Post-Doktorand

Kontakt: +49 (0) 6151 / 1620942 | kaufhold(at)peasec.tu-darmstadt.de

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachbereich Informatik,
Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC)
Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt, Raum 110

DE

Dr. Marc-André Kaufhold ist Post-Doktorand am Lehrstuhl Wissenschaft und Technik für Frieden und Sicherheit (PEASEC) im Fachbereich Informatik der Technischen Universität Darmstadt. Er ist Projektmanager in CYWARN (2020-2023, BMBF), Mitarbeiter in der ATHENE-Mission SecUrban (2020-2023, BMBF+HMWK) und assoziiertes Mitglied im LOEWE-Zentrum emergenCITY (2020-2023, HMWK). Seine Forschung fokussiert insbesondere die nutzerzentrierte Konzeption und Evaluation mobiler Anwendungen und sozialer Medien im Kontext der Krisen- und Sicherheitsforschung und umfasst über 80 wissenschaftliche Beiträge in den Bereichen Computerunterstützte Gruppenarbeit, Kriseninformatik, Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion und Wirtschaftsinformatik.

Marc-André Kaufhold studierte Wirtschaftsinformatik (M.Sc.) an der Universität Siegen und war als studentischer Mitarbeiter im Forschungsprojekt InfoStrom (2010-2013, BMBF) tätig. Im Anschluss war er wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter in den Forschungsprojekten EmerGent (2014-2017, BMBF) und KontiKat (2017-2021, BMBF) am dortigen Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik sowie Mitglied der Graduiertenschule Mittelstand. Marc-André Kaufhold war zudem im SFB 1053 MAKI (2013-2021, DFG) der Technischen Universität Darmstadt tätig, bevor er im Juni 2020 seine Dissertation „Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crises“ erfolgreich verteidigt hat (summa cum laude).

EN

Marc-André Kaufhold is a postdoc at the Chair of Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC) in the Department of Computer Science at the Technical University of Darmstadt. He is project manager in CYWARN (2020-2023, BMBF), researcher at the ATHENE mission SecUrban (2020-2023, BMBF+HMWK) and associated member of the LOEWE centre emergenCITY (2020-2023, HMWK). His research focuses on the user-centred design and evaluation of mobile apps and social media in the context of crisis and security research, comprising more than 80 scientific articles in Computer-Supported Collaborative Work, Crisis Informatics, Human-Computer Interaction, and Information Systems.

Marc-André Kaufhold studied Information Systems (M.Sc.) at the University of Siegen and worked as student assistant at the research project InfoStrom (2010-2013, BMBF). Thereafter, he was research associate at the research projects EmerGent (2014-2017, BMBF) and KontiKat (2017-2021, BMBF) at the Institute of Information Systems as well as a member of the Graduate School for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Marc-André Kaufhold also worked in SFB 1053 MAKI (2013-2021, DFG) at the Technical University of Darmstadt before he successfully defended his PhD thesis “Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crises” in June 2020 (summa cum laude).

Publikationen

2022

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2022)
    Crisis Informatics
    In: Zheng Yan: Cambridge Handbook of Cyber Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.

    @incollection{reuter_crisis_2022,
    title = {Crisis {Informatics}},
    abstract = {In summary, crisis informatics has established itself as an important research area in the ever-increasing complexity of the cyber world. Its importance is further amplified by the time-critical constraints of emergencies and disasters. However, crisis informatics will be challenged to evolve quickly to tackle global-scale emergencies, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the increasing risks of natural hazards due to climate change. This chapter seeks to supplement this effort by analyzing interaction, role, information, and perception patterns, which were prevalent in the past 20 years of social media use in crises.},
    booktitle = {Cambridge {Handbook} of {Cyber} {Behavior}},
    publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Yan, Zheng},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Peace, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2022)
    Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
    In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty, Andreas Wenger: Cyber Security Meets Security Policy: Socio-Technological Dynamics, Political Responses. .
    [BibTeX]

    @incollection{haunschild_cultural_2022,
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Fragmentation} on {Social} {Media}: {Interventions} and {Countermeasures} by {Humans} and {Social} {Bots}},
    booktitle = {Cyber {Security} {Meets} {Security} {Policy}: {Socio}-{Technological} {Dynamics}, {Political} {Responses}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Cavelty, Myriam Dunn and Wenger, Andreas},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, Peace},
    }

    2021

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Björn Buchhold, Marcel Keller, Jörg Dallmeyer, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Data Augmentation in Natural Language Processing: A Novel Text Generation Approach for Long and Short Text Classifiers
    2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. In a simulated low data regime additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% are achieved. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1 score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives, we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.

    @techreport{bayer_data_2021,
    title = {Data {Augmentation} in {Natural} {Language} {Processing}: {A} {Novel} {Text} {Generation} {Approach} for {Long} and {Short} {Text} {Classifiers}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.14453},
    abstract = {In many cases of machine learning, research suggests that the development of training data might have a higher relevance than the choice and modelling of classifiers themselves. Thus, data augmentation methods have been developed to improve classifiers by artificially created training data. In NLP, there is the challenge of establishing universal rules for text transformations which provide new linguistic patterns. In this paper, we present and evaluate a text generation method suitable to increase the performance of classifiers for long and short texts. We achieved promising improvements when evaluating short as well as long text tasks with the enhancement by our text generation method. In a simulated low data regime additive accuracy gains of up to 15.53\% are achieved. As the current track of these constructed regimes is not universally applicable, we also show major improvements in several real world low data tasks (up to +4.84 F1 score). Since we are evaluating the method from many perspectives, we also observe situations where the method might not be suitable. We discuss implications and patterns for the successful application of our approach on different types of datasets.},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Buchhold, Björn and Keller, Marcel and Dallmeyer, Jörg and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3447527.3474869
    [BibTeX] [Abstract]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    series = {{MobileHCI} '21 {Adjunct}},
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    doi = {10.1145/3447527.3474869},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2021)
    8. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen: Ausnahmezustand
    Ingolstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{mentler_8_2021,
    address = {Ingolstadt},
    title = {8. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}: {Ausnahmezustand}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/37338},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Design and Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Real-Time Credibility Assessment in Twitter
    30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN2021) Bratislava. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2021,
    address = {Bratislava},
    title = {Design and {Evaluation} of {Deep} {Learning} {Models} for {Real}-{Time} {Credibility} {Assessment} in {Twitter}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdBayerHartungReuter_DeepLearningCredibilityAssessmentTwitter_ICANN.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32},
    abstract = {Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.},
    booktitle = {30th {International} {Conference} on {Artificial} {Neural} {Networks} ({ICANN2021})},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jennifer Fromm, Thea Riebe, Milad Mirbabaie, Philipp Kuehn, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Markus Bayer, Marc Stöttinger, Kaan Eyilmez, Reinhard Möller, Christoph Fuchß, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CYWARN: Strategy and Technology Development for Cross-Platform Cyber Situational Awareness and Actor-Specific Cyber Threat Communication
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_cywarn_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {{CYWARN}: {Strategy} and {Technology} {Development} for {Cross}-{Platform} {Cyber} {Situational} {Awareness} and {Actor}-{Specific} {Cyber} {Threat} {Communication}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Kaufholdetal_CYWARN-CyberSituationalAwareness_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263},
    abstract = {Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Fromm, Jennifer and Riebe, Thea and Mirbabaie, Milad and Kuehn, Philipp and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Bayer, Markus and Stöttinger, Marc and Eyilmez, Kaan and Möller, Reinhard and Fuchß, Christoph and Stieglitz, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tristan Wirth, Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volker Knauthe, Stefan Guthe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CySecAlert: An Alert Generation System for Cyber Security Events Using Open Source Intelligence Data
    Information and Communications Security . doi:10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.

    @inproceedings{riebe_cysecalert_2021,
    title = {{CySecAlert}: {An} {Alert} {Generation} {System} for {Cyber} {Security} {Events} {Using} {Open} {Source} {Intelligence} {Data}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    abstract = {Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.},
    booktitle = {Information and {Communications} {Security}},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Wirth, Tristan and Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Knauthe, Volker and Guthe, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {429--446},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Survey on Data Augmentation for Text Classification
    2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data over regularizing the objective to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation (C1) and a taxonomy for existing works (C2), this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to achieve a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners (C3). Derived from the taxonomy, we divided more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and provide state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising (C4). Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are given (C5).

    @techreport{bayer_survey_2021,
    title = {Survey on {Data} {Augmentation} for {Text} {Classification}},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2107.03158},
    abstract = {Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data over regularizing the objective to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation (C1) and a taxonomy for existing works (C2), this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to achieve a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners (C3). Derived from the taxonomy, we divided more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and provide state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising (C4). Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are given (C5).},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

    2020

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Crisis informatics insights for peace operations
    2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis Informatics – a field combining computing and social science to make visible and support the creative ways in which humans use information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to crises – has made many contributions in the areas of rapid crisis management. Interactive technologies such as social media platforms or emergency apps connect and empower individuals, first responders and volunteers. In a previously published review, we show that for almost 20 years, studies have analyzed ICT in natural and man-made disasters, revealing that ICT enable new modes of communication among authorities and citizens. In this contribution, we relate crisis informatics insights concerning the involvement of citizens to peace operations and community engagement.

    @techreport{haunschild_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis informatics insights for peace operations},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschuldReuterKaufhold_CrisisInformaticsPeaceOperations_TECHPOPS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis Informatics – a field combining computing and social science to make visible and support the creative ways in which humans use information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to crises – has made many contributions in the areas of rapid crisis management. Interactive technologies such as social media platforms or emergency apps connect and empower individuals, first responders and volunteers. In a previously published review, we show that for almost 20 years, studies have analyzed ICT in natural and man-made disasters, revealing that ICT enable new modes of communication among authorities and citizens. In this contribution, we relate crisis informatics insights concerning the involvement of citizens to peace operations and community engagement.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2020)
    7. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.

