Das Jahr 2020 neigt sich dem Ende. Ein besonderes Jahr, in dem uns viel Flexibilität sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Lehre und Verwaltung abverlangt wurde. Wir sind froh, dass wir trotz der besonderen Lage in den vergangenen 12 Monaten digital vieles fortführen und sogar weiter aufbauen konnten.

Wir freuen uns besonders über….

  • personelle Verstärkung durch 5 tolle neue wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter*innen, einen technischen Mitarbeiter und zahlreiche neue studentische Hilfskräfte, welche wir im Laufe des Jahres in unserem Team begrüßen durften.
  • …den Start zahlreicher Projekte: das LOEWE-Zentrum emergenCITY, die ATHENE-Mission SecUrban, das DFG-Graduiertenkolleg Privacy&Trust, das BMEL-Projekt Geobox-II sowie das von uns koordinierte BMBF-Projekt CYWARN.
  • …die Veröffentlichung von über 30 Publikationen – davon mehr als 10 sogenannte „A-Paper“.
  • …die Auszeichung mit einige Preisen, u.a. den „Athene-Preis für Gute Lehre“, über den wir uns besonders gefreut haben, sowie den „WI Best Paper Social Impact Award“.
  • …den Umzug in ein tolles neues Gebäude.

Wir möchten uns bei allen, die dazu beigetragen oder mitgefiebert haben, bedanken.

Wir wünschen friedliche Weihnachten sowie ein sicheres und gesundes neues Jahr.

Prof. Dr. Christian Reuter
und das gesamte PEASEC-Team

News: Highlights 2020

2020 (11)

Alle News 2020

2020 (54)

A-Paper 2020

(CORE≥A v VHB≥A v WKWI≥A v Thomson Reuters JIF≥1 v GI-CSCW≥A)

2020

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9288988},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users‘ preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook’s current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).

    @article{kirchner_countering_2020,
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News}: {A} {Comparison} of {Possible} {Solutions} {Regarding} {User} {Acceptance} and {Effectiveness}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415211},
    doi = {10.1145/3415211},
    abstract = {Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users' needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users' preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook's current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Kirchner, Jan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Place: Austin, USA
    Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {140:1--140:28},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Differences in IT Security Behavior and Knowledge of Private Users in Germany
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users‘ IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.

    @inproceedings{herbert_differences_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Differences in {IT} {Security} {Behavior} and {Knowledge} of {Private} {Users} in {Germany}},
    url = {https://library.gito.de/open-access-pdf/V3_Herbert-Differences_in_IT_Security_Behavior_and_Knowledge-541_c.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert},
    abstract = {The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users' IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Conflicts and Crises
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @book{reuter_special_2020-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Conflicts} and {Crises}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/39/3},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

    Alle Paper 2020

    Begutachtete Zeitschriften / Peer-reviewed Journals

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Social media in conflicts and crises
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(1):241–251. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @article{reuter_social_2020,
    title = {Social media in conflicts and crises},
    volume = {39},
    issn = {0144-929X},
    url = {http://peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterStieglitzImran_SocialMediainConflictsandCrises_BIT.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1629025},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {241--251},
    }

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Towards IT Peace Research: Challenges at the Intersection of Peace and Conflict Research and Computer Science
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):10–16. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.

    @article{reuter_towards_2020-1,
    title = {Towards {IT} {Peace} {Research}: {Challenges} at the {Intersection} of {Peace} and {Conflict} {Research} and {Computer} {Science}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-10},
    abstract = {Advances in science and technology, including information technology (IT), play a crucial role in the context of peace and security. However, research on the intersection of peace and conflict research as well as computer science is not well established yet. This article highlights the need for further work in the area of research “IT peace research”, which includes both empirical research on the role of IT in peace and security, as well as technical research to design technologies and applications. Based on the elaboration of the disciplines, central challenges, such as insecurity, actors, attribution and laws, are outlined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {10--16},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Markus Bayer, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: A system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning
    Information Processing & Management ;57(1):1–32.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.

    @article{kaufhold_rapid_2020,
    title = {Rapid relevance classification of social media posts in disasters and emergencies: {A} system and evaluation featuring active, incremental and online learning},
    volume = {57},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdBayerReuter_RapidRelevanceClassification_IPM.pdf},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during disasters and emergencies. Social media allow emergency services to receive valuable information (e.g., eyewitness reports, pictures, or videos) from social media. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issue of information overload. Research indicates that supervised machine learning techniques are sui- table for identifying relevant messages and filter out irrelevant messages, thus mitigating in- formation overload. Still, they require a considerable amount of labeled data, clear criteria for relevance classification, a usable interface to facilitate the labeling process and a mechanism to rapidly deploy retrained classifiers. To overcome these issues, we present (1) a system for social media monitoring, analysis and relevance classification, (2) abstract and precise criteria for re- levance classification in social media during disasters and emergencies, (3) the evaluation of a well-performing Random Forest algorithm for relevance classification incorporating metadata from social media into a batch learning approach (e.g., 91.28\%/89.19\% accuracy, 98.3\%/89.6\% precision and 80.4\%/87.5\% recall with a fast training time with feature subset selection on the European floods/BASF SE incident datasets), as well as (4) an approach and preliminary eva- luation for relevance classification including active, incremental and online learning to reduce the amount of required labeled data and to correct misclassifications of the algorithm by feed- back classification. Using the latter approach, we achieved a well-performing classifier based on the European floods dataset by only requiring a quarter of labeled data compared to the tradi- tional batch learning approach. Despite a lesser effect on the BASF SE incident dataset, still a substantial improvement could be determined.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Information Processing \& Management},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Bayer, Markus and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Ranking-CORE-A, Ranking-WKWI-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--32},
    }

