Das Jahr 2021 neigt sich dem Ende. Ein besonderes Jahr, in dem uns viel Flexibilität sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Lehre und Verwaltung abverlangt wurde. Wir sind froh, dass wir trotz der besonderen Lage in den vergangenen 12 Monaten digital vieles fortführen und sogar weiter aufbauen konnten.

Wir freuen uns besonders über….

Wir möchten uns bei allen, die dazu beigetragen oder mitgefiebert haben, bedanken.

Wir wünschen friedliche Weihnachten sowie ein sicheres und gesundes neues Jahr.

Prof. Dr. Christian Reuter
und das gesamte PEASEC-Team

News: Highlights 2021

2021 (12)

Alle News 2021

2021 (56)

A-Paper 2021

(CORE≥A v VHB≥A v WKWI≥A v Thomson Reuters JIF≥1 v GI-CSCW≥A)

2021

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics ;32(7):773–785. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2021,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    volume = {32},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {773--785},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, AuswahlKaufhold},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Lilian Reichert, Michelle Mende, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Digital Privacy Perceptions of Asylum Seekers in Germany – An Empirical Study about Smartphone Usage during the Flight
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479526
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.

    @article{steinbrink_digital_2021,
    title = {Digital {Privacy} {Perceptions} of {Asylum} {Seekers} in {Germany} - {An} {Empirical} {Study} about {Smartphone} {Usage} during the {Flight}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_SteinbrinkReichertMendeReuter_DigitalPrivacyPerceptionAsylumSeekers_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479526},
    abstract = {Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Reichert, Lilian and Mende, Michelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

    Alle Paper 2021

    Begutachtete Zeitschriften / Peer-reviewed Journals

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Annemike Sophia Vierneisel, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Stronger Together: How Neighborhood Groups Build up a Virtual Network during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.

    @article{haesler_stronger_2021,
    title = {Stronger {Together}: {How} {Neighborhood} {Groups} {Build} up a {Virtual} {Network} during the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaeslerSchmidVierneiselReuter_StrongerTogetherVirtualNetworkCOVID19_CSCW.pdf},
    abstract = {During crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, people spontaneously initiate support groups, while establishedorganizations like soccer clubs set non-regular goals, both offering help. Interested in the coordination of suchhelp and potential challenges of collaboration, we conducted a virtual ethnography of a multi-level networklocated in Germany. We focused on aims, activities, and technological mediation, with Activity Theory astheoretical framework. Our findings show that the organizational aim of coordinating help was successfullyachieved by connecting heterogeneous actors through digitization and institutionalization. Enabled by thecontext of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, the network acted virtually, but was also able to integrate analogspaces of help. We identified six crucial implications regarding the use of technology and collaboration forbuilding a successful volunteering network.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Vierneisel, Annemike Sophia and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, A-Paper, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Sebastian Linsner, Franz Kuntke, Enno Steinbrink, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Role of Privacy in Digitalization – Analysing the German Farmers‘ Perspective
    Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) ;2021(3).
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Technological progress can disrupt domains and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk. Having insight into the business data of others along the supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and downstream players that drive technological innovation. Further weakening the market position of farmers could lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools. Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.

    @article{linsner_role_2021,
    title = {The {Role} of {Privacy} in {Digitalization} – {Analysing} the {German} {Farmers}' {Perspective}},
    volume = {2021},
    url = {https://www.petsymposium.org/2021/files/papers/issue3/popets-2021-0050.pdf},
    abstract = {Technological progress can disrupt domains
    and change the way we work and collaborate. This paper presents a qualitative study with 52 German farmers
    that investigates the impact of the ongoing digitalization process in agriculture and discusses the implications for privacy research. As in other domains, the introduction of digital tools and services leads to the data
    itself becoming a resource. Sharing this data with products along the supply chain is favored by retailers and
    consumers, who benefit from traceability through transparency. However, transparency can pose a privacy risk.
    Having insight into the business data of others along the
    supply chain provides an advantage in terms of market
    position. This is particularly true in agriculture, where
    there is already a significant imbalance of power between actors. A multitude of small and medium-sized
    farming businesses are opposed by large upstream and
    downstream players that drive technological innovation.
    Further weakening the market position of farmers could
    lead to severe consequences for the entire sector. We
    found that on the one hand, privacy behaviors are affected by adoption of digitalization, and on the other
    hand, privacy itself influences adoption of digital tools.
    Our study sheds light on the emerging challenges for
    farmers and the role of privacy in the process of digitalization in agriculture.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs)},
    author = {Linsner, Sebastian and Kuntke, Franz and Steinbrink, Enno and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Transparenz im technischen Umgang mit Fake News
    Technik & Mensch (2):9–11.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].

    @article{hartwig_transparenz_2021,
    title = {Transparenz im technischen {Umgang} mit {Fake} {News}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_TransparenzFakeNews_TechnikMenschVDI.pdf},
    abstract = {In den letzten Jahren haben sich soziale Medien wie Facebook und Twitter immer mehr zu wichtigen Informationsquellen entwickelt, welche die Verbreitung von nutzergenerierten Inhalten unterstützen. Durch die hohe Verbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, geringen Aufwand und (scheinbare) Anonymität nimmt gleichzeitig die Verbreitung von Fake News und ähnlichen Phänomenen zu. Bereits in den vergangenen Jahren aber insbesondere auch im Kontext der COVID-19 Pandemie hat sich gezeigt, dass Fake News und unbeabsichtigte Fehlinformationen ernsthafte und sogar lebensbedrohliche Konsequenzen mit sich tragen bringen können. Technische Unterstützungsmaßnahmen haben insbesondere in sozialen Medien ein großes Potenzial um Fake News effektiv zu bekämpfen. Hier sind zwei maßgebliche Schritte notwendig: (1) Fake News automatisiert detektieren und (2) nach der erfolgreichen Detektion sinnvolle technische Gegenmaßnahmen implementieren [2].},
    number = {2},
    journal = {Technik \& Mensch},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    pages = {9--11},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics ;32(7):773–785. doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2021,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    volume = {32},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    number = {7},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace, Cyberwar},
    pages = {773--785},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Tina Comes, Milad Mirbabaie, Stefan Stieglitz (2021)
    2nd Workshop on Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Crisis Response
    MobileHCI ’21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3447527.3474869
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.

    @article{kaufhold_2nd_2021,
    series = {{MobileHCI} '21 {Adjunct}},
    title = {2nd {Workshop} on {Mobile} {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdReuterComesMirbabaieStieglitz_2ndWorkshopMobileResilience_MobileHCI.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3447527.3474869},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies (ICT), including artificial intelligence, internet of things, and mobile applications, can be utilized to tackle important societal challenges, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While they may increase societal resilience, their design, functionality, and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by anthropogenic, natural and hybrid crises, emergencies, and threats. In order to research challenges, designs, and potentials of interactive technologies, the second iteration of the workshop investigates the space of mobile technologies and resilient systems for crisis response, including the application domains of cyber threat and pandemic response.},
    journal = {MobileHCI '21: 23nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Comes, Tina and Mirbabaie, Milad and Stieglitz, Stefan},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Kilian Demuth, Henri-Jacques Geiß, Christian Richter, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nutzer, Sammler, Entscheidungsträger? Arten der Bürgerbeteiligung in Smart Cities
    HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik ;58. doi:10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.

