s life causes an increasing use of internet-based platforms in crisis situations. Our work intends to show how so-called Emergent Groups, which arise as a result of crises, consist of private citizens and are not yet institutionalized organizations, can be supported by Social Media. At first, our literature review’s objective is to define the term ‘Emergent Group‘ and to outline their usage of Social Media as well as software-based requirements and suitable concepts to support such groups. A following quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis of a tornado crisis in the USA enables a closer look at especially virtual working Emergent Groups. Building on our literature review and empirical analysis, we discuss implications, derive further requirements and present a concept for the design of appropriate Social Software. We finally conclude by giving some potential research issues.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2012,
    address = {Bonn, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} for {Supporting} {Emergent} {Groups} in {Crisis} {Management}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2012/2012_ReuterHegerPipek_SocialMediaEmergentGroups_CSCW-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {The great importance of Social Media for our today's life causes an increasing use of internet-based platforms in crisis situations. Our work intends to show how so-called Emergent Groups, which arise as a result of crises, consist of private citizens and are not yet institutionalized organizations, can be supported by Social Media. At first, our literature review's objective is to define the term ‘Emergent Group' and to outline their usage of Social Media as well as software-based requirements and suitable concepts to support such groups. A following quantitative and qualitative empirical analysis of a tornado crisis in the USA enables a closer look at especially virtual working Emergent Groups. Building on our literature review and empirical analysis, we discuss implications, derive further requirements and present a concept for the design of appropriate Social Software. We finally conclude by giving some potential research issues.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {CSCW} {Workshop} on {Collaboration} and {Crisis} {Informatics}, {International} {Reports} on {Socio} {Informatics}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Heger, Oliver and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Palen, Leysia and Landgren, Jonas},
    year = {2012},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Student},
    pages = {84--92},
    }

    2011

  • Christian Reuter (2011)
    Motive und Barrieren für Social Software in Organisationen und im Krisenmanagement
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Chemnitz, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Es existieren zahlreiche Motive und Barrieren zur Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen und Organisationen. Ein mögliches Anwendungsszenario ist das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen und Bürgern bei Großschadenslagen. In diesem Beitrag werden Motive und Barrieren der Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen herausgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend werden diese auf das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement übertragen und Besonderheiten herausgearbeitet. Ziel ist die Darstellung möglicher Motive zur Nutzung von Social Software in der interorganisationalen Krisenkooperation.