  • Milan Stute, Max Maass, Tom Schons, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter, Matthias Hollick (2020)
    Empirical Insights for Designing Information and Communication Technology for International Disaster Response
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;47(101598):1–10. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.

    @article{stute_empirical_2020,
    title = {Empirical {Insights} for {Designing} {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} for {International} {Disaster} {Response}},
    volume = {47},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212420919309501},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101598},
    abstract = {Due to the increase in natural disasters in the past years, Disaster Response Organizations (DROs) are faced with the challenge of coping with more and larger operations. Currently appointed Information and Communications Technology (ICT) used for coordination and communication is sometimes outdated and does not scale, while novel technologies have the potential to greatly improve disaster response efficiency. To allow adoption of these novel technologies, ICT system designers have to take into account the particular needs of DROs and characteristics of International Disaster Response (IDR). This work attempts to bring the humanitarian and ICT communities closer together. In this work, we analyze IDR-related documents and conduct expert interviews. Using open coding, we extract empirical insights and translate the peculiarities of DRO coordination and operation into tangible ICT design requirements. This information is based on interviews with active IDR staff as well as DRO guidelines and reports. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for future ICT research endeavors to support and increase the efficiency of IDR operations.},
    number = {101598},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Stute, Milan and Maass, Max and Schons, Tom and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian and Hollick, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, UsableSec, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--10},
    }

  • Sohaib S. Hassan, Christian Reuter, Levan Bzhalava (2020)
    Perception or capability? – An empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in German SMEs
    International Journal of Innovation Management ;2150002:1–26. doi:10.1142/S136391962150002X
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media and public cloud computing (SM&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker’s perception-related and SME’s capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.

    @article{s_hassan_perception_2020,
    title = {Perception or capability? – {An} empirical investigation of the factors influencing the adoption of social media and public cloud in {German} {SMEs}},
    volume = {2150002},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HassanReuterBzhalava_AdoptionSocialMediaSME_IJIM.pdf},
    doi = {10.1142/S136391962150002X},
    abstract = {Social media and public cloud computing (SM\&PC) have emerged as important resources of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), but not all SMEs use SM\&PC. The existing research predominantly focuses on the role of either the features of social media and cloud computing in relation to the perceptions of decision makers or the internal capabilities of organization concerning new innovation adoption. By integrating multidisciplinary literature, we, instead, argues that both the perception- and capability-related factors could play an important role in the adoption of new ICT technology, such as SM\&PC. Therefore, we empirically investigated the decision maker's perception-related and SME's capability-related factors that may influence the adoption of SM\&PC in SMEs in Germany. We used quantitative research methods to examine the proposed hypotheses on a sample of 2,404 SMEs from 17 industrial sectors. The results demonstrate that the decisions of German SMEs to engage in social media and cloud computing are not only influenced by the perceptions of SME owners about the usefulness, security aspects, and the implementation costs of SM\&PC, but also by the internal capabilities of an SME, namely the innovativeness of an SME. The results and potential contributions of our research are discussed.},
    journal = {International Journal of Innovation Management},
    author = {S. Hassan, Sohaib and Reuter, Christian and Bzhalava, Levan},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, UsableSec, SocialMedia, Ranking-VHB-B, Projekt-HyServ},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Measuring Spillover Effects from Defense to Civilian Sectors – A Quantitative Approach Using LinkedIn
    Defence and Peace Economics . doi:10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.

    @article{riebe_measuring_2020,
    title = {Measuring {Spillover} {Effects} from {Defense} to {Civilian} {Sectors} – {A} {Quantitative} {Approach} {Using} {LinkedIn}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_RiebeSchmidReuter_SpilloverEffectsDefensetoCivilianLinkedIn_PDE.pdf},
    doi = {10.1080/10242694.2020.1755787},
    abstract = {Spillover effects describe the process of a company benefiting from the R\&D activities of another one and thereby gaining an economic advantage. One prominent approach for measuring spillover effects is based on the analysis of patent citation networks. Taking social media analytics and knowledge economics into account, this paper presents a complementary approach to quantify spillover effects from defense to civilian research and development, analyzing 513 employment biographies from the social network LinkedIn. Using descriptive network analysis, we investigate the emigration of personnel of the German defense industry to other civilian producers. Thereby, our study reveals that in the last decade, employees of defense suppliers have changed positions significantly less often, with 3.24 changes on average than professionals who have worked more than 50\% of their jobs in the civilian sector, having changed 4.61 times on average. Our work illustrates the churn behavior and how spillover effects between defense and civilian sectors can be measured using social career networks such as LinkedIn.},
    journal = {Defence and Peace Economics},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Selected, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Editorial: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural-Science/Technical Peace Research
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):III–IV. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY ’19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.