    @article{haunschild_nutzer_2021,
    title = {Nutzer, {Sammler}, {Entscheidungsträger}? {Arten} der {Bürgerbeteiligung} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    volume = {58},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildDemuthGeissRichterReuter_NutzerSammlerEntscheidungstragerBuergerbeteiligungSmartCities_HMD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1365/s40702-021-00770-8},
    abstract = {Digitalisierung ist ein präsenter Faktor in vielen Städten. So existieren bereits viele Smart-City-Initiativen, bei denen Städte versuchen, ihre Prozesse durch Erfassung und Verknüpfung von Daten, oft unter Zuhilfenahme von Datenplattformen, zu optimieren. In Anbetracht der damit einhergehenden großen Investitionen und Veränderungen wird Bürgerbeteiligung als zentraler Faktor für den Erfolg solcher Initiativen betrachtet. Bisher ist allerdings nicht klar, was typische Beteiligungsformate von Smart-City-Initiativen sind und welche Rolle(n) BürgerInnen dabei einnehmen. Dieser Beitrag leitet mittels einer Literaturanalyse zu Smart Cities ein Kategorienschema zu typischen Bürgerbeteiligungsarten ab. Die Analyse ergab, dass sich Einbindung von BürgerInnen in politische Entscheidungen und bei der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte maßgeblich auf e‑Government oder Participatory Design bezieht. Im Hinblick auf die Beteiligungsarten zeigt sich, dass Makrofabriken, Living Labs und Open-Data-Plattformen häufige Ansätze sind, um BürgerInnen als Co-Creators einzubinden. Zudem werden BürgerInnen mit Citizen Sensing zur Erfassung von Daten oder Missständen einbezogen. Dabei zeigen sich sowohl aktivere, als auch eher passive Beteiligungsarten. Die Analyse zeigt, dass die Einbindung von BürgerInnen häufig entweder auf eine Beteiligung an politischen Entscheidungen oder an der Entwicklung technischer Artefakte abzielt. Auch wenn keine klare Abgrenzung möglich ist, sind diese Ansätze dann eher durch e‑Government oder Participatory Design inspiriert.},
    journal = {HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Demuth, Kilian and Geiß, Henri-Jacques and Richter, Christian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Student, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    The Impact of Organizational Structure and Technology Use on Collaborative Practices in Computer Emergency Response Teams: An Empirical Study
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479865
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.

    @article{riebe_impact_2021,
    title = {The {Impact} of {Organizational} {Structure} and {Technology} {Use} on {Collaborative} {Practices} in {Computer} {Emergency} {Response} {Teams}: {An} {Empirical} {Study}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeKaufholdReuter_ComputerEmegencyResponseTeams_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479865},
    abstract = {Besides the merits of increasing digitization and interconnectedness in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are more and more exposed to cyberattacks. In order to enhance the preventative and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organizations. In Germany, CERTs in the public sector operate on federal and state level to provide information security services for authorities, citizens, and enterprises. Their tasks of monitoring, analyzing, and communicating threats and incidents is getting more complex due to the increasing amount of information disseminated into public channels. By adopting the perspectives of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and Crisis Informatics, we contribute to the study of organizational structures, technology use, and the impact on collaborative practices in and between state CERTs with empirical research based on expert interviews with representatives of German state CERTs (N=15) and supplementary document analyses (N=25). We derive design and policy implications from our findings, including the need for interoperable and modular architecture, a shift towards service level agreements, cross-platform monitoring and analysis of incident data, use of deduplication techniques and standardized threat exchange formats, a reduction of resource costs through process automation, and transparent reporting and tool structures for information exchange.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, AuswahlKaufhold},
    }

  • Enno Steinbrink, Lilian Reichert, Michelle Mende, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Digital Privacy Perceptions of Asylum Seekers in Germany – An Empirical Study about Smartphone Usage during the Flight
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;5(CSCW2). doi:10.1145/3479526
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.

    @article{steinbrink_digital_2021,
    title = {Digital {Privacy} {Perceptions} of {Asylum} {Seekers} in {Germany} - {An} {Empirical} {Study} about {Smartphone} {Usage} during the {Flight}},
    volume = {5},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_SteinbrinkReichertMendeReuter_DigitalPrivacyPerceptionAsylumSeekers_CSCW.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3479526},
    abstract = {Since 2015, an increased number of asylum seekers is coming to Europe. These migration movements increasingly rely on digital infrastructure, such as mobile internet access and online services, in order to reach their targeted destination countries. Asylum seekers often use smartphones for information and communication purposes. Even though there are many positive aspects in the use of such technologies, researchers have to consider the perceived risks of this specific user group. This work aims at investigating the use of mobile information technologies by asylum seekers during their flight, especially taking privacy into account. Thus, it examines asylum seekers’ digital privacy perceptions and identifies privacy protection behaviors by conducting a qualitative interview study with 14 asylum seekers who applied for asylum in Germany. The results show that asylum seekers are often aware of the various risks deriving from the use of smartphones and ICT, such as surveillance and persecution by state or non-state actors as well as extortion by criminals. Based on this, this work furthermore outlines different strategies used to manage these risks. Since the lack of privacy and trust leads to avoidance behavior, the insights of this study provide valuable information for the design of assistance apps and collaboration platforms, which appropriately address the specific needs for digital privacy in the context of flight, or for the conception of privacy-enhancing technologies helping to achieve this.},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Steinbrink, Enno and Reichert, Lilian and Mende, Michelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, AuswahlUsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-GRKPrivacy},
    }

  • Rolf Egert, Nina Gerber, Jasmin Haunschild, Philipp Kuehn, Verena Zimmermann (2021)
    Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures – Motivating Users to Contribute to Smart Grid Resilience
    i-com – Journal of Interactive Media ;20(2):161–175. doi:10.1515/icom-2021-0021
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers – capable of producing and consuming electricity – who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.

    @article{egert_towards_2021,
    series = {i-com},
    title = {Towards {Resilient} {Critical} {Infrastructures} - {Motivating} {Users} to {Contribute} to {Smart} {Grid} {Resilience}},
    volume = {20},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_EgertGerberHaunschildetKuehnZimmermann_TowardsResilientCriticalInfrastructures_icom.pdf},
    doi = {10.1515/icom-2021-0021},
    abstract = {Smart cities aim at improving efficiency while providing safety and security by merging conventional infrastructures with information and communication technology. One strategy for mitigating hazardous situations and improving the overall resilience of the system is to involve citizens. For instance, smart grids involve prosumers - capable of producing and consuming electricity - who can adjust their electricity profile dynamically (i.e., decrease or increase electricity consumption), or use their local production to supply electricity to the grid. This mitigates the impact of peak-consumption periods on the grid and makes it easier for operators to control the grid. This involvement of prosumers is accompanied by numerous socio-technical challenges, including motivating citizens to contribute by adjusting their electricity consumption to the requirements of the energy grid. Towards this end, this work investigates motivational strategies and tools, including nudging, persuasive technologies, and incentives, that can be leveraged to increase the motivation of citizens. We discuss long-term and side effects and ethical and privacy considerations, before portraying bug bounty programs, gamification and apps as technologies and strategies to communicate the motivational strategies to citizens.},
    number = {2},
    journal = {i-com - Journal of Interactive Media},
    author = {Egert, Rolf and Gerber, Nina and Haunschild, Jasmin and Kuehn, Philipp and Zimmermann, Verena},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {161--175},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2021)
    Zur Rolle und Verantwortung der Informatik für die Friedensforschung und Rüstungskontrolle
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;38:47–49.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{reinhold_zur_2021,
    title = {Zur {Rolle} und {Verantwortung} der {Informatik} für die {Friedensforschung} und {Rüstungskontrolle}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Reinhold_RolleVerantwortungInformatikFriedensforschung_FIFF.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, Cyberwar},
    pages = {47--49},
    }

    Bücher und herausgegebene Zeitschriften / Books and Edited Special Issues in Journals

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage)
    2 ed. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.

    @book{reuter_sicherheitskritische_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783658327941},
    abstract = {Die zweite, aktualisierte Auflage dieses Lehr- und Fachbuchs gibt eine fundierte und praxisbezogene Einführung sowie einen Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion im Kontext von Sicherheit, Notfällen, Krisen, Katastrophen, Krieg und Frieden. Dies adressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt. Das Buch eignet sich ebenso als Lehrbuch für Studierende wie als Handbuch für Wissenschaftler, Designer, Entwickler und Anwender.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Peace, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Principles for Social Media and Mobile Apps
    Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.