    @inproceedings{mentler_7_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg, Germany},
    title = {7. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33546},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117},
    abstract = {Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {1--2},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

    2019

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Flow Experience in Software Engineering: Development and Evaluation of Design Options for Eclipse
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In positive psychology, flow is described as a holistic mental condition in which an individual delves into an activity with full concentration. Even in software engineering, the promotion of flow experience fosters effects such as positive affect, improved learning, and higher product loyalty in computer-aided environments. However, from a practice-based perspective it is not obvious how to design ICT to support flow experience. With this paper, we, therefore, contribute concrete design implications, paving the way for a good flow experience in ICT. This paper be-gins by examining the current state of flow research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We then go on to present a study comprising the development and evaluation of design options that aim to support flow in integrated development environments such as Eclipse, one of the most prominent open-source IDEs. The findings reveal practical implications on the use of four flow design options for software engineering and are integrated into a preliminary research framework.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_flow_2019,
    address = {Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden},
    title = {Flow {Experience} in {Software} {Engineering}: {Development} and {Evaluation} of {Design} {Options} for {Eclipse}},
    isbn = {978-1-73363-250-8},
    url = {https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2019_rip/17/},
    abstract = {In positive psychology, flow is described as a holistic mental condition in which an individual delves into an activity with full concentration. Even in software engineering, the promotion of flow experience fosters effects such as positive affect, improved learning, and higher product loyalty in computer-aided environments. However, from a practice-based perspective it is not obvious how to design ICT to support flow experience. With this paper, we, therefore, contribute concrete design implications, paving the way for a good flow experience in ICT. This paper be-gins by examining the current state of flow research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. We then go on to present a study comprising the development and evaluation of design options that aim to support flow in integrated development environments such as Eclipse, one of the most prominent open-source IDEs. The findings reveal practical implications on the use of four flow design options for software engineering and are integrated into a preliminary research framework.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tarun Kumar, Thomas Reinhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Threat Intelligence Application for Cyber Attribution
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.

    @inproceedings{riebe_threat_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Threat {Intelligence} {Application} for {Cyber} {Attribution}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Attribution consists of technical, legal and politically defined processes. However, the interna- tional community has not yet defined processes unilaterally, even though the UN GGE has proposed to address the increase of cyber operations. Taking existing threat exchange stand- ards into account, this paper presents an approach to support efforts for more effective attrib- ution by developing a platform with the common open source threat exchange formats STIX and MEAC. Furthermore, the platform is evaluated in terms of usability.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kumar, Tarun and Reinhold, Thomas and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {56--60},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Larissa Aldehoff, Jürgen Altmann, Johannes Buchmann, Ute Bernhardt, Kai Denker, Dominik Herrmann, Matthias Hollick, Stefan Katzenbeisser, Marc-André Kaufhold, Alfred Nordmann, Thomas Reinhold, Thea Riebe, Annette Ripper, Ingo Ruhmann, Klaus-Peter Saalbach, Niklas Schörnig, Ali Sunyaev, Volker Wulf (2019)
    The Future of IT in Peace and Security
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 405–413. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.

    @incollection{reuter_future_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {The {Future} of {IT} in {Peace} and {Security}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Not only today, but also in the future information technology and the advances in the field of computer science will have a high relevance for peace and security. Naturally, a textbook like this can only cover a selective part of research and a certain point in time. Nonetheless, it can be attempted to identify trends, challenges and venture an outlook into the future. That is exactly what we want to achieve in this chapter: To predict fu-ture developments and try to classify them correctly. These considerations were made both by the editor and the authors involved alike. Therefore, an outlook based on fun-damentals, cyber conflicts and war, cyber peace, cyber arms control, infrastructures as well as social interaction is given.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Aldehoff, Larissa and Altmann, Jürgen and Buchmann, Johannes and Bernhardt, Ute and Denker, Kai and Herrmann, Dominik and Hollick, Matthias and Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Nordmann, Alfred and Reinhold, Thomas and Riebe, Thea and Ripper, Annette and Ruhmann, Ingo and Saalbach, Klaus-Peter and Schörnig, Niklas and Sunyaev, Ali and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_19},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, Peace},
    pages = {405--413},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Cultural Violence and Peace in Social Media
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 361–381. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.

    @incollection{kaufhold_cultural_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Cultural {Violence} and {Peace} in {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media services had an enormous impact on modern culture. They are nowadays widely established in everyday life, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. On the contrary, terrorists may recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots may influence social and political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism and social bots, this exploratory review firstly presents human cultural inter-ventions in social media (e.g. dissemination of fake news and terroristic propaganda) and respective countermeasures (e.g. fake news detection and counter-narratives). Sec-ondly, it discusses automatic cultural interventions realised via social bots (e.g. astro-turfing, misdirection and smoke screening) and countermeasures (e.g. crowdsourcing and social bot detection). Finally, this chapter concludes with a range of cultural inter-ventions and information and communication technology (ICT) in terms of actors and intentions to identify future research potential for supporting situational assessments during conflicts.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_17},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {361--381},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Larissa Aldehoff, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Reinhold (2019)
    Cyberwar zwischen Fiktion und Realität – technologische Möglichkeiten
    In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner, Niklas Schörnig: Cyberwar – die Digitalisierung der Kriegsführung. Springer VS, , 15–38. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.

    @incollection{reuter_cyberwar_2019,
    title = {Cyberwar zwischen {Fiktion} und {Realität} – technologische {Möglichkeiten}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-27713-0},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0_2},
    abstract = {Im Dezember 2017 wurde eine Invasion des deutschen Regierungsnetzwerks entdeckt; dieses vernetzt Bundesministerien und Behörden (vgl. Reinhold 2018a). Die Angreifer nutzten das Intranet der Hochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung und der Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung als Einfallstor. Dieses ist der am wenigsten gesicherte Teil des Systems, da externe Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer auch außerhalb der Einrichtung darauf zugreifen müssen, beispielsweise für Fortbildungen des Auswärtigen Amtes.},
    booktitle = {Cyberwar – die {Digitalisierung} der {Kriegsführung}},
    publisher = {Springer VS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and Aldehoff, Larissa and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reinhold, Thomas},
    editor = {Werkner, Ines-Jacqueline and Schörnig, Niklas},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-27713-0},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {15--38},
    }

  • Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elena Runft, Christian Reuter, Margarita Grinko, Volkmar Pipek (2019)
    Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.

    @inproceedings{langer_counter_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Counter {Narratives} in {Social} {Media}: {An} {Empirical} {Study} on {Combat} and {Prevention} of {Terrorism}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Langeretal_Counternarratives_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Runft, Elena and Reuter, Christian and Grinko, Margarita and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {746--755},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Michael Herczeg, Thomas Ludwig, Jens Pottebaum, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    6. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen – Neue digitale Realitäten
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Nur wenn die technischen (z.B. Zuverlässigkeit) und nutzungs- orientierten Aspekte (z.B. Gebrauchstauglichkeit) angemessen und integriert berücksichtigt werden, können computerbasierte Systeme und vor allem deren Anwendung in komplexen Situati- onen sicher sein. Eine gute Benutzbarkeit ist dabei kein Zusatz, sondern zentraler Bestandteil bei der Verbesserung der System- sicherheit. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen An- wendungsgebieten. Dazu werden Konzepte der Krisenkommuni- kation, der Nutzung sozialer Medien, neuartige Interaktionskon- zepte und Reflektionen zu Forschungsprojekten vorgestellt.

    @inproceedings{reuter_6_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {6. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen} - {Neue} digitale {Realitäten}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25199/133.pdf},
    abstract = {Nur wenn die technischen (z.B. Zuverlässigkeit) und nutzungs- orientierten Aspekte (z.B. Gebrauchstauglichkeit) angemessen und integriert berücksichtigt werden, können computerbasierte Systeme und vor allem deren Anwendung in komplexen Situati- onen sicher sein. Eine gute Benutzbarkeit ist dabei kein Zusatz, sondern zentraler Bestandteil bei der Verbesserung der System- sicherheit. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen An- wendungsgebieten. Dazu werden Konzepte der Krisenkommuni- kation, der Nutzung sozialer Medien, neuartige Interaktionskon- zepte und Reflektionen zu Forschungsprojekten vorgestellt.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Herczeg, Michael and Ludwig, Thomas and Pottebaum, Jens and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {278--280},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2019)
    The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens‘ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change ;148(119724):1–17. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants‘ frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.

    @article{reuter_impact_2019,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Risk} {Cultures}: {Citizens}' {Perception} of {Social} {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} across {Europe}},
    volume = {148},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_ReuterKaufholdSchmidSpielhoferHahne_TheImpactofRiskCultures_TFSC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119724},
    abstract = {Usage of social media during emergencies and respective perceptions vary across countries. Our representative survey of 7,071 citizens in Europe (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) shows differences of current use of social media in emergencies, expectations towards authorities monitoring social media, intensity of perceiving barriers regarding the use as well as variances concerning the (likelihood of future) use of mobile apps. While German and British participants' frequency of use of social media is medium and low, respectively, Italian and Dutch respondents use them relatively frequently. Our comparison of the four countries allows for an interpretation of divergent behavior across countries with respect to risk cultures as well as expanding the respective model to social media contexts. At the same time, our findings stress that across the four European countries participants assessed similar advantages like dissemination of information and barriers like false rumors with respect to use social media during emergencies. Distributed equally across nations, age and gender showed significant relationships with social media usage which, among other findings, suggests being helpful for effective implementation of management structures using new technologies.},
    number = {119724},
    journal = {Technological Forecasting and Social Change},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Amanda Langer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Nina Katharina Kretschmer, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Werte und Wertekonflikte in sozialen Medien für die Vernetzung ungebundener Helfer in Krisensituationen – Ein Value-Sensitive Design Ansatz
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @inproceedings{riebe_werte_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Werte und {Wertekonflikte} in sozialen {Medien} für die {Vernetzung} ungebundener {Helfer} in {Krisensituationen} – {Ein} {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design} {Ansatz}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25150/133-05.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-05},
    abstract = {Bereits während des Hochwassers in Mitteleuropa 2013 und der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab 2015 wurde deutlich, dass freiwillige HelferInnen die Bewältigung von Krisensituationen unterstützen. Durch die vermehrte Koordination der Helfenden, auch unter Ein- satz sozialer Medien, kommt es zunehmend zu Konflikten zwi- schen den teilweise kollidierenden Erwartungshaltungen periodi- sierter Werte der eingebundenen Akteure. Die Entwicklung von Kollaborationswerkzeugen mit Hilfe der Methode des Value-Sen- sitive Designs kann bereits im Vorfeld solche Konflikte aufzeigen und gezielt verhindern oder moderieren. Dazu wurde in einer Fall- studie anhand des Hochwassers 2013 induktiv abgeleitet, welche Werte und Erwartungen die unterschiedlichen Stakeholder haben, und welche Konflikte sich daraus im Hinblick auf die Anforderun- gen ergeben. Diese Studie zeigt insbesondere die Konfliktpotenzi- ale für freiwillige HelferInnen in sozialen Medien in Bezug auf den Schutz der Privatsphäre und vor Diskriminierung auf und leistet damit einen Beitrag für die Konflikt-Optimierung und Akzeptanz- steigerung des Einsatzes sozialer Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Langer, Amanda and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kretschmer, Nina Katharina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, SocialMedia, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {308--318},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Social Media Misuse: Cultural Violence, Peace and Security in Digital Networks
    SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 – Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Technical Peace and Security Research Darmstadt, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2019,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Misuse}: {Cultural} {Violence}, {Peace} and {Security} in {Digital} {Networks}},
    url = {https://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/9164},
    abstract = {Over the last decade, social media established an enormous impact on modern culture not only for everyday life uses, but also during natural and man-made crises and conflicts. For instance, Facebook was part of the Arabic Spring, in which the tool facilitated the communication and interaction between participants of political protests. However, social media is not only used for good purposes and offers potentials for misuse: fake news manipulate public discourses, cyber terrorism aims to recruit new members and disseminate ideologies, and social bots in- fluence economic as well as political processes. Based on the notions of cultural violence and cultural peace as well as the phenomena of fake news, terrorism, and social bots, this paper outlines countermeasures to facilitate cultural peace and security.},
    booktitle = {{SCIENCE} {PEACE} {SECURITY} '19 - {Proceedings} of the {Interdisciplinary} {Conference} on {Technical} {Peace} and {Security} {Research}},
    publisher = {TUprints},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {61--66},
    }