    @article{reuter_editorial_2020,
    title = {Editorial: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural}-{Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterAltmannGoettscheHimmel_Editorial_NaturalScienceTechnicalPeaceResarch_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-I},
    abstract = {This compilation of different articles, which is based on the conference SCIENCE PEACE SECURITY '19 in Darmstadt, gives good insights into current research. Furthermore, this special issue aims at enhancing the understanding of current peace and security challenges. It includes contributions from natural science, technical peace research as well as interdis-ciplinary contributions.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace},
    pages = {III--IV},
    }

  • Philipp Kuehn, Thea Riebe, Lynn Apelt, Max Jansen, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sharing of Cyber Threat Intelligence between States
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):22–28. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.

    @article{kuehn_sharing_2020,
    title = {Sharing of {Cyber} {Threat} {Intelligence} between {States}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KuehnRiebeApeltJansenReuter_SharingCyberThreatIntelligence_SF.pdf},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-22},
    abstract = {Threats in cyberspace have increased in recent years due to the increment of offensive capabilities by states. Approaches to mitigate the security dilemma in cyberspace within the UN are deadlocked, as states have not been able to achieve agreements. However, from the perspective of IT-Security, there are Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) platforms to share and analyze cyber threats for a collective crisis management. To investigate, whether or not CTI platforms can be used as a confidence-building measure between states and international organizations, we portray current CTI platforms, showcase political requirements, and answer the question of how CTI communication may contribute to confidence-building in international affairs. Our results suggest the need to further develop analytical capabilities, as well as the implementation of a broad social, political, and legal environment for international CTI sharing.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Kuehn, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Apelt, Lynn and Jansen, Max and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {22--28},
    }

  • Philipp Imperatori, Thea Riebe, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Verschlüsselungspolitik der USA: Vom Clipper-Chip zu Edward Snowden
    FIfF-Kommunikation ;37:77–80.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{imperatori_verschlusselungspolitik_2020,
    title = {Verschlüsselungspolitik der {USA}: {Vom} {Clipper}-{Chip} zu {Edward} {Snowden}},
    volume = {37},
    url = {https://www.fiff.de/publikationen/fiff-kommunikation/fk-2020/fk-2020-1/fk-1-20-p77.pdf},
    journal = {FIfF-Kommunikation},
    author = {Imperatori, Philipp and Riebe, Thea and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {77--80},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Nicola Rupp, Christian Reuter, Matthias Habdank (2020)
    Mitigating Information Overload in Social Media during Conflicts and Crises: Design and Evaluation of a Cross-Platform Alerting System
    Behaviour & Information Technology (BIT) ;39(3):319–342. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.

    @article{kaufhold_mitigating_2020,
    title = {Mitigating {Information} {Overload} in {Social} {Media} during {Conflicts} and {Crises}: {Design} and {Evaluation} of a {Cross}-{Platform} {Alerting} {System}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    doi = {10.1080/0144929X.2019.1620334},
    abstract = {The research field of crisis informatics examines, amongst others, the potentials and barriers of social media use during conflicts and crises. Social media allow emergency services to reach the public easily in the context of crisis communication and receive valuable information (e.g. pictures) from social media data. However, the vast amount of data generated during large-scale incidents can lead to issues of information overload and quality. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes the semi-automatic creation of alerts including keyword, relevance and information quality filters based on cross-platform social media data. We conducted empirical studies and workshops with emergency services across Europe to raise requirements, then iteratively designed and implemented an approach to support emergency services, and performed multiple evaluations, including live demonstrations and field trials, to research the potentials of social media-based alerts. Finally, we present the findings and implications based on semi-structured interviews with emergency services, highlighting the need for usable configurability and white-box algorithm representation.},
    number = {3},
    journal = {Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Rupp, Nicola and Reuter, Christian and Habdank, Matthias},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, HCI, Security, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {319--342},
    }

  • Sabrina Gabel, Lilian Reichert, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Discussing Conflict in Social Media – The Use of Twitter in the Jammu and Kashmir Conflict
    Media, War & Conflict :1–26.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani’s impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.