    @book{kaufhold_information_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Principles} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-33343-0},
    url = {https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658333430},
    abstract = {Marc-André Kaufhold explores user expectations and design implications for the utilization of new media in crisis management and response. He develops a novel framework for information refinement, which integrates the event, organisational, societal, and technological perspectives of crises. Therefore, he reviews the state of the art on crisis informatics and empirically examines the use, potentials and barriers of both social media and mobile apps. Based on these insights, he designs and evaluates ICT concepts and artifacts with the aim to overcome the issues of information overload and quality in large-scale crises, concluding with practical and theoretical implications for technology adaptation and design.},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-33341-6},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, AuswahlKaufhold},
    }

    Kapitel in Büchern

  • Christian Reuter (2021)
    Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 3–17.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_einleitung_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Einleitung in die sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_1},
    abstract = {Die sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) ist eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung und ein für die Informatik und die jeweiligen Anwendungsdomänen ein zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnendes Thema. Dieses Kapitel bietet eine Einfüh-rung in das Lehr- und Fachbuch „Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion – Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement“. Als didaktisch aufbereiteter, umfassender Überblick über Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungsgebiete soll es sowohl als vorlesungsbegleitende Lektüre als auch als Nach-schlagewerk für Personen aus Wissenschaft, Design und Entwicklung dienen. Dies ad-ressierend werden interaktive, mobile, ubiquitäre und kooperative Technologien sowie soziale Medien vorgestellt. Hierbei finden klassische Themen wie benutzbare (IT-)Sicherheit, Industrie 4.0, Katastrophenschutz, Medizin und Automobil, aber auch Augmented Reality, Crowdsourcing, Shitstorm Management, Social Media Analytics und Cyberwar ihren Platz. Methodisch wird das Spektrum von Usable Safety bis Usable Security Engineering, von Analyse über Design bis Evaluation abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {3--17},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Soziale Medien in Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 407–430.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.

    @incollection{reuter_soziale_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Soziale {Medien} in {Notfällen}, {Krisen} und {Katastrophen}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_19},
    abstract = {Die Nutzung sozialer Medien hat sich nicht nur im Alltag, sondern auch in vielen ver-schiedenen Notfällen, Krisen und Katastrophen etabliert. Dieser Prozess begann bereits vor etwa 20 Jahren nach den Terroranschlägen vom 11. September 2001. In den darauf-folgenden Jahren, vor allem aber dem letzten Jahrzehnt, wurde eine Vielzahl von Stu-dien veröffentlicht, die sich auf den Gebrauch von Informations- und Kommunikations-technologien einschließlich der sozialen Medien vor, während oder nach Notfällen kon-zentrieren. Dieser Forschungsbereich wird auch unter dem Begriff Crisis Informatics zusammengefasst. Das Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, den Gebrauch von und die Forschung über soziale Medien in Katastrophen und Notfällen in den vergangenen 20 Jahren mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf identifizierbare Nutzungsmuster und deren Wahrnehmung zusammenzufassen, um die bisherigen Ergebnisse und zukünftigen Potenziale herauszu-stellen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace},
    pages = {407--430},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Fake News technisch begegnen – Detektions- und Behandlungsansätze zur Unterstützung von NutzerInnen
    In: Peter Klimczak, Thomas Zoglauer: Wahrheit und Fake News im postfaktischen Zeitalter. Wiesbaden: Springer Vieweg, , 133–150.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.

    @incollection{hartwig_fake_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    series = {ars digitalis},
    title = {Fake {News} technisch begegnen – {Detektions}- und {Behandlungsansätze} zur {Unterstützung} von {NutzerInnen}},
    volume = {3},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32956-3},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_FakeNewstechnischbegegnen_WahrheitundFake.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Bedeutung des Umgangs mit Fake News hat sowohl im politischen als auch im sozialen Kontext zugenommen: Während sich bestehende Studien vor allem darauf konzentrieren, wie man gefälschte Nachrichten erkennt und kennzeichnet, fehlen Ansätze zur Unterstützung der NutzerInnen bei der eigenen Einschätzung weitgehend. Dieser Artikel stellt bestehende Black-Box- und White-Box-Ansätze vor und vergleicht Vor- und Nachteile. Dabei zeigen sich White-Box-Ansätze insbesondere als vielversprechend, um gegen Reaktanzen zu wirken, während Black-Box-Ansätze Fake News mit deutlich größerer Genauigkeit detektieren. Vorgestellt wird auch das von uns entwickelte Browser-Plugin TrustyTweet, welches die BenutzerInnen bei der Bewertung von Tweets auf Twitter unterstützt, indem es politisch neutrale und intuitive Warnungen anzeigt, ohne Reaktanz zu erzeugen.},
    language = {de},
    booktitle = {Wahrheit und {Fake} {News} im postfaktischen {Zeitalter}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Klimczak, Peter and Zoglauer, Thomas},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, Peace},
    pages = {133--150},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Konstantin Aal, Frank Beham, Alexander Boden, Florian Brauner, Thomas Ludwig, Stephan Lukosch, Frank Fiedrich, Frank Fuchs-Kittowski, Stefan Geisler, Klaus Gennen, Dominik Herrmann, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Klafft, Myriam Lipprandt, Luigi Lo Iacono, Volkmar Pipek, Tilo Mentler, Simon Nestler, Jens Pottebaum, Sven Quadflieg, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Sturm, Gebhard Rusch, Stefan Sackmann, Melanie Volkamer, Volker Wulf (2021)
    Die Zukunft sicherheitskritischer Mensch-Computer-Interaktion
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (2. Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 673–681.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.

    @incollection{reuter_zukunft_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Die {Zukunft} sicherheitskritischer {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-19523-6},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_31},
    abstract = {Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion ist nicht nur derzeit ein hochaktuel-les Thema, sondern wird dies auch in Zukunft bleiben. Insofern ist ein Lehr- und Fach-buch wie dieses immer nur eine Momentaufnahme, und kann immer nur einen punktuel-len Stand abdecken. Dennoch kann der Versuch unternommen werden, aktuelle Trends zu identifizieren und einen Ausblick in die Zukunft zu wagen. Genau das möchte dieses Kapitel erreichen: Es sollen zukünftige Entwicklungen vorausgesagt und versucht wer-den, diese korrekt einzuordnen. Das ist an dieser Stelle nicht nur durch den Herausgeber, sondern durch Abfrage bei zahlreichen am Lehrbuch beteiligten Autor*innen geschehen. Neben einem Ausblick auf Grundlagen und Methoden werden dementsprechend auch sicherheitskritische interaktive Systeme und sicherheitskritische kooperative Systeme abgedeckt.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} (2. {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Aal, Konstantin and Beham, Frank and Boden, Alexander and Brauner, Florian and Ludwig, Thomas and Lukosch, Stephan and Fiedrich, Frank and Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank and Geisler, Stefan and Gennen, Klaus and Herrmann, Dominik and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Klafft, Michael and Lipprandt, Myriam and Lo Iacono, Luigi and Pipek, Volkmar and Mentler, Tilo and Nestler, Simon and Pottebaum, Jens and Quadflieg, Sven and Stieglitz, Stefan and Sturm, Christian and Rusch, Gebhard and Sackmann, Stefan and Volkamer, Melanie and Wulf, Volker},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    note = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8\_31},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, UsableSec, SocialMedia},
    pages = {673--681},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Informatik für Frieden-, Konflikt- und Sicherheitsforschung
    In: Christian ReuterSicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement (Zweite Auflage). 2 ed. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 605–630.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.

    @incollection{reuter_informatik_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    edition = {2},
    title = {Informatik für {Frieden}-, {Konflikt}- und {Sicherheitsforschung}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32794-1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_28},
    abstract = {Seit jeher hatten die Erkenntnisse aus Naturwissenschaft und Technik einen großen Einfluss auf die Art und Weise, wie Kriege und Konflikte ausgetragen wurden bezie-hungsweise werden. Im Kontext von Frieden und Sicherheit können Erkenntnisse, die eigentlich für zivile Kontexte gewonnen wurden, auch für militärische Auseinanderset-zungen genutzt werden (Dual-Use-Problematik). Seit einigen Jahren betrifft dies insbe-sondere die Informatik, die durch die militärische Nutzung von Computern, Cyberwar, Cyberspionage Information Warfare, aber auch in Bereichen wie Desinformationen kon-fliktäre Auseinandersetzungen unterstützen (und verstärken) kann. Auch werden Kon-flikte vermehrt im digitalen Raum ausgetragen, mit erschwerter Zuordnungsmöglichkeit von einzelnen (angreifenden) Akteur*innen. Im Gegenzug dazu bietet die Informatik jedoch auch für friedensstiftende Aktivitäten zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Dieses Kapitel möchte eine Einführung in die zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnende Thematik liefern.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement} ({Zweite} {Auflage})},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {605--630},
    }

  • Maike Wäscher, Siemer Denise, Stefka Schmid, Julia Karl (2021)
    Polizei, Protest und Pandemie in Frankfurt am Main
    In: Redaktion Corona-Monitor: Corona und Gesellschaft: Soziale Kämpfe in der Pandemie. Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag, , 165–186.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{wascher_polizei_2021,
    address = {Wien},
    title = {Polizei, {Protest} und {Pandemie} in {Frankfurt} am {Main}},
    isbn = {978-3-85476-911-8},
    url = {https://www.mandelbaum.at/buecher/corona-monitor/corona-und-gesellschaft/},
    booktitle = {Corona und {Gesellschaft}: {Soziale} {Kämpfe} in der {Pandemie}},
    publisher = {Mandelbaum Verlag},
    author = {Wäscher, Maike and Siemer, Denise, and Schmid, Stefka and Karl, Julia},
    editor = {Redaktion Corona-Monitor},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis},
    pages = {165--186},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2021)
    Usable Safety Engineering sicherheitskritischer interaktiver Systeme
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 23–45. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_2
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.