  • Margarita Grinko, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2019)
    Adoption, Use and Diffusion of Crisis Apps in Germany: A Representative Survey
    Mensch und Computer 2019 Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.1145/3340764.3340782
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.

    @inproceedings{grinko_adoption_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {Adoption, {Use} and {Diffusion} of {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}: {A} {Representative} {Survey}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3340782},
    doi = {10.1145/3340764.3340782},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines the potentials and limitations of information and communication technology in crises, disasters, and emergencies. Although ICT plays an increasingly large role in crisis response and management, in-depth studies on crisis apps and similar technology in the context of an emergency have been missing. Based on responses by 1024 participants in Germany, we examine the diffusion, usage, perception and adoption of mobile crisis apps as well as required functions and improvements. We conclude that crisis apps are still a little-known form of disaster ICT, but have potential for enhancing communication, keeping users up to date and providing a more effective crisis management as supplement to other media channels dependent on different underlying infrastructures. However, they should be adaptable to user characteristics, consider privacy, allow communication and offer valuable information to raise awareness of potential disasters without creating an overload. Also, the familiarity with and trust in crisis apps should be addressed to maximize their beneficial impact on crisis communication and management. We discuss further implications as well as directions for future research with larger target groups and specific usage scenarios.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Grinko, Margarita and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Alt, Florian and Bulling, Andreas and Döring, Tanja},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Student, UsableSec, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {263--274},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig (2019)
    Cross-Media Usage of Social Big Data for Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities: Approaches, Development and Challenges of Multi-Platform Social Media Services
    2019.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.

    @techreport{kaufhold_cross-media_2019,
    title = {Cross-{Media} {Usage} of {Social} {Big} {Data} for {Emergency} {Services} and {Volunteer} {Communities}: {Approaches}, {Development} and {Challenges} of {Multi}-{Platform} {Social} {Media} {Services}},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07725.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is ubiquitous and nowadays well- established in our everyday life, but increasingly also before, during or after emergencies. The produced data is spread across several types of social media and can be used by different actors, such as emergency services or volunteer communities. There are already systems available that support the process of gathering, analysing and distributing information through social media. However, dependent on the goal of analysis, the analysis methods and available systems are limited based on technical or business-oriented restrictions. This paper presents the design of a cross-platform Social Media API, which was integrated and evaluated within multiple emergency scenarios. Based on the lessons learned, we outline the core challenges from the practical development and theoretical findings, focusing (1) cross-platform gathering and data management, (2) trustability and information quality, (3) tailorability and adjustable data operations, and (4) queries, performance, and technical development.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Arne Schmidt, Fabienne Seifert, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2019)
    SentiNet: Twitter-basierter Ansatz zur kombinierten Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalyse in Katastrophenlagen
    Mensch und Computer 2019 – Workshopband Hamburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_sentinet_2019,
    address = {Hamburg, Germany},
    title = {{SentiNet}: {Twitter}-basierter {Ansatz} zur kombinierten {Netzwerk}- und {Stimmungsanalyse} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25149/133-04.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2019-ws-133-04},
    abstract = {Das Forschungsfeld Social Media Analytics untersucht Methoden zur Analyse sozialer Medien nicht nur für Bürger und Unternehmen, sondern auch für Einsatzkräfte in Notsituationen. Zur Unterstützung des Situationsbewusstseins in derartigen Lagen werden unter anderem soziale Netzwerkanalysen angewandt, um Handlungen und die Vernetzung von Helfern nachzuvollziehen, sowie Stimmungsanalysen, um Emotionen der nutzergenerierten Inhalte zu extrahieren. Unsere Literaturstudie zeigt allerdings, dass keine technischen Ansätze existieren, die Netzwerk- und Stimmungsanalysen kombinieren. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Design und die Implementierung einer solchen Web- Anwendung auf Basis von Twitter vor, um anschließend Potenziale und Herausforderungen für die Evaluation und Weiterentwicklung des Ansatzes zu diskutieren.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2019 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmidt, Arne and Seifert, Fabienne and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {297--308},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Alexis Gizikis, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank, Margarita Grinko (2019)
    Avoiding Chaotic Use of Social Media before, during, and after Emergencies: Design and Evaluation of Citizens‘ Guidelines
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;27(3):198–213. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12249
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens‘ guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.

    @article{kaufhold_avoiding_2019,
    title = {Avoiding {Chaotic} {Use} of {Social} {Media} before, during, and after {Emergencies}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of {Citizens}' {Guidelines}},
    volume = {27},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGizikisReuterHabdankGrinko_DesignEvaluationCitizenGuidelines_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12249},
    abstract = {Social media have been established in many natural disasters or human‐induced crises and emergencies. Nowadays, authorities, such as emergency services, and citizens engage with social media in different phases of the emergency management cycle. However, as research in crisis informatics highlights, one remaining issue constitutes the chaotic use of social media by citizens during emergencies, which has the potential to increase the complexity of tasks, uncertainty, and pressure for emergency services. To counter these risks, besides implementing supportive technology, social media guidelines may help putting artefact and theoretical contributions into practical use for authorities and citizens. This paper presents the design and evaluation (with 1,024 participants) of citizens' guidelines for using social media before, during, and after emergencies.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Gizikis, Alexis and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias and Grinko, Margarita},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {198--213},
    }

  • Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2019)
    Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) València, Spain.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens‘ perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.

    @inproceedings{spielhofer_social_2019,
    address = {València, Spain},
    title = {Social {Media} {Use} in {Emergencies} of {Citizens} in the {United} {Kingdom}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_Spielhoferetal_SocialMediaCrisesUKSurvey_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies (e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizens' perceptions, and just one has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34\%) have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM Association},
    author = {Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    editor = {Franco, Zeno and González, José J. and Canós, José H.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Margarita Grinko, Christian Reuter, Marén Schorch, Amanda Langer, Sascha Skudelny, Matthias Hollick (2019)
    Potentiale von IKT beim Ausfall kritischer Infrastrukturen: Erwartungen, Informationsgewinnung und Mediennutzung der Zivilbevölkerung in Deutschland
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Siegen, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_potentiale_2019,
    address = {Siegen, Germany},
    title = {Potentiale von {IKT} beim {Ausfall} kritischer {Infrastrukturen}: {Erwartungen}, {Informationsgewinnung} und {Mediennutzung} der {Zivilbevölkerung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2019/2019_KaufholdGrinkoReuterSchorschLangerSkudelnyHollick_InfrastrukturAusfall_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {In der Sicherheits- und Krisenforschung stehen bislang primär Fragen der Vulne-rabilität, Stärkung von Resilienz und Erhaltung bzw. Wiederherstellung kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) im Mittelpunkt; zunehmend wird auch die Bedeutung von Sozialen Medien und Krisen-Apps erkannt. Inwiefern ist die Zivilbevölke-rung in Deutschland aber auf das Eintreten einer Krise tatsächlich vorbereitet? Welche Informations- und Kommunikationstechniken (IKT) werden im Alltag und bei einem potentiellen Infrastrukturausfall genutzt? Unser Beitrag stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Umfrage mit 1024 Teilnehmern in Deutschland vor, die belegen, dass Gefahrenbewusstsein, Vorbereitung, effektives Krisenma-nagement und Verbreitung von Krisen-Apps in Deutschland noch relativ gering sind, während traditionelle Kommunikations- und Informationskanäle sowie in-formelle Informationsnetzwerke bevorzugt werden. Die Ergebnisse stellen wei-terhin die beträchtlichen Unterstützungspotentiale von IKT in derartigen Krisensi-tuationen heraus, die zur Erhöhung des Risikobewusstseins, der Erleichterung des Informationstransfers und der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen Zivilbevölkerung, KRITIS-Betreibern und Behörden und Organisationen mit Si-cherheitsaufgaben (BOS) entscheidend beitragen können.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Grinko, Margarita and Reuter, Christian and Schorch, Marén and Langer, Amanda and Skudelny, Sascha and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, RSF, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1054--1068},
    }

  • Timo Kalle, Marc-André Kaufhold, Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Amr Rizk, Ralf Steinmetz (2019)
    Resilience in Security and Crises through Adaptions and Transitions
    INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft (Workshop-Beiträge), Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Kassel, Germany. doi:10.18420/inf2019_ws60
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, – monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.