    @article{gabel_discussing_2020,
    title = {Discussing {Conflict} in {Social} {Media} – {The} {Use} of {Twitter} in the {Jammu} and {Kashmir} {Conflict}},
    url = {https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1750635220970997},
    abstract = {Social media have come to play a vital role not only in our everyday lives, but also in times of conflict and crisis such as natural disasters or civil wars. Recent research has highlighted, on the one hand, the use of social media as a means of recruitment by terrorists and, on the other hand, the use of Facebook, Twitter etc. to gain the support of the population during insurgencies. This article conducts a qualitative content analysis of content on Twitter concerning the conflict in the Jammu and Kashmir region. The tweets following the death of a popular militant, Burhan Wani, cover three different themes: (1) criticism of intellectuals, (2) Burhan Wani's impact on the conflict, and (3) tweets referring to the conflict itself. Generally, people use Twitter to make their own point of view clear to others and discredit the opposing party, at the same time tweets are reflecting the antagonism between the two parties to the conflict, India and Pakistan. The sample of tweets reflects the lack of awareness among people in the region regarding the motivations of the new generation of militancy emerging in Kashmir after 1990.},
    journal = {Media, War \& Conflict},
    author = {Gabel, Sabrina and Reichert, Lilian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace},
    pages = {1--26},
    }

  • Jan Kirchner, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Countering Fake News: A Comparison of Possible Solutions Regarding User Acceptance and Effectiveness
    Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing ;4(CSCW2):140:1–140:28. doi:10.1145/3415211
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users‘ needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users‘ preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook’s current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).

    @article{kirchner_countering_2020,
    title = {Countering {Fake} {News}: {A} {Comparison} of {Possible} {Solutions} {Regarding} {User} {Acceptance} and {Effectiveness}},
    volume = {4},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415211},
    doi = {10.1145/3415211},
    abstract = {Since the emergence of so-called fake news on the internet and in social media, platforms such as Facebook have started to take countermeasures, and researchers have begun looking into this phenomenon from a variety of perspectives. A large number of scientific work has investigated ways to detect fake news automatically. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent step, i.e., what to do when you are aware of the inaccuracy of claims in social media. This work takes a user-centered approach on means to counter identified mis- and disinformation in social media. We conduct a three-step study design on how approaches in social media should be presented to respect the users' needs and experiences and how effective they are. As our first step, in an online survey representative for some factors to the German adult population, we enquire regarding their strategies on handling information in social media, and their opinion regarding possible solutions — focusing on the approach of displaying a warning on inaccurate posts. In a second step, we present five potential approaches for countermeasures identified in related work to interviewees for qualitative input. We discuss (1) warning, (2) related articles, (3) reducing the size, (4) covering, and (5) requiring confirmation. Based on the interview feedback, as the third step of this study, we select, improve, and examine four promising approaches on how to counter misinformation. We conduct an online experiment to test their effectiveness on the perceived accuracy of false headlines and also ask for the users' preferences. In this study, we find that users welcome warning-based approaches to counter fake news and are somewhat critical with less transparent methods. Moreover, users want social media platforms to explain why a post was marked as disputed. The results regarding effectiveness are similar: Warning-based approaches are shown to be effective in reducing the perceived accuracy of false headlines. Moreover, adding an explanation to the warning leads to the most significant results. In contrast, we could not find a significant effect on one of Facebook's current approaches (reduced post size and fact-checks in related articles).},
    number = {CSCW2},
    journal = {Proceedings of the ACM: Human Computer Interaction (PACM): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing},
    author = {Kirchner, Jan and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Place: Austin, USA
    Publisher: ACM},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Student, A-Paper, Cooperation, Ranking-ImpactFactor, AuswahlCrisis, Selected, Ranking-CORE-A},
    pages = {140:1--140:28},
    }

  • Michael Koch, Jürgen Ziegler, Christian Reuter, Thomas Schlegel, Michael Prilla (2020)
    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion als zentrales Gebiet der Informatik – Bestandsaufnahme, Trends und Herausforderungen
    Informatik-Spektrum . doi:10.1007/s00287-020-01299-8
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) beschäftigt sich mit Fragen rund um die benutzer- und kontextegerechte Gestaltung von IT-Systemen. Ohne MCI ist die vielbeschworene digitale Transformation nicht möglich, da Systeme, die nicht benutzbar (gebrauchstauglich) sind, für ihre Nutzer wertlos oder sogar gefährlich sind – erst Nutzbarkeit schafft Nutzen! In diesem Beitrag sammeln wir einige Beispiele dafür, wo und wie MCI in der Entwicklung zukünftiger IT-Systeme relevant ist – von nutzerzentrierter künstlicher Intelligenz über benutzbare Sicherheit, cyberphysische Systeme und digital Arbeit hin zu Augmented Reality und Virtual Reality.