    @incollection{reuter_usable_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Usable {Safety} {Engineering} sicherheitskritischer interaktiver {Systeme}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReuterKaufhold_UsableSafetyEngineering_SecMCI-Kap02.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Gestaltung gebrauchstauglicher, interaktiver und kooperativer Systeme wird bereits seit den 1980er Jahren in der Disziplin Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) und Com-puterunterstützte Gruppenarbeit (CSCW) behandelt. Es gibt jedoch einige Besonderhei-ten der MCI im Kontext sicherheitskritischer Systeme, insbesondere der störungsfreien Nutzung von IT (Safety) zu beachten. Dieses Kapitel stellt die wichtigsten Merkmale der Anwendung von Gestaltungsmethoden der MCI in sicherheitskritischen Systemen dar. Hierfür werden zu Beginn die Grundlagen der beiden Gebiete – der MCI sowie des Kri-sen- und Sicherheitsmanagements – erläutert. Darauf aufbauend werden Ansätze und Methoden der Analyse, des Designs und der Entwicklung sowie der Evaluation der MCI unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sicherheitskritischer Systeme diskutiert. Aspekte wie Risikoanalysen in der Anforderungsanalyse, die Einkalkulierung von Bedienfehlern und Rückfallebenen im Systemdesign gehören ebenso dazu wie besondere Herausforderun-gen bei Evaluationen.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_2},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Projekt-CRISP, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {23--45},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Thomas Ludwig, Volkmar Pipek (2021)
    Resilienz durch Kooperationstechnologien
    In: Christian Reuter: Sicherheitskritische Mensch-Computer-Interaktion: Interaktive Technologien und Soziale Medien im Krisen- und Sicherheitsmanagement. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer Vieweg, , 473–493. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anfor-derungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an ge-änderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechni-sches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteur*innen. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt dieses Kapitel anhand von prakti-schen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.

    @incollection{reuter_resilienz_2021,
    address = {Wiesbaden, Germany},
    title = {Resilienz durch {Kooperationstechnologien}},
    isbn = {978-3-658-32795-8},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReuterLudwigPipek_ResilienzKooperationstechnologien_SecMCI-Kap22.pdf},
    abstract = {Kooperationstechnologien spielen in sicherheitskritischen Systemen eine große Rolle, da in vielen Anwendungsfeldern nicht nur die Interaktion von Mensch und Computer, sondern auch die durch IT unterstützte Kooperation zwischen Menschen notwendig ist, um Aufgaben bewältigen zu können. Solche Technologien müssen verschiedene Anfor-derungen erfüllen und können ebenfalls zur Resilienz beitragen. Unter Resilienz durch Kooperation verstehen wir die Fähigkeit, Krisen durch die Anpassungsfähigkeit an ge-änderte Realitäten ohne nachhaltigen Schaden mithilfe von Kooperation zu überstehen. Während das Konzept der Resilienz in den Ingenieurwissenschaften vornehmlich die Verfügbarkeit technischer Systeme fokussiert, betrachten wir Resilienz als soziotechni-sches Konstrukt, unter expliziter Betrachtung der beteiligten Akteur*innen. Basierend auf Grundlagen zu Kooperationstechnologien zeigt dieses Kapitel anhand von prakti-schen exemplarisch umgesetzten Kooperationstechnologien (soziales Netzwerk, GIS-System, Smartphone Apps, Facebook App und Social Media Analytics-Plattform), wie Kooperation unterstützt wird und zu kooperativer Resilienz beitragen kann.},
    booktitle = {Sicherheitskritische {Mensch}-{Computer}-{Interaktion}: {Interaktive} {Technologien} und {Soziale} {Medien} im {Krisen}- und {Sicherheitsmanagement}},
    publisher = {Springer Vieweg},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Ludwig, Thomas and Pipek, Volkmar},
    editor = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-658-32795-8_22},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Infrastructure, SocialMedia, Cooperation, RSF},
    pages = {473--493},
    }

    Publikationen in Konferenzbänden / Peer-reviewed Conference Papers

  • Philipp Kuehn, Markus Bayer, Marc Wendelborn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    OVANA: An Approach to Analyze and Improve the Information Quality of Vulnerability Databases
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security . doi:10.1145/3465481.3465744
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.

    @inproceedings{kuehn_ovana_2021,
    title = {{OVANA}: {An} {Approach} to {Analyze} and {Improve} the {Information} {Quality} of {Vulnerability} {Databases}},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-9051-4},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuehnBayerWendelbornReuter_OVANAQualityVulnerabilityDatabases_ARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3465744},
    abstract = {Vulnerability databases are one of the main information sources for IT security experts. Hence, the quality of their information is of utmost importance for anyone working in this area. Previous work has shown that machine readable information is either missing, incorrect, or inconsistent with other data sources. In this paper, we introduce a system called Overt Vulnerability source ANAlysis (OVANA), utilizing state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural-language processing (NLP) techniques, which analyzes the information quality (IQ) of vulnerability databases, searches the free-form description for relevant information missing from structured fields, and updates it accordingly. Our paper shows that OVANA is able to improve the IQ of the National Vulnerability Database by 51.23\% based on the indicators of accuracy, completeness, and uniqueness. Moreover, we present information which should be incorporated into the structured fields to increase the uniqueness of vulnerability entries and improve the discriminability of different vulnerability entries. The identified information from OVANA enables a more targeted vulnerability search and provides guidance for IT security experts in finding relevant information in vulnerability descriptions for severity assessment.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Bayer, Markus and Wendelborn, Marc and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Peace, Ranking-CORE-B, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {1--11},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Daniel Hartung, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Design and Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Real-Time Credibility Assessment in Twitter
    30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN2021) Bratislava. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_design_2021,
    address = {Bratislava},
    title = {Design and {Evaluation} of {Deep} {Learning} {Models} for {Real}-{Time} {Credibility} {Assessment} in {Twitter}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KaufholdBayerHartungReuter_DeepLearningCredibilityAssessmentTwitter_ICANN.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86383-8_32},
    abstract = {Social media have an enormous impact on modern life but are prone to the dissemination of false information. In several domains, such as crisis management or political communication, it is of utmost importance to detect false and to promote credible information. Although educational measures might help individuals to detect false information, the sheer volume of social big data, which sometimes need to be anal- ysed under time-critical constraints, calls for automated and (near) real- time assessment methods. Hence, this paper reviews existing approaches before designing and evaluating three deep learning models (MLP, RNN, BERT) for real-time credibility assessment using the example of Twitter posts. While our BERT implementation achieved best results with an accuracy of up to 87.07\% and an F1 score of 0.8764 when using meta- data, text, and user features, MLP and RNN showed lower classification quality but better performance for real-time application. Furthermore, the paper contributes with a novel dataset for credibility assessment.},
    booktitle = {30th {International} {Conference} on {Artificial} {Neural} {Networks} ({ICANN2021})},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Hartung, Daniel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {1--13},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Ragnark Mogk, Florentin Putz, Kevin T. Logan, Nadja Thiessen, Katharina Kleinschnitger, Lars Baumgärtner, Jan-Philipp Stroscher, Christian Reuter, Michele Knodt, Matthias Hollick (2021)
    Connected Self-Organized Citizens in Crises: An Interdisciplinary Resilience Concept for Neighborhoods
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481749
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.