    @inproceedings{kalle_resilience_2019,
    address = {Kassel, Germany},
    title = {Resilience in {Security} and {Crises} through {Adaptions} and {Transitions}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/25097/paper12_02.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/inf2019_ws60},
    abstract = {Currently, there is a tremendous number of communication technology and tems in use. Not only in the private user space, but also in business operations and societal areas, they are deeply involved: Ranging from messaging services or navigation over (critical) SCADA systems to whole digital cities and communities. Consequently, the view on communication networks in security and particularly crisis scenarios becomes inevitable. This paper examines the notions of resilience, adaption and transition within communication networks with a specific focus on crises. Based on a structured literature review, the fundamentals of resilience and communication networks are introduced. The paper then discusses the characteristics of (a) evolvability, accessibility, usability and diversity as well as (b) self-organization, -management, -optimization, - monitoring, -healing and -protection for communication network resilience. Finally, it outlines challenges and potentials of communication network resilience based in the use cases of security and crises.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2019: 50 {Jahre} {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik} – {Informatik} für {Gesellschaft} ({Workshop}-{Beiträge}), {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Kalle, Timo and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Rizk, Amr and Steinmetz, Ralf},
    editor = {Draude, C. and Lange, M. and Sick, B.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {571--584},
    }

  • Ansgar Bernardi, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Sebastian Linsner, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    Hybride Dienstleistungen in digitalisierten Kooperationen in der Landwirtschaft
    39. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Fokus; Digitalisierung für landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in kleinstrukturierten Regionen – ein Widerspruch in sich?, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) Vienna, Austria.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Arbeitsteilung und Kooperation sind essentielle Bestandteil von Landwirtschaft, die sich im Laufe der Geschichte stetig weiterentwickelt haben. Nun ermöglicht die voranschreitende Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft erneut Innovationen und neue Arten der Kooperation. Moderne Dienstleistungen – wie optimierte Logistik oder umweltschonende Bewirtschaftung – verbinden zunehmend Maschinenleistungen und Datendienste zu untrennbaren Hybriden Services. Im Zuge dessen werden detaillierte Vereinbarungen bezüglich der bereitzustellenden betrieblichen Daten sowie der Verwendung der während der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte getroffen. Im Rahmen des Projektes HyServ werden Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen entwickelt, welche es den Akteuren erlauben, die Hoheit über die eigenen Daten zu behalten und dennoch kooperative Dienstleistungsverträge zu erstellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden dezentrale Strukturen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch etabliert, welche als Infrastruktur für orchestrierte Micro-Services und Smart Contracts dienen.

    @inproceedings{bernardi_hybride_2019,
    address = {Vienna, Austria},
    title = {Hybride {Dienstleistungen} in digitalisierten {Kooperationen} in der {Landwirtschaft}},
    url = {http://gil-net.de/Publikationen/139_25-30.pdf},
    abstract = {Arbeitsteilung und Kooperation sind essentielle Bestandteil von Landwirtschaft, die sich im Laufe der Geschichte stetig weiterentwickelt haben. Nun ermöglicht die voranschreitende Digitalisierung in der Landwirtschaft erneut Innovationen und neue Arten der Kooperation. Moderne Dienstleistungen – wie optimierte Logistik oder umweltschonende Bewirtschaftung – verbinden zunehmend Maschinenleistungen und Datendienste zu untrennbaren Hybriden Services. Im Zuge dessen werden detaillierte Vereinbarungen bezüglich der bereitzustellenden betrieblichen Daten sowie der Verwendung der während der Dienstleistung erhobenen Messwerte getroffen. Im Rahmen des Projektes HyServ werden Servicekonzepte und Schnittstellen entwickelt, welche es den Akteuren erlauben, die Hoheit über die eigenen Daten zu behalten und dennoch kooperative Dienstleistungsverträge zu erstellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden dezentrale Strukturen mit kryptographisch gesichertem Austausch etabliert, welche als Infrastruktur für orchestrierte Micro-Services und Smart Contracts dienen.},
    booktitle = {39. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft} {Fokus}; {Digitalisierung} für landwirtschaftliche {Betriebe} in kleinstrukturierten {Regionen} – ein {Widerspruch} in sich?, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI})},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Bernardi, Ansgar and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Linsner, Sebastian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, A.},
    year = {2019},
    keywords = {HCI, Infrastructure, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {25--30},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Larissa Aldehoff, Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold (2019)
    IT in Peace, Conflict, and Security Research
    In: Christian Reuter: Information Technology for Peace and Security – IT-Applications and Infrastructures in Conflicts, Crises, War, and Peace. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 11–37. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.

    @incollection{reuter_it_2019,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {{IT} in {Peace}, {Conflict}, and {Security} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-25652-4},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658256517},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology play a crucial role in the context of peace, conflict and security. As information technology (IT) is becoming omnipresent, this includes both the resilience of IT infrastructures e.g. as a target in cases of conflict and the role of IT applications to prevent and manage conflicts, crises and disasters. This chapter is an introduction to IT and its role in war and peace, in conflicts and crises as well as in safety and security. Based on those connections a new field of research has emerged: IT peace research. It is introduced in this chapter which provides an overview of the inter-disciplinary concepts of peace, conflict and security. In addition, the research disciplines computer science and peace and conflict studies as the basis of IT peace research are explained. Moreover, the chapter focuses on the specific research topics of IT peace research and presents the institutionalised research landscape in Germany.},
    booktitle = {Information {Technology} for {Peace} and {Security} - {IT}-{Applications} and {Infrastructures} in {Conflicts}, {Crises}, {War}, and {Peace}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aldehoff, Larissa and Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_2},
    keywords = {HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Infrastructure, Peace},
    pages = {11--37},
    }

    2018

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tobias Ermert (2018)
    Interaktionsdesign eines Risiko-Bewertungskonzepts für KMU
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_interaktionsdesign_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Interaktionsdesign eines {Risiko}-{Bewertungskonzepts} für {KMU}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16626/Beitrag_356_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Betriebsstörungen, Naturkatastrophen und andere Notfallszenarien bedrohen die Fortdauer von Unternehmen. Hierzu stellt Business Continuity Management (BCM) Maßnahmen zur Identifika-tion von Bedrohungen und Risiken sowie zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit von Organisationen bereit. In der Forschung mangelt es jedoch an Ansätzen, welche BCM in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) unterstützen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag wird ein Konzept für KMU vorgestellt, welches die Identifikation und Bewertung von Risiken unterstützt, Bewältigungsmaßnahmen anbietet und unternehmensspezifische Risikoinformationen auf einem Dashboard visualisiert.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ermert, Tobias},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Student, UsableSec, Infrastructure, RSF, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {309--312},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2018)
    Soziale Medien und Apps in Notsituationen: Eine repräsentative Studie über die Wahrnehmung in Deutschland
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2018.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.

    @techreport{reuter_soziale_2018,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} und {Apps} in {Notsituationen}: {Eine} repräsentative {Studie} über die {Wahrnehmung} in {Deutschland}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SozialeMedienAppsNotsituationen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Helfer bei Hochwassergefahr mobilisieren oder bei einem Terroranschlag Freunden auf Facebook mitteilen, dass es einem gut geht – immer mehr Menschen nutzen soziale Medien in Notsituationen, Krisen- oder Katastrophenlagen. Schließlich ist es heute kein Geheimnis mehr, dass soziale Medien in jenen Lagen (z. B. Überschwemmungen, Stürme, terroristische Anschläge) für diverse Gruppen (z. B. Bürger, Rettungsdienste) von Nutzen sein können. Während Stärken und Schwächen dieser Nutzung bereits eingehend erforscht wurden, widmen sich nur wenige Studien den betreffenden Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Bevölkerung. Unsere repräsentative Untersuchung von Einstellungen der Bevölkerung in Deutschland gegenüber der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen stellt die erste ihrer Art dar. Dabei zeigt sich, dass ungefähr die Hälfte der Befragten (44 \%) bereits in Notsituationen zum Zwecke des Teilens und / oder Herausfindens von Informationen auf soziale Medien zurückgegriffen hat. Zudem werden falsche Gerüchte in sozialen Medien mehrheitlich (74 \%) als Bedrohung empfunden. Notfall-Apps für das eigene Smartphone werden selten (16 \%) heruntergeladen, wobei Wetter- und Erste-Hilfe-Apps am beliebtesten sind.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {22--24},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Fifteen Years of Social Media in Emergencies: A Retrospective Review and Future Directions for Crisis Informatics
    Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM) ;26(1):41–57. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.12196
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.

    @article{reuter_fifteen_2018,
    title = {Fifteen {Years} of {Social} {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Retrospective} {Review} and {Future} {Directions} for {Crisis} {Informatics}},
    volume = {26},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterKaufhold_FifteenYearsSocialMediaEmergencies_JCCM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1111/1468-5973.12196},
    abstract = {Social media has been established in many larger emergencies and crises. This process has not started just a few years ago, but already 15 years ago in 2001 after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In the following years, especially in the last 10, sometimes summarized under the term crisis informatics, a variety of studies focusing on the use of ICT and social media before, during or after nearly every crisis and emergency has arisen. This article aims to recapitulate 15 years of social media in emergencies and its research with a special emphasis on use patterns, role patterns and perception patterns that can be found across different cases in order to point out what has been achieved so far, and what future potentials exist.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (JCCM)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, AuswahlCrisis, Selected},
    pages = {41--57},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Usable Safety Engineering sicherheitskritischer interaktiver Systeme
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 17–40. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.

    @incollection{reuter_usable_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Usable {Safety} {Engineering} sicherheitskritischer interaktiver {Systeme}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    abstract = {Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_2},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {17--40},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thea Riebe, Elmar von Radziewski (2018)
    Design eines BCM-Dashboards für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {Design eines {BCM}-{Dashboards} für kleine und mittlere {Unternehmen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16796/Beitrag_453_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Business Continuity Management (BCM) ist definiert als ganzheitlicher Managementprozess, der poten-zielle Bedrohungen für Organisationen und die Auswirkungen ermittelt, sowie ein Gerüst zum Aufbau der Belastbarkeit einer Organisation bereitstellt. Bereits existierende Ansätze in der Forschung legen den Fokus allerdings auf große Konzerne, während die Umsetzung eines BCM-Konzepts für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) oft an den knappen finanziellen und personellen Ressourcen, aber auch an der Komplexität des BCM scheitert. Um KMU bei der Implementierung eines an deren Bedürfnisse angepasstem BCM-Systems (BCMS) zu unterstützen, gibt es in der Forschung nur wenige Lösungsan-sätze. Dieser Artikel stellt auf Basis einer empirischen Studie, welche Umsetzungsfaktoren für BCM und Anforderungen für BCMS untersucht, das prototypische Design eines BCM-Dashboards vor, welches mit wenig Konfigurationsaufwand möglichst relevante externe und interne Gefahrenquellen in einer kom-pakten Übersicht darzustellen vermag.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Riebe, Thea and von Radziewski, Elmar},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Infrastructure},
    pages = {579--586},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter, Julian Hester, Danny Jeske, Lisa Knüver, Viktoria Richert (2018)
    Business Continuity Management in Micro Enterprises: Perception, Strategies and Use of ICT
    International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) ;10(1):1–19. doi:10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.