    @article{koch_mensch-computer-interaktion_2020,
    title = {Mensch-{Computer}-{Interaktion} als zentrales {Gebiet} der {Informatik} - {Bestandsaufnahme}, {Trends} und {Herausforderungen}},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00287-020-01299-8.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s00287-020-01299-8},
    abstract = {Mensch-Computer-Interaktion (MCI) beschäftigt sich mit Fragen rund um die benutzer- und kontextegerechte Gestaltung von IT-Systemen. Ohne MCI ist die vielbeschworene digitale Transformation nicht möglich, da Systeme, die nicht benutzbar (gebrauchstauglich) sind, für ihre Nutzer wertlos oder sogar gefährlich sind – erst Nutzbarkeit schafft Nutzen! In diesem Beitrag sammeln wir einige Beispiele dafür, wo und wie MCI in der Entwicklung zukünftiger IT-Systeme relevant ist – von nutzerzentrierter künstlicher Intelligenz über benutzbare Sicherheit, cyberphysische Systeme und digital Arbeit hin zu Augmented Reality und Virtual Reality.},
    journal = {Informatik-Spektrum},
    author = {Koch, Michael and Ziegler, Jürgen and Reuter, Christian and Schlegel, Thomas and Prilla, Michael},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {HCI, UsableSec},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Natural Science and Technical Peace Research: Definition, History and Current Work
    S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security ;38(1):1–4. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of uninhabited weapon systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons remain urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY ’19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today’s and tomorrow’s peace and security challenges. This includes natural science/technical as well as interdisciplinary contribu-tions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management. This special issue presents selected contributions based on discussions at the conference.

    @article{reuter_natural_2020,
    title = {Natural {Science} and {Technical} {Peace} {Research}: {Definition}, {History} and {Current} {Work}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1/natural-science-and-technical-peace-research-definition-history-and-},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1-1},
    abstract = {Scientific discoveries and technological innovations have always exerted a great influence on peace and security. New civil and military technologies are revolutionizing warfare. Particularly striking areas are cyber warfare and the rapid development of uninhabited weapon systems. Issues of nuclear disarmament, missile defence or space armament as well as chemical and biological weapons remain urgent. The conference SCIENCE · PEACE · SECURITY '19 aimed for an accurate understanding and fruitful discussions of today's and tomorrow's peace and security challenges. This includes natural science/technical as well as interdisciplinary contribu-tions, focusing on problems of international security and peace-building as well as contributions dedicated to transparency, trust-building, arms control, disarmament, and conflict management. This special issue presents selected contributions based on discussions at the conference.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, Peace},
    pages = {1--4},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Fabian Spahr, Thomas Spielhofer, Anna Sophie Hahne (2020)
    Emergency Service Staff and Social Media – A Comparative Empirical Study of the Perception by Emergency Services Members in Europe in 2014 and 2017
    International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) ;46(101516). doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions‘ staffs‘ opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.

    @article{reuter_emergency_2020,
    title = {Emergency {Service} {Staff} and {Social} {Media} – {A} {Comparative} {Empirical} {Study} of the {Perception} by {Emergency} {Services} {Members} in {Europe} in 2014 and 2017},
    volume = {46},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    doi = {10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101516},
    abstract = {Finding a way to ensure an effective use of social media has become increasingly important to emergency services over the past decade. Despite all efforts to determine the utility of social media for emergency organisations, it is necessary to benefit from such institutions' staffs' opinions to establish effective use. To provide empirical evidence we present a comparison of two surveys, conducted across Europe with emergency services in 2014 and 2017 respectively, with a total of 1169 answers. The analysis shows that personal experience has an effect on how organisational usage of social media is perceived and how emergency service staff view the future use of social media. Furthermore, the use has increased. This article not only shows emergency services what their staff think about their social media usage but also discusses challenges and future directions for the design of systems that can be useful for further development of optimized organisational social media usage.},
    number = {101516},
    journal = {International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Spahr, Fabian and Spielhofer, Thomas and Hahne, Anna Sophie},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Student, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedens- und Konfliktforschung – Aktuelle Herausforderungen und Bewertung der Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats
    Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo) ;9(1):143–154. doi:10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.

    @article{reuter_zur_2020,
    title = {Zur naturwissenschaftlich-technischen {Friedens}- und {Konfliktforschung} – {Aktuelle} {Herausforderungen} und {Bewertung} der {Empfehlungen} des {Wissenschaftsrats}},
    volume = {9},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s42597-020-00035-z},
    abstract = {ie besorgniserregende Aufkündigung des INF-Vertrags, der wiederholte Einsatz von Chemiewaffen in Syrien, kontroverse Diskussionen über die Einführung autonomer Waffensysteme oder zunehmende Cyber-Bedrohungen prägen das aktuelle politische Weltgeschehen. Besonders in einer Zeit, in der nukleare, biologische und chemische Abrüstung- und Rüstungskontrollmaßnahmen vor großen Herausforderungen stehen und gleichzeitig neue Technologien veränderte Anforderungen an diese Kontrollmechanismen mit sich bringen, gewinnt die naturwissenschaftlich-technische Friedensforschung enorm an Bedeutung. Sie beschäftigt sich auf der Grundlage von Erkenntnissen aus verschiedenen Naturwissenschaften und technischen Fachrichtungen (z. B. Physik, Chemie, Biologie, Informatik) mit der Rolle naturwissenschaftlicher und technischer Möglichkeiten im Kontext von Krieg und Frieden sowie Rüstung und Abrüstung. Sie unterstützt die politischen Prozesse der Kriegsprävention, der Abrüstung und der Vertrauensbildung mit Analysen der Eigenschaften und Folgen neuer Waffenarten und Technologien. Aus dieser Forschung werden Vorschläge für die Begrenzung neuer Waffenentwicklungen ebenso entwickelt wie technische Lösungen für eine verbesserte Rüstungskontrolle. Dieser Artikel benennt aktuelle Herausforderungen der naturwissenschaftlich-technischen Friedensforschung und geht dabei auch auf die aktuellen Empfehlungen des Wissenschaftsrats zur Weiterentwicklung der Friedens- und Konfliktforschung aus dem Jahr 2019 ein.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (ZeFKo)},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CROSSING, Security, Peace},
    pages = {143--154},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Meaningful Human Control of Lethal Autonomous Weapon System: The CCW-Debate and its Implications for Value-Sensitive Design
    IEEE Technology and Society Magazine ;39(4):36–51. doi:10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.