    @inproceedings{haesler_connected_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Connected {Self}-{Organized} {Citizens} in {Crises}: {An} {Interdisciplinary} {Resilience} {Concept} for {Neighborhoods}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Haesleretal_ConnectedSelfOrganizedCitizensinCrises_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481749},
    abstract = {When facing major crisis events, such as earthquakes, flooding,or attacks on infrastructure, people start to organize within theirneighborhoods. While this has historically been an analog process,people now use collaboration or messenger apps to support theirself-organization. Unfortunately, these apps are not designed to beresilient and fail with communication infrastructure outages whenservers are no longer available. We provide a resilience conceptwith requirements derived from an interdisciplinary view enablingcitizens to communicate and collaborate in everyday life and duringcrisis events. Our human-centered prototype integrates conceptsof nudging for crisis preparedness, decentralized and secure com-munication, participation, smart resource management, historicalknowledge, and legal issues to help guide further research.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Mogk, Ragnark and Putz, Florentin and Logan, Kevin T. and Thiessen, Nadja and Kleinschnitger, Katharina and Baumgärtner, Lars and Stroscher, Jan-Philipp and Reuter, Christian and Knodt, Michele and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Bridging from Crisis to Everyday Life – An Analysis of User Reviews of the Warning App NINA and the COVID-19 Information Apps CoroBuddy and DarfIchDas
    CSCW ’21 Companion: Conference Companion Publication of the 2021 on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing Virtual Event, USA. doi:10.1145/3462204.3481745
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we analyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_bridging_2021,
    address = {Virtual Event, USA},
    title = {Bridging from {Crisis} to {Everyday} {Life} – {An} {Analysis} of {User} {Reviews} of the {Warning} {App} {NINA} and the {COVID}-19 {Information} {Apps} {CoroBuddy} and {DarfIchDas}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_UserReviewsWarningCovidApps_CSCWComp.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462204.3481745},
    abstract = {During a dynamic and protracted crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, citizens are continuously challenged with making decisionsunder uncertainty. In addition to evaluating the risk of their behav-iors to themselves and others, citizens also have to consider themost current regulation, which often varies federally and locallyand by incidence numbers. Few tools help to stay informed aboutthe current rules. The state-run German multi-hazard warningapp NINA incorporated a feature for COVID-19, while two apps,DarfIchDas and CoroBuddy, focus only on COVID-19 regulationand are privately run. To investigate users’ expectations, perceivedadvantages, and gaps as well as the developers’ challenges, we analyze recent app store reviews of the apps and developers’ replies.We show that the warning app and the COVID-19 regulation appsare evaluated on different terms, that the correctness and portrayalof complex rules are the main challenges and that developers andeditors are underusing users’ potential for crowdsourcing.},
    booktitle = {{CSCW} '21 {Companion}: {Conference} {Companion} {Publication} of the 2021 on {Computer} {Supported} {Cooperative} {Work} and {Social} {Computing}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {72--78},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Nudge or Restraint: How do People Assess Nudging in Cybersecurity – A Representative Study in Germany
    European Symposium on Usable Security (EuroUSEC) Karlsruhe, Germany. doi:10.1145/3481357.3481514
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    While nudging is a long-established instrument in many contexts, it has more recently emerged to be relevant in cybersecurity as well. For instance, existing research suggests nudges for stronger passwords or safe WiFi connections. However, those nudges are often not as effective as desired. To improve their effectiveness, it is crucial to understand how people assess nudges in cybersecurity, to address potential fears and resulting reactance and to facilitate voluntary compliance. In other contexts, such as the health sector, studies have already thoroughly explored the attitude towards nudging. To address that matter in cybersecurity, we conducted a representative study in Germany (𝑁 = 1, 012), asking people about their attitude towards nudging in that specific context. Our findings reveal that 64\% rated nudging in cybersecurity as helpful, however several participants expected risks such as intentional misguidance, manipulation and data exposure as well.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_nudge_2021,
    address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
    title = {Nudge or {Restraint}: {How} do {People} {Assess} {Nudging} in {Cybersecurity} - {A} {Representative} {Study} in {Germany}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigReuter_NudgingCybersecurityRepresentativeStudy_EuroUSEC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3481357.3481514},
    abstract = {While nudging is a long-established instrument in many contexts, it has more recently emerged to be relevant in cybersecurity as well. For instance, existing research suggests nudges for stronger passwords or safe WiFi connections. However, those nudges are often not as effective as desired. To improve their effectiveness, it is crucial to understand how people assess nudges in cybersecurity, to address potential fears and resulting reactance and to facilitate voluntary compliance. In other contexts, such as the health sector, studies have already thoroughly explored the attitude towards nudging. To address that matter in cybersecurity, we conducted a representative study in Germany (𝑁 = 1, 012), asking people about their attitude towards nudging in that specific context. Our findings reveal that 64\% rated nudging in cybersecurity as helpful, however several participants expected risks such as intentional misguidance, manipulation and data exposure as well.},
    booktitle = {European {Symposium} on {Usable} {Security} ({EuroUSEC})},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {141--150},
    }

  • Katrin Hartwig, Atlas Englisch, Jan Pelle Thomson, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Finding Secret Treasure? Improving Memorized Secrets Through Gamification
    European Symposium on Usable Security (EuroUSEC) Karlsruhe, Germany. doi:10.1145/3481357.3481509
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Users tend to bypass systems that are designed to increase their personal security and privacy while limiting their perceived freedom. Nudges present a possible solution to this problem, offering security benefits without taking away perceived freedom. We have identified a lack of research comparing concrete implementations of nudging concepts in an emulated real-world scenario to assess their relative value as a nudge. Comparing multiple nudging implementations in an emulated real-world scenario including a novel avatar nudge with gamification elements, this publication discusses the advantages of nudging for stronger user-created passwords regarding efficacy, usability, and memorability.We investigated the effect of gamification in nudges, performing two studies (𝑁1 = 16, 𝑁2 = 1, 000) to refine and evaluate implementations of current and novel nudging concepts. Our research found a gamified nudge, which integrates a personalizable avatar guide into the registration process, to perform less effectively than state-of-the-art nudges, independently of participants’ gaming frequency.

    @inproceedings{hartwig_finding_2021,
    address = {Karlsruhe, Germany},
    title = {Finding {Secret} {Treasure}? {Improving} {Memorized} {Secrets} {Through} {Gamification}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HartwigEnglischThomsonReuter_MemorizedSecretsThroughGamification_EuroUSEC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3481357.3481509},
    abstract = {Users tend to bypass systems that are designed to increase their personal security and privacy while limiting their perceived freedom.
    Nudges present a possible solution to this problem, offering security benefits without taking away perceived freedom. We have
    identified a lack of research comparing concrete implementations of nudging concepts in an emulated real-world scenario to assess their
    relative value as a nudge. Comparing multiple nudging implementations in an emulated real-world scenario including a novel avatar
    nudge with gamification elements, this publication discusses the advantages of nudging for stronger user-created passwords regarding
    efficacy, usability, and memorability.We investigated the effect of gamification in nudges, performing two studies (𝑁1 = 16, 𝑁2 = 1, 000)
    to refine and evaluate implementations of current and novel nudging concepts. Our research found a gamified nudge, which integrates
    a personalizable avatar guide into the registration process, to perform less effectively than state-of-the-art nudges, independently of
    participants’ gaming frequency.},
    booktitle = {European {Symposium} on {Usable} {Security} ({EuroUSEC})},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Hartwig, Katrin and Englisch, Atlas and Thomson, Jan Pelle and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, UsableSec},
    pages = {105--117},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Tristan Wirth, Markus Bayer, Philipp Kuehn, Marc-André Kaufhold, Volker Knauthe, Stefan Guthe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CySecAlert: An Alert Generation System for Cyber Security Events Using Open Source Intelligence Data
    Information and Communications Security (ICICS) . doi:10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.