    @article{kaufhold_business_2018,
    title = {Business {Continuity} {Management} in {Micro} {Enterprises}: {Perception}, {Strategies} and {Use} of {ICT}},
    volume = {10},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRiebeReuteretal_BusinessContinuityManagementinMicroEnterprises_IJISCRAM.pdf},
    doi = {10.4018/IJISCRAM.2018010101},
    abstract = {Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99\% of enterprises in Germany and more than 95\% in the European Union. Given the recent increase of natural disasters and man-made crises and emergencies, it seems an important economic goal to ascertain that SMEs are capable of maintaining their work, revenue and profit at an acceptable level. According to ISO 22301, business continuity management (BCM) is a holistic management process which identifies potential threats and their impact to an organization and serves as a framework to increase organizational resilience and response capabilities. Prior research identified that BCM is under-represented in SMEs and that their security level is partially in an uneconomical range. This article presents the analysis of interviews with 19 independent micro enterprises highlighting findings on their low crisis awareness, varying technical dependency, existing action strategies and communication strategies and proposing a categorization of micro enterprises as preventive technicians, data-intensive chains or pragmatic jumpers.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian and Hester, Julian and Jeske, Danny and Knüver, Lisa and Richert, Viktoria},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Infrastructure, Cooperation, RSF, Projekt-MAKI},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Katja Pätsch, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2018)
    From Conspiracies to Insults: A Case Study of Radicalisation in Social Media Discourse
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Workshopband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.

    @inproceedings{riebe_conspiracies_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {From {Conspiracies} to {Insults}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Radicalisation} in {Social} {Media} {Discourse}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16795/Beitrag_449_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Online radicalisation is often linked to discourses on social media. In this context, the question arises how populist online discourses radicalise in social media platforms. With a quantitative content analysis of supporters of the German party “Alternative für Deutschland (AfD)” and their contributions on Facebook between March 2014 and May 2017, this preliminary analysis illustrates how the discourse shifts from a dominantly neutral debate to insult-driven and dis-criminatory contributions. It provides insights into the dynamic of political social media dis-courses and shows a tendency of correlating language style and topics that can be further studied in Social Media Analytics.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Pätsch, Katja and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Dachselt, Raimund and Weber, Gerhard},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {595--603},
    }

  • Simon Scholl, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    SocialML: EUD im Maschine Learning zur Analyse sozialer Medien
    Mensch und Computer 2018: Tagungsband Dresden, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.

    @inproceedings{scholl_socialml_2018,
    address = {Dresden, Germany},
    title = {{SocialML}: {EUD} im {Maschine} {Learning} zur {Analyse} sozialer {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/16668/Beitrag_347_final__a.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Analyse sozialer Medien hat eine enorme Bedeutung für die verschiedensten Bereiche, wie bei-spielsweise die Lagebeurteilung, journalistische Recherchen oder unternehmerische Analysen. Dabei sind die entsprechenden Analysten unterschiedlichen Kontextfaktoren unterworfen. Sei es durch ihren organisationalen Hintergrund, durch tätigkeitsbezogene Rollen oder den geografischen und zeitlichen Rahmen. Um den ständig im Wandel begriffenen Kontexten gerecht zu werden, ergeben sich permanent neue Herausforderungen für die Anpassbarkeit der Analyse. Dieser Beitrag untersucht, wie ein auf Machine Lear-ning (ML) basierendes Tool zur Social Media Analyse (SMA) im Sinne des End-User Development (EUD) auf verschiedenen Komplexitäts- und Schrittebenen umgesetzt werden kann.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2018: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Scholl, Simon and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {443--446},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Christoph Amelunxen, Massimo Cristaldi (2018)
    112.SOCIAL: Design and Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis App for Bidirectional Communication between Emergency Services and Citizen
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Portsmouth, UK.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities‘ and citizens‘ information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_112social_2018,
    address = {Portsmouth, UK},
    title = {112.{SOCIAL}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Mobile} {Crisis} {App} for {Bidirectional} {Communication} between {Emergency} {Services} and {Citizen}},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_KaufholdRuppReuterAmelunxenCristaldi_112Social_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Emergencies threaten human lives and overall societal continuity, whether or not the crises and disas- ters are induced by nature, such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, or by human beings, such as accidents, terror attacks and uprisings. In such situations, not only do citizens demand information about the damage and safe behaviour, but emergency services also require high quality information to improve situational awareness. For this purpose, there are currently two kinds of apps available: Gen- eral-purpose apps, such as Facebook Safety Check or Twitter Alerts, already integrate safety features. Specific crisis apps, such as KATWARN in Germany or FEMA in the US, provide information on how to behave before, during and after emergencies, and capabilities for reporting incidents or receiving disaster warnings. In this paper, we analyse authorities' and citizens' information demands and features of crisis apps. Moreover, we present the concept, implementation and evaluation of a crisis app for incident reporting and bidirectional communication between authorities and citizens. Using the app, citizens may (1) report incidents by providing a category, description, location and multimedia files and (2) receive broadcasts and responses from authorities. Finally, we outline features, requirements and contextual factors for incident reporting and bidirectional communication via mobile app.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Amelunxen, Christoph and Cristaldi, Massimo},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2018)
    Studie: Wie sehen Mitarbeiter von Feuerwehr und THW den Einsatz sozialer Medien in Gefahrenlagen?
    2018.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @techreport{reuter_studie_2018,
    title = {Studie: {Wie} sehen {Mitarbeiter} von {Feuerwehr} und {THW} den {Einsatz} sozialer {Medien} in {Gefahrenlagen}?},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterLudwigKaufholdSpielhofer_FeuerwehrTHWSozialeMedienGefahrenlagen_CrisisPrevention.pdf},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {64--66},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Gerhard Backfried, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr (2018)
    ISCRAM turns 15: A Trend Analysis of Social Media Papers 2004-2017
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Rochester, New York, USA.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_iscram_2018,
    address = {Rochester, New York, USA},
    title = {{ISCRAM} turns 15: {A} {Trend} {Analysis} of {Social} {Media} {Papers} 2004-2017},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterBackfriedKaufholdSpahn_15YearsISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {In 2004, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) was a new area of research. Pio- neering researchers from different continents and disciplines found fellowship at the first ISCRAM workshop. Around the same time, the use of social media in crises was first recognized in academia. In 2018, the 15 th IS- CRAM conference will take place, which gives us the possibility to look back on what has already been achieved with regard to IT support in crises using social media. With this article, we examine trends and developments with a specific focus on social media. We analyzed all papers published at previous ISCRAMs (n=1339). Our analysis shows that various platforms, the use of language and coverage of different types of disasters follow certain trends – most noticeably a dominance of Twitter, English and crises with large impacts such as hurricanes or earthquakes can be seen.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Backfried, Gerhard and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian},
    editor = {Boersma, Kees and Tomaszewski, Brian},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1--14},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Amanda Lee Hughes, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Social Media in Crisis Management: An Evaluation and Analysis of Crisis Informatics Research
    International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI) ;34(4):280–294. doi:10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.

    @article{reuter_social_2018,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Crisis} {Management}: {An} {Evaluation} and {Analysis} of {Crisis} {Informatics} {Research}},
    volume = {34},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2018/2018_ReuterHughesKaufhold_SocialMediaCrisisManagementEvaluation_IJHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10447318.2018.1427832},
    abstract = {Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the use of social media in emergency and crisis events has greatly increased and many studies have concentrated on the use of ICT and social media be-fore, during or after these events. The field of research that these studies fall under is called cri-sis informatics. In this paper, we evaluate and analyze crisis informatics research by looking at case studies of social media use in emergencies, outlining the types of research found in crisis informatics, and expounding upon the forms of interaction that have been researched. Finally, we summarize the achievements from an HCI perspective and outline trends and challenges for future research.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction (IJHCI)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Hughes, Amanda Lee and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2018},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-B, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {280--294},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Jens Pottebaum, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2018)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 621–630. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit, sondern auch zukünftig ein äußerst relevantes Thema. Hierbei kann ein Lehr- und Fachbuch, wie dieses, immer nur einen punktuellen Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht werden, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autoren geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Pottebaum, Jens and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_30},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {621--630},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Informatik für Frieden und Sicherheit
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 573–595. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2018,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden} und {Sicherheit}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    abstract = {Die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik hatten bereits immer einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen werden konnten und ausgetragen wurden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte entwickelt wurden, auch für militärische Auseinandersetzungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbesondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Information Warfare, einschließlich terroristischer Propaganda, Fake News, Ausspähung und Hacking konfliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen kann. Auch werden Konflikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zurechenbarkeit zu einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteuren. Die Informatik bietet jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten einige Möglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in dieses an Bedeutung gewinnende Gebiet liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_28},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, Projekt-CRISP, Security, Peace},
    pages = {573--595},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2018)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 379–402. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2018-1,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen verschiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor über 15 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauffolgenden Jahren, vor allem in den vergangenen zehn, wurden eine Vielzahl von Studien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien und sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen konzentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren und mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und der Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszustellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2018},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-19523-6_19},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia},
    pages = {379--402},
    }

    2017

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Ludwig (2017)
    End-User Development and Social Big Data – Towards Tailorable Situation Assessment with Social Media
    In: Fabio Paternò, Volker Wulf: New Perspectives in End-User Development. Springer, , 307–332. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.