    @article{riebe_meaningful_2020,
    title = {Meaningful {Human} {Control} of {Lethal} {Autonomous} {Weapon} {System}: {The} {CCW}-{Debate} and its {Implications} for {Value}-{Sensitive} {Design}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9288988},
    doi = {10.1109/MTS.2020.3031846},
    abstract = {The debate on the development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) as an emerging technology is of increasing importance, with discussions stalling and technological development progressing. Monitoring the progress of increasingly autonomous weapons systems in civilian and military use as well as regulating possible autonomous systems early on is demanded by civil society actors, like the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), while nation states follow a variety of interests and strategies, showing little room for consensus on central terms and questions [2], [3]. This article therefore sheds light on the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) of the UN Convention of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). The CCW, offering an arena for international cooperation, has dedicated itself to the purpose of finding common ground with respect to an understanding of LAWS, as well as to the necessary degree of human control. From an ethical perspective, the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) supports a human-centric approach. Several IEEE projects, series and publications are dedicated to this prioritization, especially regarding civilian use. As autonomous technology is increasingly at the center of contemporary military innovations, questions of (human) agency and responsibility in warfare have become even more pressing. As stressed by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), the concept of MHC may prove useful in the context of development and use of (semi-) autonomous weaponry.},
    number = {4},
    journal = {IEEE Technology and Society Magazine},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-KontiKat, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    pages = {36--51},
    }

  • Thea Riebe, Jasmin Haunschild, Felix Divo, Matthias Lang, Gerbert Roitburd, Jonas Franken, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Die Veränderung der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in Europa
    Datenschutz und Datensicherheit – DuD ;44(5):316–321. doi:10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.

    @article{riebe_veranderung_2020,
    title = {Die {Veränderung} der {Vorratsdatenspeicherung} in {Europa}},
    volume = {44},
    url = {https://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_Riebeetal_VDSinEuropa_DuD.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s11623-020-1275-3},
    abstract = {Die Diskussion um die Vorratsdatenspeicherung ist europaweit weiterhin relevant, da es keine einheitliche Gesetzgebung der EU-Mitgliedsstaaten gibt. So werden in einigen EU-Staaten weiterhin Vorratsdaten gespeichert, obwohl der EuGH die Vorratsdatenspeicherung für teilweise rechtswidrig erklärt hat. Dabei unterscheiden sich die Speicherdauer, die erhobenen Daten und die Rechte der Behörden erheblich. Der Beitrag vergleicht den Umgang mit der Vorratsdatenspeicherung in zehn EU- und Schengen-Staaten im Hinblick auf Einführung und Aussetzung, Speicherdauer, Speicherinhalte und Zugriffsrechte.},
    number = {5},
    journal = {Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD},
    author = {Riebe, Thea and Haunschild, Jasmin and Divo, Felix and Lang, Matthias and Roitburd, Gerbert and Franken, Jonas and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-KontiKat, Security, Student, Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    pages = {316--321},
    }

  • Sebastian Schwartz, Christian Reuter (2020)
    90.000 Tonnen Diplomatie 2.0: Die Integration von unbemannten Systemen in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X-47B
    Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS) ;13(1). doi:10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.

    @article{schwartz_90000_2020,
    title = {90.000 {Tonnen} {Diplomatie} 2.0: {Die} {Integration} von unbemannten {Systemen} in den operativen {Flugzeugträgerbetrieb} am {Beispiel} der {X}-{47B}},
    volume = {13},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y.pdf},
    doi = {10.1007/s12399-020-00803-y},
    abstract = {Die Debatte um die Integration von autonomen Systemen in Streitkräfte wird oftmals auf einer (militär-)strategischen Ebene geführt. Die technisch-operativen Aspekte werden außerhalb des Fachpublikums häufig nur am Rande erwähnt. Der Beitrag analysiert die Integration von U(C)AVs in den operativen Flugzeugträgerbetrieb am Beispiel der X‑47B. Die Studie zeigt, dass es keine fundamentalen Probleme bei der Integration gibt, U(C)AVs in einem Fünf-Jahres-Horizont zur neuen maritimen Realität gehören und die Gefahr eines Rüstungswettlaufs in Bezug auf autonome Waffensysteme steigen wird.},
    number = {1},
    journal = {Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik (ZfAS)},
    author = {Schwartz, Sebastian and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