    @inproceedings{riebe_cysecalert_2021,
    title = {{CySecAlert}: {An} {Alert} {Generation} {System} for {Cyber} {Security} {Events} {Using} {Open} {Source} {Intelligence} {Data}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeWirthBayerKuehnKaufholdKnautheGutheReuter_CySecAlertOpenSourceIntelligence_ICICS.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-030-86890-1_24},
    abstract = {Receiving relevant information on possible cyber threats, attacks, and data breaches in a timely manner is crucial for early response. The social media platform Twitter hosts an active cyber security community. Their activities are often monitored manually by security experts, such as Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). We thus propose a Twitter-based alert generation system that issues alerts to a system operator as soon as new relevant cyber security related topics emerge. Thereby, our system allows us to monitor user accounts with significantly less workload. Our system applies a supervised classifier, based on active learning, that detects tweets containing relevant information. The results indicate that uncertainty sampling can reduce the amount of manual relevance classification effort and enhance the classifier performance substantially compared to random sampling. Our approach reduces the number of accounts and tweets that are needed for the classifier training, thus making the tool easily and rapidly adaptable to the specific context while also supporting data minimization for Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Relevant tweets are clustered by a greedy stream clustering algorithm in order to identify significant events. The proposed system is able to work near real-time within the required 15-minutes time frame and detects up to 93.8\% of relevant events with a false alert rate of 14.81\%.},
    booktitle = {Information and {Communications} {Security} ({ICICS})},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Wirth, Tristan and Bayer, Markus and Kuehn, Philipp and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Knauthe, Volker and Guthe, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    pages = {429--446},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jennifer Fromm, Thea Riebe, Milad Mirbabaie, Philipp Kuehn, Ali Sercan Basyurt, Markus Bayer, Marc Stöttinger, Kaan Eyilmez, Reinhard Möller, Christoph Fuchß, Stefan Stieglitz, Christian Reuter (2021)
    CYWARN: Strategy and Technology Development for Cross-Platform Cyber Situational Awareness and Actor-Specific Cyber Threat Communication
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_cywarn_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    series = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Workshopband}},
    title = {{CYWARN}: {Strategy} and {Technology} {Development} for {Cross}-{Platform} {Cyber} {Situational} {Awareness} and {Actor}-{Specific} {Cyber} {Threat} {Communication}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Kaufholdetal_CYWARN-CyberSituationalAwareness_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-263},
    abstract = {Despite the merits of digitisation in private and professional spaces, critical infrastructures and societies are increasingly ex-posed to cyberattacks. Thus, Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) are deployed in many countries and organisations to enhance the preventive and reactive capabilities against cyberattacks. However, their tasks are getting more complex by the increasing amount and varying quality of information dissem-inated into public channels. Adopting the perspectives of Crisis Informatics and safety-critical Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and based on both a narrative literature review and group discussions, this paper first outlines the research agenda of the CYWARN project, which seeks to design strategies and technolo-gies for cross-platform cyber situational awareness and actor-spe-cific cyber threat communication. Second, it identifies and elabo-rates eight research challenges with regard to the monitoring, analysis and communication of cyber threats in CERTs, which serve as a starting point for in-depth research within the project.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Fromm, Jennifer and Riebe, Thea and Mirbabaie, Milad and Kuehn, Philipp and Basyurt, Ali Sercan and Bayer, Markus and Stöttinger, Marc and Eyilmez, Kaan and Möller, Reinhard and Fuchß, Christoph and Stieglitz, Stefan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, Security},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Perceptions of Police Technology Use and Attitudes Towards the Police – A Representative Survey of the German Population
    Workshop-Proceedings Mensch und Computer Bonn. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-255
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_perceptions_2021,
    address = {Bonn},
    title = {Perceptions of {Police} {Technology} {Use} and {Attitudes} {Towards} the {Police} - {A} {Representative} {Survey} of the {German} {Population}},
    volume = {Mensch und Computer 2021 - Workshopband},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildReuter_PoliceTechnologyUseSurvey_MuC-WS.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-255},
    abstract = {Many Germans perceive a brutalization of society, and state officials also report feeling under attack. At the same time, policing is criticised for becoming increasingly militarised and for having extended surveillance in the course of fighting terrorism. Advancements in HCI are used in the context of many of the issues that policing is facing. In this study, we conduct a representative survey of the German population to investigate personal experiences with and attitudes towards the police and information and communication technologies (ICT) used for policing. We find an overall positive image of the police and uncritical attitudes towards ICT used for general surveillance (body-worn cameras, video surveillance, face recognition) and slightly more critical attitudes towards personal surveillance (e.g. through communication data retention). The study indicates that perceptions differ according to experience of unfair treatment by the police, while other factors such as age and education have similar effects.},
    booktitle = {Workshop-{Proceedings} {Mensch} und {Computer}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Who Should Get My Private Data in Which Case? Evidence in the Wild
    Mensch und Computer 2021 – Tagungsband New York. doi:10.1145/3473856.3473879
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{herbert_who_2021,
    address = {New York},
    title = {Who {Should} {Get} {My} {Private} {Data} in {Which} {Case}? {Evidence} in the {Wild}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Herbert_SchmidbauerWolfReuter_WhoShouldGetMyPrivateDateinWhichCase_MuC.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3473856.3473879},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Tagungsband}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) für krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_low_2021,
    address = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas Gandorfer, Markus Hoffmann, Christa Weltzien, Cornelia Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. Floto, Helga},
    title = {Low {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) für krisentaugliche {Datenübertragung} in landwirtschaftlichen {Betrieben}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnLinsnerReuter_LowPowerWideAreaNetworks_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Zuverlässige IT-basierte Kommunikation in der Landwirtschaft wird immer wichtiger für den regulären Betriebsablauf. Sollte sich ein Landwirt beispielsweise während eines lokalen Krisenfalls, wie einem Ausfall des Mobilfunknetzes oder des Internetzugangs des Betriebs, auf dem Feld aufhalten, wird ein alternativer Kommunikationskanal benötigt, um weiterhin eine Verbindung zu IT-Komponenten und benötigten Daten herstellen zu können. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung finden Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN)-Technologien immer häufiger Anwendung, beispielsweise durch den Aufbau von Sensornetzwerken. Die eingesetzten LPWANTechnologien bieten dabei eine hohe Reichweite und sind größtenteils autark einsetzbar, erlauben jedoch keine klassische TCP/IP-Kommunikation. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird experimentell eine populäre LPWAN-Technologie, namentlich LoRaWAN, durch AX.25 auf OSI-Schicht 2 (Data Link Layer) ergänzt, um Endgeräten eine TCP/IP-basierte Kommunikation über weite Strecken zu erlauben. Die Evaluation zeigt, dass klassische Anwendungen mit niedriger Bandbreite somit funktionsfähig sind und krisentaugliche Datenübertragung in landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben ermöglichen können.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {193--198},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Marcel Sinn, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Reliable Data Transmission using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) for Agricultural Applications
    Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Frontiers in Availability, Reliability and Security (FARES 2021) . doi:10.1145/3465481.3469191
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_reliable_2021,
    title = {Reliable {Data} {Transmission} using {Low} {Power} {Wide} {Area} {Networks} ({LPWAN}) for {Agricultural} {Applications}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_KuntkeSinnReuter_LPWANAgriculture_FARES.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3465481.3469191},
    abstract = {Reliable IT-based communication in agriculture is becoming increasingly important for regular operations. For example, if a farmer is in the field during a network outage, such as a failure of the mobile network, an alternative communication channel is needed to continue to connect to IT components and required data. With increasing digitalization, Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies are being used more and more frequently, e.g. for sensor networks. The LPWAN technologies offer a high range and can be used autonomously for the most part, but do not allow classic TCP/IP communication. In this work, a popular LPWAN technology, namely LoRaWAN, is experimentally supplemented by AX.25 on OSI layer 2 (Data Link Layer) to allow end devices TCP/IP-based communication over long distances. The evaluation shows that classic low-bandwidth applications are thus functional and can enable reliable, crisis-capable data transmission.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th {International} {Workshop} on {Frontiers} in {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security} ({FARES} 2021)},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Sinn, Marcel and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, Student, Projekt-HyServ, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

  • Anjuli Franz, Gregor Albrecht, Verena Zimmermann, Katrin Hartwig, Christian Reuter, Alexander Benlian, Joachim Vogt (2021)
    Still Plenty of Phish in the Sea — A Review of User-Oriented Phishing Interventions and Avenues for Future Research
    USENIX Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Phishing is a prevalent cyber threat, targeting individuals and organizations alike. Previous approaches on anti-phishing measures have started to recognize the role of the user, who, at the center of the target, builds the last line of defense. However, user-oriented phishing interventions are fragmented across a diverse research landscape, which has not been systematized to date. This makes it challenging to gain an overview of the various approaches taken by prior works. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of phishing interventions based on a systematic literature analysis. We shed light on the diversity of existing approaches by analyzing them with respect to the intervention type, the addressed phishing attack vector, the time at which the intervention takes place, and the required user interaction. Furthermore, we highlight shortcomings and challenges emerging from both our literature sample and prior meta-analyses, and discuss them in the light of current movements in the field of usable security. With this article, we hope to provide useful directions for future works on phishing interventions.