    @incollection{reuter_end-user_2017,
    title = {End-{User} {Development} and {Social} {Big} {Data} - {Towards} {Tailorable} {Situation} {Assessment} with {Social} {Media}},
    isbn = {978-3-319-60290-5},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    abstract = {The amount of data being available is increasing rapidly. Based on the technological advances with mobile and ubiquitous computing, the use of social media is getting more and more usual in daily life as well as in extraordinary situations, such as crises. Not surprisingly, this increasing use is one reason why data on the internet is also developing that fast. Currently, more than 3 billion people use the internet and the majority is also registered with social media services such as Facebook or Twitter. While processing this kind of data by the majority of non-technical users, concepts of End-User Development (EUD) are important. This chapter researches how concepts of EUD might be applied to handle social big data. Based on foundations and an empirical pre-study, we explore how EUD can support the gathering and assessment process of social media. In this context, we investigate how end-users can articulate their personal quality criteria appropriately and how the selection of relevant data can be supported by EUD approaches. We present a tailorable social media gathering service and quality assessment service for social media content, which has been implemented and integrated into an application for both volunteers and the emergency services.},
    booktitle = {New {Perspectives} in {End}-{User} {Development}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Ludwig, Thomas},
    editor = {Paternò, Fabio and Wulf, Volker},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_12},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {307--332},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Simon Scholl (2017)
    Social Media Analytics: Eine Marktstudie im Krisenmanagement
    INFORMATIK 2017, Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), Gesellschaft für Informatik Bonn.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_social_2017,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Social {Media} {Analytics}: {Eine} {Marktstudie} im {Krisenmanagement}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuterLudwigScholl_SocialMediaAnalytcisMarktstudie_INF.pdf},
    abstract = {Mit zunehmender Zahl an Nutzern sozialer Medien steigt auch die Menge produzierter Datenmengen, welche häufig unter dem Schlagwort Big Social Data diskutiert werden. Um Informationen aus diesen großen Datenmengen generieren zu können, existiert aktuell bereits eine Vielzahl verschiedener Systeme, welche sich des Data Minings bedienen, um die Analyse zu erleichtern. Je nachdem für welche Fragestellung diese Datenmengen herangezogen werden sollen, kommen verschiedene Systeme in Frage, die jeweils ihre Stärken und Schwächen haben. Innerhalb dieses Beitrages geben wir eine Übersicht aktueller Systeme zur Analyse sozialer Medien im Generellen sowie im speziellen Kontext des Krisenmanagements. Auf Basis verschiedener Attribute wie der Möglichkeit zur Kommunikation, des Setzens eines Alarms oder der Tonalität sowie einer darauf basierenden Marktanalyse werden die Systeme in die drei Klassen Intelligence-, Management- und spezialisierten Analysesysteme klassifiziert und im Hinblick auf ihre Eignung für die Analyse sozialer Medien kategorisiert.},
    booktitle = {{INFORMATIK} 2017, {Lecture} {Notes} in {Informatics} ({LNI}), {Gesellschaft} für {Informatik}},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Scholl, Simon},
    editor = {Eibl, Maximilian and Gaedke, Martin},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia},
    pages = {1325--1338},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2017)
    Social Media in Emergencies: A Representative Study on Citizens‘ Perception in Germany
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;1(2):1–19. doi:10.1145/3134725
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones‘ weather and first aid apps.

    @article{reuter_social_2017,
    title = {Social {Media} in {Emergencies}: {A} {Representative} {Study} on {Citizens}' {Perception} in {Germany}},
    volume = {1},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSpielhoferHahne_SocialMediaEmergenciesGermany_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3134725},
    abstract = {The value of social media in crises, disasters, and emergencies across different events (e.g. floods, storms, terroristic attacks), countries, and for heterogeneous participants (e.g. citizens, emergency services) is now well-attested. Existing work has examined the potentials and weaknesses of its use during specific events. Fewer studies, however, have focused on citizens' perceptions of social media in emergencies, and none have deployed a representative sample to examine this. We present the results of the first representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we have conducted in Germany. Our study highlights, for example, that around half (45\%) of people have used social media during an emergency to share and / or look for information. In contrast, false rumours on social media (74\%) are perceived as a threat. Moreover, only a minority of people have downloaded a smartphone app for emergencies (16\%), with the most popular ones' weather and first aid apps.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2017},
    note = {Place: New York, USA},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Projekt-EmerGent, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Julian Hupertz (2017)
    Social Media Resilience during Infrastructure Breakdowns using Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
    Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics – Proceedings of the 30th EnviroInfo Conference Berlin, Germany. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.

    @inproceedings{reuter_social_2017-1,
    address = {Berlin, Germany},
    title = {Social {Media} {Resilience} during {Infrastructure} {Breakdowns} using {Mobile} {Ad}-{Hoc} {Networks}},
    url = {http://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2017/2017_Reuteretal_SocialMediaResilienceMANET_EnviroInfo.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-44711-7_7},
    abstract = {Social media and instant messaging services are nowadays considered as important communication infrastructures on which people rely on. However, the exchange of content during breakdowns of the underlying technical infrastructures, which sometimes happens based on environmental occurrences, is challenging. Hence, with this paper, we examine the resilience of social media during breakdowns. We discuss communication options and examine ad-hoc functionality for the exchange of social media data between different actors in such cases. To address this, we have developed a concept, which makes use of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) for the spontaneous exchange of information with smartphones. We implemented our concept as the mobile application Social Offline Map (SOMAP) and evaluated it within two iterations (1.0 and 2.0). Finally, we discuss our contribution within the context of related work and the limitations of our approach.},
    booktitle = {Advances and {New} {Trends} in {Environmental} {Informatics} - {Proceedings} of the 30th {EnviroInfo} {Conference}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Hupertz, Julian},
    editor = {Wohlgemuth, V. and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Wittmann, Jochen},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS, RSF},
    pages = {75--88},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Jonas Klös (2017)
    Benutzbare Sicherheit: Usability, Safety und Security bei Passwörtern
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_benutzbare_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Benutzbare {Sicherheit}: {Usability}, {Safety} und {Security} bei {Passwörtern}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3214/2017_WS01_384.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0384},
    abstract = {Obwohl Usability und Sicherheit beides relevante Anforderungen für Anwendungssysteme sind, stehen sie in einem Spannungsfeld. Sicherheit kann als Schutz vor Angriffen von außen (Security), aber auch für das sichere Funktionieren (Safety) dieser Anwendungssysteme verstanden werden. Durch die immer größere Vernetzung klassischer Safety-Domänen, wie dem Katastrophenschutz, gewinnen Security-Aspekte dort ebenfalls an Bedeutung. Die Übertragung von kritischen und vertraulichen Informationen auf mobile Endgeräte muss zugleich passwortgeschützt als auch schnell verfügbar sein; zeitintensive Authentifizierungsmechanismen können hier stören. In dieser Studie werden die Nutzung von Passwörtern vor dem Hintergrund der Abwägung von Sicherheit und Usability exploriert und Hypothesen zum Umgang mit Passwörtern aufgestellt, die im Kontext der Digitalisierung in der zivilen Sicherheit sowie mobilen und ubiquitären Geräte im Katastrophenschutz an enormer Bedeutung gewinnen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klös, Jonas},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec},
    pages = {33--41},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    Integration von Flow in die Mensch- Computer-Interaktion? Potenziale für die Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme
    Mittelstand-Digital „Wissenschaft trifft Praxis“ ;7(1):78–88.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Flow-Erleben beschreibt das „reflexionsfreie, gänzliche Aufgehen in einer glatt laufenden Tätigkeit, die man trotz hoher Beanspruchung noch unter Kontrolle hat“. Dabei zeigt die bestehende Literatur vielversprechende Effekte der Flow-Theorie auf, etwa positiver Affekt, verbessertes Lernen, Mitarbeiterproduktivität und Kundenloyalität, die einen Mehrwert in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme darstellen. Die Betrachtung der theoretischen Grundlagen zeigt, dass Flow ein komponentenreiches Konstrukt ist, welches kontextsensitiv erforscht werden muss: Die Beschaffenheit der gegenwärtigen Aufgabe und des interaktiven Systems, sowie demografische, individuelle und situative Faktoren beeinflussen das Flow-erleben. Zur Messung des Flow-erlebens wurden eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden entwickelt, welche die gegenwärtige Erfahrung, etwa der FQ oder die esM, oder eine vergangene Erfahrung im Nachgang, etwa komponentenbasierte Fragebogen und qualitative Methoden, erfassen. In der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme im Sinne der MCI wird einerseits die Betrachtung pragmatischer Qualitätskriterien (Effizienz, Durchschaubarkeit, Verlässlichkeit) der Usability und hedonistischer Qualitätskriterien (Attraktivität, Neuheit, Stimulation) der User Experience angestrebt. Andererseits untersucht ein separater Forschungsstrang die Relevanz der Flow-Theorie für die MCI. Während der Einfluss theoretischer Konstrukte des Flow-erlebens bereits deutlich untersucht wurde, fehlt die systematische Verknüpfung zu konkreten Designanforderungen zur Unterstützung des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen. Damit die Potenziale der Flow-Theorie in der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme bestmöglich berücksichtigt werden können, sind vor allem vier Herausforderungen in der Forschung und Praxis zu adressieren: 1. Definition der theoretischen Kontextfaktoren: Wie kann die Flow-Theorie in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ganzheitlich bestimmt werden? 2. Operationalisierung der Flow-Theorie: Wie können Bedingungen, Erleben und Auswirkungen des Flow-erlebens genau und systematisch gemessen werden? 3. Integration in die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: In welchem exakten Zusammenhang stehen die Konzepte Flow, Usability und User Experience? 4. Ableitung praktischer Designanforderungen: Wie können praktische Anforderungen zum Design des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen abgeleitet werden? Dieser Beitrag hat dazu die theoretischen Grundlagen des Flow-erlebens, bestehende Methoden und Metriken sowie verwandte Konzepte der MCI eingeleitet und diskutiert, um einerseits die systematische Erforschung der Flow-Theorie in der MCI und andererseits die Ableitung praktischer Design-Anforderungen zu motivieren.