  • Thea Riebe (2020)
    Umgang mit Killerrobotern
    (Wissenschaft & Frieden 2020-2: Frieden begreifen).
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @article{riebe_umgang_2020,
    title = {Umgang mit {Killerrobotern}},
    url = {https://www.wissenschaft-und-frieden.de/seite.php?artikelID=2444},
    number = {Wissenschaft \& Frieden 2020-2: Frieden begreifen},
    author = {Riebe, Thea},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse},
    }

    Bücher und herausgegebene Zeitschriften / Books and Edited Special Issues in Journals

  • Christian Reuter, Jürgen Altmann, Malte Göttsche, Mirko Himmel (2020)
    Special Issue: Interdisciplinary Contributions to Natural Science/Technical Peace Research
    Nomos. doi:10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @book{reuter_special_2020,
    title = {Special {Issue}: {Interdisciplinary} {Contributions} to {Natural} {Science}/{Technical} {Peace} {Research}},
    volume = {38},
    url = {https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/0175-274X-2020-1/s-f-sicherheit-und-frieden-volume-38-2020-issue-1},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Altmann, Jürgen and Göttsche, Malte and Himmel, Mirko},
    year = {2020},
    doi = {10.5771/0175-274X-2020-I},
    note = {Publication Title: S+F Sicherheit und Frieden / Peace and Security},
    keywords = {Peace, Projekt-DualUse, AuswahlPeace},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Information Refinement Technologies for Crisis Informatics: User Expectations and Design Implications for Social Media and Mobile Apps in Crisis
    Darmstadt, Germany: Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt.
    [BibTeX]

    @book{kaufhold_information_2020,
    address = {Darmstadt, Germany},
    title = {Information {Refinement} {Technologies} for {Crisis} {Informatics}: {User} {Expectations} and {Design} {Implications} for {Social} {Media} and {Mobile} {Apps} in {Crisis}},
    publisher = {Dissertation (Dr. rer. nat.), Technische Unviersität Darmstadt},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, Projekt-KontiKat},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Stefan Stieglitz, Muhammad Imran (2020)
    Special Issue on Social Media in Conflicts and Crises
    Taylor & Francis.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology’s abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.

    @book{reuter_special_2020-1,
    title = {Special {Issue} on {Social} {Media} in {Conflicts} and {Crises}},
    volume = {39},
    url = {https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tbit20/39/3},
    abstract = {The growing importance of social media in conflicts and crises is accompanied by an ever-increasing research interest in the crisis informatics field in order to identify potential benefits and develop measures against the technology's abuse. This special issue sets out to give an overview of current research on the use of social media in conflicts and crises. In doing so, it focuses on both good and malicious aspects of social media and includes a variety of papers of conceptual, theoretical and empirical nature. In six sections, the special issue presents an overview of the field, analytical methods, technical challenges, current advancements and the accepted papers before concluding. Specific topics range from cyber deception over information trustworthiness to mining and near-real-time processing of social media data.},
    number = {1},
    publisher = {Taylor \& Francis},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Stieglitz, Stefan and Imran, Muhammad},
    year = {2020},
    note = {Publication Title: Behaviour \& Information Technology (BIT)},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, SocialMedia, A-Paper, Ranking-ImpactFactor, Peace, Ranking-CORE-A},
    }

    Kapitel in Büchern

  • Christian Reuter (2020)
    Quo Vadis? Digitalisierung und Social Media im Bevölkerungsschutz
    In: Sandra Ückert, Hasan Sürgit, Gerd Diesel: Digitalisierung als Erfolgsfaktor für das Sozial- und Wohlfahrtswesen. Nomos, , 311–318.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.

    @incollection{reuter_quo_2020,
    title = {Quo {Vadis}? {Digitalisierung} und {Social} {Media} im {Bevölkerungsschutz}},
    isbn = {978-3-8487-6250-7},
    url = {https://www.nomos-shop.de/{\"{U}}ckert-S{\"{u}}rgit-Diesel-Digitalisierung-Erfolgsfaktor-Sozial-Wohlfahrtswesen/productview.aspx},
    abstract = {Wie sieht ein digitalisierter Bevölkerungsschutz aus? Wie lassen sich „digitalisiert“ Leben retten? Was braucht es, um Bevölkerungsschutz zu digitalisieren? Dieses Kapitel soll erste Antworten geben, indem zunächst klären was mit Digitalisierung und sozialen Medien gemeint ist. Anschließend soll die Digitalisierung im Bevölkerungsschutz sowie zuletzt soziale Medien im Bevölkerungsschutz betrachtet werden, bevor ein Fazit gezogen wird.},
    booktitle = {Digitalisierung als {Erfolgsfaktor} für das {Sozial}- und {Wohlfahrtswesen}},
    publisher = {Nomos},
    author = {Reuter, Christian},
    editor = {Ückert, Sandra and Sürgit, Hasan and Diesel, Gerd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {311--318},
    }