    @inproceedings{franz_still_2021,
    title = {Still {Plenty} of {Phish} in the {Sea} — {A} {Review} of {User}-{Oriented} {Phishing} {Interventions} and {Avenues} for {Future} {Research}},
    isbn = {978-1-939133-25-0},
    url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/soups2021-franz.pdf},
    abstract = {Phishing is a prevalent cyber threat, targeting individuals and
    organizations alike. Previous approaches on anti-phishing
    measures have started to recognize the role of the user, who,
    at the center of the target, builds the last line of defense.
    However, user-oriented phishing interventions are fragmented
    across a diverse research landscape, which has not been
    systematized to date. This makes it challenging to gain an
    overview of the various approaches taken by prior works.
    In this paper, we present a taxonomy of phishing interventions
    based on a systematic literature analysis. We shed light
    on the diversity of existing approaches by analyzing them
    with respect to the intervention type, the addressed phishing
    attack vector, the time at which the intervention takes place,
    and the required user interaction. Furthermore, we highlight
    shortcomings and challenges emerging from both our literature
    sample and prior meta-analyses, and discuss them in
    the light of current movements in the field of usable security.
    With this article, we hope to provide useful directions for
    future works on phishing interventions.},
    booktitle = {{USENIX} {Symposium} on {Usable} {Privacy} and {Security} ({SOUPS})},
    author = {Franz, Anjuli and Albrecht, Gregor and Zimmermann, Verena and Hartwig, Katrin and Reuter, Christian and Benlian, Alexander and Vogt, Joachim},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, UsableSec, AuswahlUsableSec, Ranking-CORE-B},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2021)
    8. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen: Ausnahmezustand
    Mensch und Computer 2021 – Workshopband Ingolstadt. doi:10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{mentler_8_2021,
    address = {Ingolstadt},
    title = {8. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}: {Ausnahmezustand}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/37338},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2021-mci-ws08-117},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2021 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, Security},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Ulrike Lechner (2021)
    Introduction to the WI2021 Track: Digitization and Society – Even in Times of Corona
    Innovation Through Information Systems. WI 2021: Volume II: A Collection of Latest Research on Technology Issues . doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86797-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Information and communication technologies affect all areas of civil society. Digitalization opens up new opportunities to address important social issues. The motor of digitalization can be social necessity, technical feasibility, and also a crisis, as the reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates: Out of necessity, ideas are created, systems designed and implemented and the value of digital solutions to society becomes apparent. With the digitalization of everyday working and learning, apps for tracing information chains and containing new infections have potential, but also pose social risks. The current COVID-19 crisis seems to put the role of digitalization in a completely new light. Both, to evaluate the value of digital solutions to society and to identify space for innovation is important in times of intense digitalization efforts. To meet the societal challenges posed by digitalization, it is particularly important to understand how they arise. The use of digital solutions in safety-critical contexts entails dependencies and the threat of various dangers: Infrastructure disruptions and failures can be caused by criminal acts, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, operational disruptions, and system failures. In addition, there is a concern about data arising from the use of digital solutions. Data protection, data sovereignty, data security, and their social perception must always be closely observed. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that digitalization does not lead to a digital divide. New digital solutions require constant evaluation and assessment of the consequences.

    @inproceedings{reuter_introduction_2021,
    title = {Introduction to the {WI2021} {Track}: {Digitization} and {Society} – {Even} in {Times} of {Corona}},
    isbn = {978-3-030-86797-3},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_ReuterLechner_DigitisationandSocietyinTimesofCorona_WI.pdf},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-86797-3},
    abstract = {Information and communication technologies affect all areas of civil society. Digitalization opens up new opportunities to address important social issues. The motor of digitalization can be social necessity, technical feasibility, and also a crisis, as the reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates: Out of necessity, ideas are created, systems designed and implemented and the value of digital solutions to society becomes apparent. With the digitalization of everyday working and learning, apps for tracing information chains and containing new infections have potential, but also pose social risks. The current COVID-19 crisis seems to put the role of digitalization in a completely new light. Both, to evaluate the value of digital solutions to society and to identify space for innovation is important in times of intense digitalization efforts.
    To meet the societal challenges posed by digitalization, it is particularly important to understand how they arise. The use of digital solutions in safety-critical contexts entails dependencies and the threat of various dangers: Infrastructure disruptions and failures can be caused by criminal acts, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, operational disruptions, and system failures. In addition, there is a concern about data arising from the use of digital solutions. Data protection, data sovereignty, data security, and their social perception must always be closely observed. Furthermore, it is important to ensure that digitalization does not lead to a digital divide. New digital solutions require constant evaluation and assessment of the consequences.},
    booktitle = {Innovation {Through} {Information} {Systems}. {WI} 2021: {Volume} {II}: {A} {Collection} of {Latest} {Research} on {Technology} {Issues}},
    publisher = {Springer},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Lechner, Ulrike},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {244--246},
    }

  • Tom Biselli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    On the Relationship between IT Privacy and Security Behavior: A Survey among German Private Users
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.

    @inproceedings{biselli_relationship_2021,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {On the {Relationship} between {IT} {Privacy} and {Security} {Behavior}: {A} {Survey} among {German} {Private} {Users}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BiselliReuter_RelationshipITPrivacyandSecurityBehavior_WI.pdf},
    abstract = {The relevance of adequate privacy and security behavior in the digital space is higher than ever. However, the exact relationship between privacy and security behavior is rarely discussed in the literature. This study investigates this relationship and the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political opinions) in such behavior. Exploratory results of a survey of German private users (N=1,219) show that privacy and security behavior are only weakly correlated and not similarly influenced by socio-demographic factors. While se-curity behavior significantly differs between age and education groups (younger and less educated show less security behavior), no such differences exist for pri-vacy behavior. Additionally, political orientation and opinion has no influence on privacy and security behavior. Thus, this study sheds light on the concepts of privacy, security and corresponding behavior and emphasizes the need for a fine-grained differentiation if either privacy or security behavior is to be improved.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Biselli, Tom and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {HCI, Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--17},
    }

  • Ansgar Bernardi, Sandra Becker, Carsten Struve, Sebastian Linsner, Christian Reuter, Georg Müller (2021)
    Erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistung: Neue Perspektiven für die landwirtschaftliche Arbeitsteilung durch hybride Dienstleistungen
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Im Projekt HyServ werden landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen als Hybrid aus klassischem Arbeitsauftrag und Auftrag zur Datenverarbeitung verstanden, der sowohl den Auftrag als auch das Ergebnis umfasst. Die hybriden Dienstleistungen mit fälschungssicheren Vereinbarungen und technischen Kontrollmöglichkeiten sichern besseres Vertrauen in intensiven Datenaustausch und innovative Produktionsformen in komplexen Kooperationen. Die integrierte Betrachtung von konventionell-physischer Arbeitsleistung und Datenverarbeitung erlaubt neuartige landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen: Anstelle der reinen Aktivität kann das Erreichen definierter Ziele vereinbart und nachprüfbar dokumentiert werden. So können auch Ergebnisse, die erst nach längerer Zeit erkennbar werden, in die vereinbarte Leistung einbezogen und erfolgsabhängig entlohnt werden. Derartige erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistungen verbinden Ausführung und Garantieleistungen und eröffnen so gerade in kritischen Zeiten neue Formen der Risikoverteilung und innovativer Geschäftsmodelle.

    @inproceedings{bernardi_erfolgsorientierte_2021,
    title = {Erfolgsorientierte {Dienstleistung}: {Neue} {Perspektiven} für die landwirtschaftliche {Arbeitsteilung} durch hybride {Dienstleistungen}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_Bernardietal_ErfolgsorientierteDienstleistung_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Im Projekt HyServ werden landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen als Hybrid aus klassischem Arbeitsauftrag und Auftrag zur Datenverarbeitung verstanden, der sowohl den Auftrag als auch das Ergebnis umfasst. Die hybriden Dienstleistungen mit fälschungssicheren Vereinbarungen und technischen Kontrollmöglichkeiten sichern besseres Vertrauen in intensiven Datenaustausch und innovative Produktionsformen in komplexen Kooperationen. Die integrierte Betrachtung von konventionell-physischer Arbeitsleistung und Datenverarbeitung erlaubt neuartige landwirtschaftliche Dienstleistungen: Anstelle der reinen Aktivität kann das Erreichen definierter Ziele vereinbart und nachprüfbar dokumentiert werden. So können auch Ergebnisse, die erst nach längerer Zeit erkennbar werden, in die vereinbarte Leistung einbezogen und erfolgsabhängig entlohnt werden. Derartige erfolgsorientierte Dienstleistungen verbinden Ausführung und Garantieleistungen und eröffnen so gerade in kritischen Zeiten neue Formen der Risikoverteilung und innovativer Geschäftsmodelle.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Bernardi, Ansgar and Becker, Sandra and Struve, Carsten and Linsner, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian and Müller, Georg},
    editor = {Meyer-Aurich, Andreas and Gandorfer, Markus and Hoffmann, Christa and Weltzien, Cornelia and Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. and Floto, Helga},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {37},
    }

  • Markus Bayer, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Information Overload in Crisis Management: Bilingual Evaluation of Embedding Models for Clustering Social Media Posts in Emergencies
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.