    @article{kaufhold_integration_2017,
    title = {Integration von {Flow} in die {Mensch}- {Computer}-{Interaktion}? {Potenziale} für die {Gestaltung} interaktiver {Systeme}},
    volume = {7},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_FlowMCI_MittelstandDigital.pdf},
    abstract = {Flow-Erleben beschreibt das „reflexionsfreie, gänzliche Aufgehen in einer glatt laufenden Tätigkeit, die man trotz hoher Beanspruchung noch unter Kontrolle hat“. Dabei zeigt die bestehende Literatur vielversprechende Effekte der Flow-Theorie auf, etwa positiver Affekt, verbessertes Lernen, Mitarbeiterproduktivität und Kundenloyalität, die einen Mehrwert in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion und der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme darstellen. Die Betrachtung der theoretischen Grundlagen zeigt, dass Flow ein komponentenreiches Konstrukt ist, welches kontextsensitiv erforscht werden muss: Die Beschaffenheit der gegenwärtigen Aufgabe und des interaktiven Systems, sowie demografische, individuelle und situative Faktoren beeinflussen das Flow-erleben. Zur Messung des Flow-erlebens wurden eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Messmethoden entwickelt, welche die gegenwärtige Erfahrung, etwa der FQ oder die esM, oder eine vergangene Erfahrung im Nachgang, etwa komponentenbasierte Fragebogen und qualitative Methoden, erfassen. In der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme im Sinne der MCI wird einerseits die Betrachtung pragmatischer Qualitätskriterien (Effizienz, Durchschaubarkeit, Verlässlichkeit) der Usability und hedonistischer Qualitätskriterien (Attraktivität, Neuheit, Stimulation) der User Experience angestrebt. Andererseits untersucht ein separater Forschungsstrang die Relevanz der Flow-Theorie für die MCI. Während der Einfluss theoretischer Konstrukte des Flow-erlebens bereits deutlich untersucht wurde, fehlt die systematische Verknüpfung zu konkreten Designanforderungen zur Unterstützung des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen. Damit die Potenziale der Flow-Theorie in der Gestaltung interaktiver Systeme bestmöglich berücksichtigt werden können, sind vor allem vier Herausforderungen in der Forschung und Praxis zu adressieren: 1. Definition der theoretischen Kontextfaktoren: Wie kann die Flow-Theorie in der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ganzheitlich bestimmt werden? 2. Operationalisierung der Flow-Theorie: Wie können Bedingungen, Erleben und Auswirkungen des Flow-erlebens genau und systematisch gemessen werden? 3. Integration in die Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: In welchem exakten Zusammenhang stehen die Konzepte Flow, Usability und User Experience? 4. Ableitung praktischer Designanforderungen: Wie können praktische Anforderungen zum Design des Flow-erlebens in interaktiven Systemen abgeleitet werden? Dieser Beitrag hat dazu die theoretischen Grundlagen des Flow-erlebens, bestehende Methoden und Metriken sowie verwandte Konzepte der MCI eingeleitet und diskutiert, um einerseits die systematische Erforschung der Flow-Theorie in der MCI und andererseits die Ableitung praktischer Design-Anforderungen zu motivieren.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Mittelstand-Digital "Wissenschaft trifft Praxis"},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI},
    pages = {78--88},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, René Steinfort (2017)
    Rumors, Fake News and Social Bots in Conflicts and Emergencies: Towards a Model for Believability in Social Media
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information’s believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.

    @inproceedings{reuter_rumors_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {Rumors, {Fake} {News} and {Social} {Bots} in {Conflicts} and {Emergencies}: {Towards} a {Model} for {Believability} in {Social} {Media}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSteinfort_RumorsFakeNewsBotsBelievability_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is gaining more and more in importance in ordinary life but also in conflicts and emergencies. The social big data, generated by users, is partially also used as a source for situation assessment, e.g. to receive pictures or to assess the general mood. However, the information's believability is hard to control and can deceive. Rumors, fake news and social bots are phenomenons that challenge the easy consumption of social media. To address this, our paper explores the believability of content in social media. Based on foundations of information quality we conducted a literature study to derive a three-level model for assessing believability. It summarizes existing assessment approaches, assessment criteria and related measures. On this basis, we describe several steps towards the development of an assessment approach that works across different types of social media.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Steinfort, René},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {583--591},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Katwarn, NINA or FEMA? Multi-Method Study on Distribution, Use and Public Views on Crisis Apps
    European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) Guimarães, Portugal.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens‘ perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.

    @inproceedings{reuter_katwarn_2017,
    address = {Guimarães, Portugal},
    title = {Katwarn, {NINA} or {FEMA}? {Multi}-{Method} {Study} on {Distribution}, {Use} and {Public} {Views} on {Crisis} {Apps}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdLeopoldKnipp_CrisisApps_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crises, such as thunderstorms and an increasing number of (recognised) terroristic attacks in 2015, 2016, and 2017, do not only lead to extensive monetary damage, but also threaten human lives and influence citizens' perceptions of safety and security. In such situations, the population demands information about the damage and safe behaviour. Although some apps are available to provide this information, the number of users seems relatively low. Focussing on Germany, this study aims to research (1) the distribution of crisis apps in the population, (2) the kinds of crisis apps currently used, as well as (3) needed core functionalities of warning apps. This multi-method study analyses crisis apps by investigating their utilisation quantitatively in a snowball-based survey in Europe (n=1,034) and in a representative survey in Germany (n=1,369). Based on this, the German warning apps Katwarn and NINA and the US-American app FEMA are evaluated qualitatively (n=22). The results revealed requirements which informed the implementation of a warning app prototype. The prototype combines the identified advantages of the apps evaluated in the study, containing warnings and all-clear, recommendations for action, functions to contact friends and helpers. The contributions of this work are findings on the distribution of crisis apps in Europe and Germany (both 16\%), the kinds of crisis apps used (mostly weather and warning apps), and empirically based requirements for warning apps which can be integrated in further developments of existing apps and a prototype for such an app.},
    booktitle = {European {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Peace, Projekt-EmerGent, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {2187--2201},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2017)
    The Impact of Social Media for Emergency Situations: A Case Study with the Fire Department of Frankfurt
    Proceedings of the Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) Albi, France.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_impact_2017,
    address = {Albi, France},
    title = {The {Impact} of {Social} {Media} for {Emergency} {Situations}: {A} {Case} {Study} with the {Fire} {Department} of {Frankfurt}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_KaufholdReuter_ImpactSocialMediaFrankfurt_ISCRAM.pdf},
    abstract = {The use of social media is not only part of everyday life but also of crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allows the examination in a broader and more integrated manner. This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt, which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany. The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    publisher = {ISCRAM},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Comes, Tina and Bénaben, Frédérick and Hanachi, Chihab and Lauras, Matthieu},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {603--612},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Inken Leopold, Hannah Knipp (2017)
    Informing the Population: Mobile Warning Apps
    In: Michael Klafft: Risk and Crisis Communication in Disaster Prevention and Management. Wilhelmshaven: epubli, , 31–41.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.

    @incollection{reuter_informing_2017,
    address = {Wilhelmshaven},
    title = {Informing the {Population}: {Mobile} {Warning} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-7450-5448-4},
    url = {http://publica.fraunhofer.de/eprints/urn_nbn_de_0011-n-4527283.pdf#page=35},
    abstract = {Catastrophes like the storms in Europe in spring 2016, but also terrorist attacks regularly not only lead to extensive monetary damage but also threaten human lives. In such situations, the population desires information about the status of damage and safe behaviours. Apps can address this potentially, but comparatively, record a low number of users. Based on Reuter et al. (2017), this article shows the importance of information in disaster situations and illustrates features from current mobile warning apps.},
    booktitle = {Risk and {Crisis} {Communication} in {Disaster} {Prevention} and {Management}},
    publisher = {epubli},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Leopold, Inken and Knipp, Hannah},
    editor = {Klafft, Michael},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Student, Peace},
    pages = {31--41},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Marén Schorch, Jan Gerwinski, Christian Soost, Sohaib S. Hassan, Gebhard Rusch, Petra Moog, Volkmar Pipek, Volker Wulf (2017)
    Digitalisierung und Zivile Sicherheit: Zivilgesellschaftliche und betriebliche Kontinuität in Katastrophenlagen (KontiKat)
    In: Gero Hoch, Hildegard Schröteler von Brandt, Volker Stein, Angela Schwarz: Sicherheit (DIAGONAL Jahrgang 38). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, , 207–224. doi:10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.

    @incollection{reuter_digitalisierung_2017,
    address = {Göttingen},
    title = {Digitalisierung und {Zivile} {Sicherheit}: {Zivilgesellschaftliche} und betriebliche {Kontinuität} in {Katastrophenlagen} ({KontiKat})},
    isbn = {978-3-8471-0739-2},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2017/2017_ReuterKaufholdSchorchetal_DigitalisierungSicherheitKontiKat_Diagonal.pdf},
    abstract = {Das Thema Sicherheit durchzieht sowohl das Leben Einzelner als auch das Zusammenleben von Personenkollektiven. In diesem Heft geht es um das Wahrnehmen und Wertschätzen sowie die Stabilisierung von Situationen, in denen Gefahren und Risiken reduziert werden. Außerdem stehen die Instrumentarien, Methoden und Maßnahmen im Fokus, mit denen Sicherheit geschaffen werden soll. Besonders in komplexen Systemen wird Sicherheit zu einem schwierig zu fassenden Thema, zu dessen Begleiterscheinungen beispielsweise die Beschneidung von Freiheit zählt. Sicherheit wird in allen Lebensgebieten relevant – von der Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Recht über die Arbeitswelt bis hin in Medien, Technologie, Ökologie und Medizin. Zudem ist der Umgang mit Sicherheit landeskulturell geprägt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheit ({DIAGONAL} {Jahrgang} 38)},
    publisher = {Vandenhoeck \& Ruprecht},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schorch, Marén and Gerwinski, Jan and Soost, Christian and Hassan, Sohaib S. and Rusch, Gebhard and Moog, Petra and Pipek, Volkmar and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Hoch, Gero and Schröteler von Brandt, Hildegard and Stein, Volker and Schwarz, Angela},
    year = {2017},
    doi = {10.14220/digo.2017.38.1.207},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {207--224},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Marvin Stefan (2017)
    Gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien
    Mensch & Computer: Workshopband Regensburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_gesellschaftliche_2017,
    address = {Regensburg, Germany},
    title = {Gesellschaftliche {Herausforderungen} des {Missbrauchs} von {Bots} und sozialen {Medien}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/3236/2017_WS01_386.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2017-ws01-0386},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien wie Facebook oder Twitter haben sich als alltägliche Kommunikationskanäle etabliert. Aufgrund der großen Reichweite sind diese Medien für den privaten oder öffentlichen Austausch unter Freunden und Gruppierungen sowie zur Produkt- und Unternehmenswerbung geeignet, unterliegen aber auch der Gefahr der Manipulation öffentlicher Diskurse oder des Missbrauchs der jeweiligen Plattformfunktionen. Hierzu werden unter anderem Bots, und spezifischer „Social Bots“, als automatisierte Programme eingesetzt, um einen Einfluss auf ökonomische, politische und soziale Prozesse auszuüben. Dieser Beitrag stellt die vorläufigen Ergebnisse einer systematischen Literaturstudie und thematischen Analyse dar, welche gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen sowie zugehörige Methoden und Vorgehensweisen des Missbrauchs von Bots und sozialen Medien umfassen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer}: {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Stefan, Marvin},
    editor = {Burghardt, M. and Wimmer, R. and Wolff, C. and Womser-Hacker, C.},
    year = {2017},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, Student, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {51--58},
    }

    2016

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Christoph Kotthaus, Marc-André Kaufhold, Elmar von Radziewski, Volkmar Pipek (2016)
    Big Data in a Crisis? Creating Social Media Datasets for Emergency Management Research
    i-com: Journal of Interactive Media ;15(3):249–264. doi:10.1515/icom-2016-0036
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed) data, such as Facebook or Google+. Based on the experience gained from a research project on social media in emergencies and our task to collect social media data sets for other partners, we present the design and evaluation of a graphical user interface that supports those stakeholders (such as emergency services or researchers) that are interested in creating social media datasets for further crisis management research. We do not specifically focus on the analysis of social media data. Rather we aim to support the gathering process and how actors without sophisticated technical skills can be supported to get what they want and especially need: relevant social media data. Within this article, we present a practice-oriented approach and implications for designing tools that support the collection of social media data as well as future work.