    @inproceedings{reuter_motive_2011,
    address = {Chemnitz, Germany},
    title = {Motive und {Barrieren} für {Social} {Software} in {Organisationen} und im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_Reuter_MotiveBarrierenSocialSoftware_MuC-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {Es existieren zahlreiche Motive und Barrieren zur Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen und Organisationen. Ein mögliches Anwendungsszenario ist das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement von Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Unternehmen und Bürgern bei Großschadenslagen. In diesem Beitrag werden Motive und Barrieren der Nutzung von Social Software in Unternehmen herausgestellt. Hierauf aufbauend werden diese auf das interorganisationale Krisenmanagement übertragen und Besonderheiten herausgearbeitet. Ziel ist die Darstellung möglicher Motive zur Nutzung von Social Software in der interorganisationalen Krisenkooperation.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Universitätsverlag Chemnitz},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Ritter, Marc},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {87--90},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Social Software as an Infrastructure for Crisis Management – a Case Study about Current Practice and Potential Usage
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Lisbon, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In this paper we will be discussing how the (semi-)professional actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, etc.) and the affected citizens can communicate and collaborate by the use of social software. After the definition of the term ‘social software‘ we will provide the state-of-the-art on current social software use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we examined the social software use in 2010: First during the disruption of air travel due to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, second during the crisis at a stampede at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. We identified weak points and further potentials and tested the validity of the American case study findings from literature for Europe. We will conclude with a concept for using citizens in inter-organizational crisis management with a social software infrastructure and a communication matrix for crisis management.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2011,
    address = {Lisbon, Portugal},
    title = {Social {Software} as an {Infrastructure} for {Crisis} {Management} – a {Case} {Study} about {Current} {Practice} and {Potential} {Usage}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterMarxPipek_SocialSoftwareInfrastructure_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In this paper we will be discussing how the (semi-)professional actors involved in crisis management (police, fire-fighters, etc.) and the affected citizens can communicate and collaborate by the use of social software. After the definition of the term ‘social software' we will provide the state-of-the-art on current social software use in crisis management. Drawing from this, we will present two case studies where we examined the social software use in 2010: First during the disruption of air travel due to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, second during the crisis at a stampede at the Love Parade music festival in Germany. We identified weak points and further potentials and tested the validity of the American case study findings from literature for Europe. We will conclude with a concept for using citizens in inter-organizational crisis management with a social software infrastructure and a communication matrix for crisis management.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Cooperation, Crisis, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-RSBE, Infrastructure},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Alexandra Marx, Volkmar Pipek (2011)
    Desaster 2.0: Einbeziehung von Bürgern in das Krisenmanagement
    Mensch & Computer 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen München, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In dieser Arbeit soll untersucht werden, wie die im Krisenmanagement beteiligten Akteure (wie Polizei, Feuerwehr, Hilfsorganisationen, Infrastrukturbetreiber) und die betroffenen Bürger mittels Social Software kommunizieren und kollaborieren können. Anhand unserer Literaturstudie stellen wir einen Überblick über vergangene Forschung in diesem Bereich dar. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere beiden Fallstudien zur Nutzung von Social Software in Krisen: Zum einen während der Flugausfälle im Zuge des Vulkanausbruchs auf Island im April 2010, zum anderen im Zuge des Loveparade-Unglücks am 24.07.2010. Anschließend stellen wir identifizierte Stärken und Schwächen dar und fassen identifizierte Potentiale in einer Klassifikationsmatrix für Social Software im Krisenmanagement zusammen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_desaster_2011,
    address = {München, Germany},
    title = {Desaster 2.0: {Einbeziehung} von {Bürgern} in das {Krisenmanagement}},
    isbn = {978-3-486-71235-3},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2011/2011_ReuterMarxPipek_Desaster20-EinbeziehungBuergerKrisenmanagement_MuC.pdf},
    abstract = {In dieser Arbeit soll untersucht werden, wie die im Krisenmanagement beteiligten Akteure (wie Polizei, Feuerwehr, Hilfsorganisationen, Infrastrukturbetreiber) und die betroffenen Bürger mittels Social Software kommunizieren und kollaborieren können. Anhand unserer Literaturstudie stellen wir einen Überblick über vergangene Forschung in diesem Bereich dar. Hierauf aufbauend präsentieren wir unsere beiden Fallstudien zur Nutzung von Social Software in Krisen: Zum einen während der Flugausfälle im Zuge des Vulkanausbruchs auf Island im April 2010, zum anderen im Zuge des Loveparade-Unglücks am 24.07.2010. Anschließend stellen wir identifizierte Stärken und Schwächen dar und fassen identifizierte Potentiale in einer Klassifikationsmatrix für Social Software im Krisenmanagement zusammen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2011: Übermedien Übermorgen},
    publisher = {Oldenbourg-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Marx, Alexandra and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian},
    year = {2011},
    keywords = {Cooperation, HCI, Projekt-InfoStrom, SocialMedia, Student, Projekt-RSBE},
    pages = {141--150},
    }

    2009

  • Christian Reuter (2009)
    Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur
    Mensch und Computer – Workshopband Berlin, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Web 2.0 Anwendungen haben in einigen Anwendungsfeldern zur Unterstützung von Kommunikation und Zusammenarbeit in Unternehmen Einzug gehalten. Dieser Beitrag stellt auch mithilfe von Beispielen dar, warum Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur (KII) betrachtet werden kann. Es wird gezeigt, dass das „kritisch“ im Bezug auf die „Infrastruktur“ Fallbezogen verschieden gedeutet werden kann: zum einen kann deren Ausfall betriebliche Prozesse lähmen, zum anderen kann durch dessen Verfügbarkeit eine explizite und ungewünschte Darstellung kritischer Sachverhalte erfolgen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2009,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Software} als kritische {Informations}-{Infrastruktur}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2009/2009_Reuter_SocialSoftwarealsKritischeInfrastruktur_MenschComputer-WS.pdf},
    abstract = {Web 2.0 Anwendungen haben in einigen Anwendungsfeldern zur Unterstützung von Kommunikation und Zusammenarbeit in Unternehmen Einzug gehalten. Dieser Beitrag stellt auch mithilfe von Beispielen dar, warum Social Software als kritische Informations-Infrastruktur (KII) betrachtet werden kann. Es wird gezeigt, dass das „kritisch“ im Bezug auf die „Infrastruktur“ Fallbezogen verschieden gedeutet werden kann: zum einen kann deren Ausfall betriebliche Prozesse lähmen, zum anderen kann durch dessen Verfügbarkeit eine explizite und ungewünschte Darstellung kritischer Sachverhalte erfolgen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Logos-Verlag},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Kain, Saskia and Struve, Doreen and Wandke, Hartmut},
    year = {2009},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Infrastructure, Projekt-RWE},
    pages = {140--144},
    }