    @inproceedings{bayer_information_2021,
    title = {Information {Overload} in {Crisis} {Management}: {Bilingual} {Evaluation} of {Embedding} {Models} for {Clustering} {Social} {Media} {Posts} in {Emergencies}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_BayerKaufholdReuter_InformationOverloadInCrisisManagementBilingualEvaluation_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {Past studies in the domains of information systems have analysed the potentials and barriers of social media in emergencies. While information disseminated in social media can lead to valuable insights, emergency services and researchers face the challenge of information overload as data quickly exceeds the manageable amount. We propose an embedding-based clustering approach and a method for the automated labelling of clusters. Given that the clustering quality is highly dependent on embeddings, we evaluate 19 embedding models with respect to time, internal cluster quality, and language invariance. The results show that it may be sensible to use embedding models that were already trained on other crisis datasets. However, one must ensure that the training data generalizes enough, so that the clustering can adapt to new situations. Confirming this, we found out that some embeddings were not able to perform as well on a German dataset as on an English dataset.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    author = {Bayer, Markus and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {1--18},
    }

  • Daniel Eberz-Eder, Franz Kuntke, Wolfgang Schneider, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Technologische Umsetzung des Resilient Smart Farming (RSF) durch den Einsatz von Edge-Computing
    41. GIL-Jahrestagung: Informatik in der Land-, Forst- und Ernährungswirtschaft .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.

    @inproceedings{eberz-eder_technologische_2021,
    title = {Technologische {Umsetzung} des {Resilient} {Smart} {Farming} ({RSF}) durch den {Einsatz} von {Edge}-{Computing}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_EberzEderKuntkeSchneiderReuter_TechnischeUmsetzungResilientSmartFarming_GIL.pdf},
    abstract = {Edge Computing bietet die Möglichkeit zur Realisierung von Resilient Smart Farming (RSF). Die vorliegende Arbeit setzt sich mit Möglichkeiten der möglichst ausfallsicheren Digitalisierung der Landwirtschaft als kritischer Infrastruktur auseinander und zeigt auf, dass dezentrale Lösungen des Edge Computing inzwischen innovative technologische Möglichkeiten zur Realisierung von RSF bieten. Die Vorteile der lokalen Datenverarbeitung am Entstehungsort in Kombination mit einer regionalen Vernetzung bieten neue Möglichkeiten im Zeitalter von 5GInfrastrukturen und dem Einsatz von IoT-Sensornetzwerken. Der Fokus dieser Arbeit liegt auf Edge Computing als Technologie zur Umsetzung eines resilienten Smart Farming.},
    booktitle = {41. {GIL}-{Jahrestagung}: {Informatik} in der {Land}-, {Forst}- und {Ernährungswirtschaft}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik},
    author = {Eberz-Eder, Daniel and Kuntke, Franz and Schneider, Wolfgang and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-VHB-C, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {79--84},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Selina Pauli, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Citizens‘ Perceived Information Responsibilities and Information Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    GoodIT ’21: Proceedings of the Conference on Information Technology for Social Good . doi:10.1145/3462203.3475886
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens‘ perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens‘ needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens‘ desire to stay informed.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_citizens_2021,
    title = {Citizens' {Perceived} {Information} {Responsibilities} and {Information} {Challenges} {During} the {COVID}-19 {Pandemic}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_HaunschildPauliReuter_InformationResponsibilitiesCovid19_GoodIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1145/3462203.3475886},
    abstract = {In crises, citizens show changes in their information behavior, which is mediated by trust in sources, personal relations, online and offline news outlets and information and communication technologies such as apps and social media. Through a repeated one-week survey with closed and open questions of German citizens during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study examines citizens' perceptions of information responsibilities, their satisfaction with the fulfillment of these responsibilities and their wishes for improving the information flow. The study shows that the dynamism of the crisis and the federally varying strategies burden citizens who perceive an obligation to stay informed, but view agencies as responsible for making information readily available. The study contributes a deeper understanding of citizens' needs in crises and discusses implications for design of communication tools for dynamic situations that reduce information overload while fulfilling citizens' desire to stay informed.},
    booktitle = {{GoodIT} '21: {Proceedings} of the {Conference} on {Information} {Technology} for {Social} {Good}},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Pauli, Selina and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {151--156},
    }

    Weitere Publikationen / Other Publications

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2021)
    LinkedIn als Barometer: Austausch zwischen ziviler und militärischer F&E
    Wissenschaft & Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.

    @techreport{riebe_linkedin_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden},
    title = {{LinkedIn} als {Barometer}: {Austausch} zwischen ziviler und militärischer {F}\&{E}},
    url = {https://peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeSchmidReuter_LinkedInalsBarometer_WuF.pdf},
    abstract = {Gibt es Wissenstransfers zwischen militärischer und ziviler Forschung? Wenn ja, in welchem Umfang? Um die Art und Weise zu untersuchen, wie Unternehmen durch sogenannte »Spillover«-Effekte von den Aktivitäten in den Bereichen »Forschung und Entwicklung« (F\&E) eines anderen Unternehmens profi tieren, existieren bereits Methoden, die die Mobilität von Arbeitskräften als Initiator von Wissenstransfers untersuchen. Dieser Beitrag stellt einen ergänzenden Ansatz vor, der auf »Social Media Analytics« (SMA) beruht. Er soll helfen, die »Spillover«-Eff ekte vom Verteidigungsbereich in die zivile F\&E quantifi zieren zu können und beruht auf der Analyse von Angaben zum Beschäftigungswechsel aus dem sozialen Netzwerk »LinkedIn«.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2021)
    Neue Technologien und Resilienz
    Wissenschaft und Frieden: 2021.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Science · Peace · Security ’21 (SPS21) Konferenz fand in diesem Jahr virtuell statt. Ausgerichtet wurde sie durch Prof. Malte Göttsche, Leiter der Forschungsgruppe »Nukleare Verifikation und Abrüstung« an der RWTH Aachen mit Unterstützung eines international besetzten Programmkomitees. Die Konferenz brachte Wissenschaftler*innen aus vielen Disziplinen und aus aller Welt, Diplomat*innen sowie Mitglieder der Bundeswehr zusammen, um über aktuelle Fragen der Rüstungskontrolle und Abrüstung unter dem diesjährigen Motto »The Impact of New Technologies: Destabilizing or Enabling Resilience?« zu diskutieren.

    @techreport{riebe_neue_2021,
    address = {Wissenschaft und Frieden},
    title = {Neue {Technologien} und {Resilienz}},
    url = {www.peasec.de/paper/2021/2021_RiebeReuter_NeueTechnologienResilienz.pdf},
    abstract = {Die Science · Peace · Security ’21 (SPS21) Konferenz fand in diesem Jahr virtuell statt. Ausgerichtet wurde sie durch Prof. Malte Göttsche, Leiter der Forschungsgruppe »Nukleare Verifikation und Abrüstung« an der RWTH Aachen mit Unterstützung eines international besetzten Programmkomitees. Die Konferenz brachte Wissenschaftler*innen aus vielen Disziplinen und aus aller Welt, Diplomat*innen sowie Mitglieder der Bundeswehr zusammen, um über aktuelle Fragen der Rüstungskontrolle und Abrüstung unter dem diesjährigen Motto »The Impact of New Technologies: Destabilizing or Enabling Resilience?« zu diskutieren.},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2021},
    keywords = {Peace},
    }

    PEASEC-Jahresbilanz 2021: Publikationen, Preise und digitale Arbeit