    @article{reuter_big_2016,
    title = {Big {Data} in a {Crisis}? {Creating} {Social} {Media} {Datasets} for {Emergency} {Management} {Research}},
    volume = {15},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_Reuteretal_BigDatainCrisisDatasets_ICOM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2016-0036},
    abstract = {A growing body of research in the area of information systems for crisis management is based on data from social media. After almost every larger disaster studies emerge with the focus on the specific use of social media. Much of this research is based on Twitter data, due to the ease of access of this (mainly public) data, compared to (more closed) data, such as Facebook or Google+. Based on the experience gained from a research project on social media in emergencies and our task to collect social media data sets for other partners, we present the design and evaluation of a graphical user interface that supports those stakeholders (such as emergency services or researchers) that are interested in creating social media datasets for further crisis management research. We do not specifically focus on the analysis of social media data. Rather we aim to support the gathering process and how actors without sophisticated technical skills can be supported to get what they want and especially need: relevant social media data. Within this article, we present a practice-oriented approach and implications for designing tools that support the collection of social media data as well as future work.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {i-com: Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kotthaus, Christoph and Kaufhold, Marc-André and von Radziewski, Elmar and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {HCI, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {249--264},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2016)
    The Self-Organization of Digital Volunteers across Social Media: The Case of the 2013 European Floods in Germany
    Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM) ;13(1):137–166. doi:10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.

    @article{kaufhold_self-organization_2016,
    title = {The {Self}-{Organization} of {Digital} {Volunteers} across {Social} {Media}: {The} {Case} of the 2013 {European} {Floods} in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {http://wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_KaufholdReuter_SelfOrganizationDigitalVolunteersEuropeanFloods_JHSEM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/jhsem-2015-0063},
    abstract = {For almost 15 years, social media have been regularly used during emergencies. One of the most recent, and instructive, examples of its widespread use during a large scale scenario in Europe were the 2013 European floods. Public reporting during the event indicated, and our analysis confirms, that Twitter, Facebook (FB), Google Maps and other services were frequently used by affected citizen and volunteers to coordinate help activities among themselves. We conducted a qualitative analysis of selected emergent volunteer communities in Germany on FB and Twitter among others, and subsequently conducted interviews with FB group founders and activists. Our aim was to analyze the use of social media during this particular event, especially by digital volunteers. Our study illustrates the relevance of social media for German citizens in cases of disaster, focusing especially on the role of the moderator. Our specific emphasis was the embedding of social media in the organizing work done by said volunteers, emphasizing both the patterns of social media use and the challenges that result. We show that different social media were used in different ways: Twitter was used in the main for status updates while FB-pages were mostly intended to provide an overview. FB-groups also coordinated a multitude of activities.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management (JHSEM)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent, Projekt-KOKOS},
    pages = {137--166},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Thomas Spielhofer (2016)
    Emergency Services Attitudes towards Social Media: A Quantitative and Qualitative Survey across Europe
    International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS) ;95:96–111. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent‘ with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2016,
    title = {Emergency {Services} {Attitudes} towards {Social} {Media}: {A} {Quantitative} and {Qualitative} {Survey} across {Europe}},
    volume = {95},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2016/2016_reuteretal_emergencyservicesattiudessurveysocialmedia_ijhcs.pdf http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1071581916000379},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.03.005},
    abstract = {Various studies show that social media is used in emergencies – and that in spite of possible challenges for emergency services, beneficial use cases can be identified. However, relatively little empirical data is available regarding the attitudes of emergency services towards social media, and almost none of a comparative nature. This article summarizes the findings of a survey conducted of the EU project ‘EmerGent' with 761 emergency service staff across 32 European countries from September to December 2014. The main aims of the survey were to explore the attitudes expressed by emergency service staff towards social media for private and organizational use as well as the levels and main factors influencing the current and likely future use of social media in their organizations. Based on our results, we discuss possible enhancements of the emergency management cycle using social media.},
    journal = {International Journal on Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spielhofer, Thomas},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B},
    pages = {96--111},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2016)
    Warum Katastrophenschutzbehörden soziale Medien nicht nutzen wollen
    Mensch und Computer: Tagungsband Aachen, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold & Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.

    @inproceedings{reuter_warum_2016,
    address = {Aachen, Germany},
    title = {Warum {Katastrophenschutzbehörden} soziale {Medien} nicht nutzen wollen},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/174/bitstream_8783.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2016-mci-0205},
    abstract = {In Deutschland wurde die Umfassende Nutzung sozialer Medien in Krisenlagen erstmalig während des mitteleuropäischen Hochwassers 2013 öffentlich wahrgenommen (Kaufhold \& Reuter, 2014). Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und weitere Plattformen dienten der Informationsverbreitung Koordination freiwilliger Helfer. Solche Informationen sind potentiell auch für Behörden und Organisationen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben (BOS) von Relevanz, jedoch existieren ebenfalls Gefahren. Da es sich um einen sicherheitskritischen Kontext handelt, ist die Berücksichtigung kritischer Stimmen von besonderer Relevanz. Dieser Artikel möchte sich folglich mit den Gründen deren Nichtnutzung in Katstrophenlagen beschäftigen. Hierfür wird zuerst der Stand der Forschung analysiert, um anschließend die Ergebnisse einer explorativen empirischen Studie vorzustellen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer}: {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Prinz, W. and Borchers, J. and Jarke, M.},
    year = {2016},
    keywords = {Crisis, SocialMedia, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

    2015

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volkmar Pipek (2015)
    XHELP: Design of a Cross-Platform Social-Media Application to Support Volunteer Moderators in Disasters
    Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) Seoul, Korea. doi:10.1145/2702123.2702171
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with „digital volunteers“ such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application „XHELP“, which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.

    @inproceedings{reuter_xhelp_2015,
    address = {Seoul, Korea},
    title = {{XHELP}: {Design} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Social}-{Media} {Application} to {Support} {Volunteer} {Moderators} in {Disasters}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2015/2015_ReuterLudwigKaufholdPipek_XHELP_CHI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/2702123.2702171},
    abstract = {Recent disasters have shown an increase in the significance of social media for both affected citizens and volunteers alike in the coordination of information and organization of relief activities, often independently of and in addition to the official emergency response. Existing research mainly focuses on the way in which individual platforms are used by volunteers in response to disasters. This paper examines the use of social media during the European Floods of 2013 and proposes a novel cross-social-media application for volunteers. Besides comprehensive analysis of volunteer communities, interviews were conducted with "digital volunteers" such as Facebook moderators of disaster-related groups. Based on the challenges identified, we designed and implemented the cross-social-media application "XHELP", which allows information to be both, acquired and distributed cross-media and cross-channel. The evaluation with 20 users leads to further design requirements for applications aiming to support volunteer moderators during disasters.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Conference} on {Human} {Factors} in {Computing} {Systems} ({CHI})},
    publisher = {ACM Press},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Pipek, Volkmar},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A*},
    pages = {4093--4102},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2015)
    Konzept und Evaluation einer Facebook-Applikation zur crossmedialen Selbstorganisation freiwilliger Helfer
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Award Nominee) Osnabrück, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_konzept_2015,
    address = {Osnabrück, Germany},
    title = {Konzept und {Evaluation} einer {Facebook}-{Applikation} zur crossmedialen {Selbstorganisation} freiwilliger {Helfer}},
    url = {http://www.wi2015.uni-osnabrueck.de/Files/WI2015-D-14-911.pdf},
    abstract = {Das mitteleuropäische Hochwasser 2013 sorgte für große Schäden in weiten Teilen Deutschlands. Währenddessen und in der anschließenden Wiederherstellungsphase koordinierten betroffene und nicht betroffene Bürger ihre Hilfsaktivitäten nicht nur vor Ort, sondern auch in sozialen Medien wie Twitter, Facebook und mit Tools wie Google Maps. Basierend auf einer Vorstudie zu den Aktivitäten in Twitter und Facebook sowie Interviews mit „Digital Volunteers“ (hier: Gründer und Moderatoren von Facebook-Gruppen zum Hochwasser) stellt dieser Beitrag eine als Facebook-App realisierte crossmediale Applikation zur gruppen- und plattformübergreifenden Informationsbeschaffung und -Veröffentlichung vor, die der (Selbst-)Koordination ungebundener Helfer dienen soll. Diese wurde mit 20 Nutzern qualitativ evaluiert und zeigt Implikationen für die technische Unterstützung der Partizipation Freiwilliger in Katastrophenlagen auf.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Award} {Nominee})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2015},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {1844--1858},
    }

    2014

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2014)
    Vernetzte Selbsthilfe in Sozialen Medien am Beispiel des Hochwassers 2013 / Linked Self-Help in Social Media using the example of the Floods 2013 in Germany
    i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien ;13(1):20–28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.

    @article{kaufhold_vernetzte_2014,
    title = {Vernetzte {Selbsthilfe} in {Sozialen} {Medien} am {Beispiel} des {Hochwassers} 2013 / {Linked} {Self}-{Help} in {Social} {Media} using the example of the {Floods} 2013 in {Germany}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://www.wineme.uni-siegen.de/paper/2014/2014_kaufholdreuter_vernetzteselbsthilfehochwasser_icom.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2014-0004},
    abstract = {Dieser Artikel untersucht den Einsatz sozialer Medien während des Hochwassers 2013 in Deutschland. Über Twitter, Facebook, Google Maps und auf weiteren Plattformen koordinierten betroffene Bürger und freiwillige Helfer untereinander Hilfsaktivitäten und lieferten dabei einen ergänzenden und signifikanten Beitrag zum offiziellen Katastrophenschutz. Neben der qualitativen Analyse ausgewählter, entstandener Hilfsnetzwerke wurden zusätzlich Interviews mit Facebook-Gruppengründern geführt. Die Ziele dieser Studie liegen zum einen in der Analyse des Benutzungsverhaltens sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen, zum anderen in der Identifikation von Gestaltungs- und Erweiterungspotenzialen für soziale Medien im Katastrophenschutz.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Pipek, Volkmar and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2014},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Cooperation, Projekt-EmerGent},
    pages = {20--28},
    }