  • Thomas Reinhold (2020)
    Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche Fragen im militärischen Cyber- und Informationsraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Parlamentsvorbehalts, der Zurechenbarkeit von Cyberangriffen sowie einer möglichen Anpassung nationaler und internationaler Normen
    In: : Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß. Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, , 1–9.
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @incollection{reinhold_verfassungs-_2020,
    title = {Verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche {Fragen} im militärischen {Cyber}- und {Informationsraum} unter besonderer {Berücksichtigung} des {Parlamentsvorbehalts}, der {Zurechenbarkeit} von {Cyberangriffen} sowie einer möglichen {Anpassung} nationaler und internationaler {Normen}},
    url = {https://www.bundestag.de/resource/blob/812024/67fc9db4f856a8445355562500d2a134/stellungnahme-Thomas-Reinhold_14-12-2020-data.pdf},
    booktitle = {Deutscher {Bundestag}, {Verteidigungsausschuß}},
    publisher = {Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß},
    author = {Reinhold, Thomas},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, Peace},
    pages = {1--9},
    }

    Publikationen in Konferenzbänden / Peer-reviewed Conference Papers

  • Christian Reuter, Jasmin Haunschild, Matthias Hollick, Max Mühlhäuser, Joachim Vogt, Michael Kreutzer (2020)
    Towards Secure Urban Infrastructures: Cyber Security Challenges to Information and Communication Technology in Smart Cities
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.

    @inproceedings{reuter_towards_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Towards {Secure} {Urban} {Infrastructures}: {Cyber} {Security} {Challenges} to {Information} and {Communication} {Technology} in {Smart} {Cities}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/bitstream/handle/20.500.12116/33550/muc2020-ws-408.pdf},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-408},
    abstract = {The growth of cities continues to be a global megatrend. As more and more people live in urban areas and urban services and infrastructures are under growing strain, technologies are increasingly being researched and used to make city life more efficient and comfortable. As a result, so-called “Smart Cities” have complex IT infrastructures and cyber-physical systems such as sensor/actuator networks for the general population and are developing worldwide. Urban infrastructure must be secured against attacks, ensuring reliable and resilient services for citizens as well as privacy and data security. This paper introduces selected challenges faced by infrastructure providers, citizens and decision-makers in handling attacks aimed at information and communication technologies (ICT) of urban infrastructures and presents current research avenues for tackling cyberattacks and for developing tools for creating, portraying and disseminating actiona-ble information as one important response to security challenges. It then presents findings from a representative survey conducted in Germany (N=1091) on the experiences and perceptions of citizens concerning the relevance of cyberat-tacks will be presented.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Haunschild, Jasmin and Hollick, Matthias and Mühlhäuser, Max and Vogt, Joachim and Kreutzer, Michael},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--7},
    }

  • Tilo Mentler, Christian Reuter, Simon Nestler, Marc-André Kaufhold, Michael Herczeg, Jens Pottebaum (2020)
    7. Workshop Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Systemen
    Mensch & Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg, Germany. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.

    @inproceedings{mentler_7_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg, Germany},
    title = {7. {Workshop} {Mensch}-{Maschine}-{Interaktion} in sicherheitskritischen {Systemen}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33546},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117},
    abstract = {Computer unterstützen Menschen heute zunehmend in sicherheitskritischen Kontexten und Notfallsituationen: Beispielsweise in der Medizin und Produktion, aber auch im Verkehr und Katastrophenschutz begegnen wir immer häufiger digitalen Systemen, mit denen wir interagieren. Vor allem mobile Anwendungen haben im Laufe der letzten Jahre immer mehr an Relevanz gewonnen. Aufgrund vielfältiger Einsatzmöglichkeiten müssen hier diverse Disziplinen zusammenwirken, um die Kooperation zwischen Menschen und Maschinen sicher und effizient zu gestalten. Doch auch die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Menschen wird zunehmend technologisch unterstützt, was sich u.a. in der steigenden Popularität sozialer Medien widerspiegelt. Mithilfe solcher Systeme kann eine Kommunikation, Awareness und Koordination insbesondere in der Krisenbewältigung angestrebt und erreicht werden, sie bringen aufgrund ihrer teilweise technischen Komplexität aber auch Probleme mit sich. Im Zentrum dieses Workshops stehen Erkenntnisse zur Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in sicherheitskritischen Anwendungsgebieten.},
    booktitle = {Mensch \& {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e. V.},
    author = {Mentler, Tilo and Reuter, Christian and Nestler, Simon and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Herczeg, Michael and Pottebaum, Jens},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, HCI, Security, UsableSec},
    pages = {1--2},
    }

  • Franz Kuntke, Christian Reuter, Wolfgang Schneider, Daniel Eberz, Ansgar Bernardi (2020)
    Die GeoBox-Vision: Resiliente Interaktion und Kooperation in der Landwirtschaft durch dezentrale Systeme
    Mensch und Computer 2020 – Workshopband Magdeburg. doi:10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.

    @inproceedings{kuntke_geobox-vision_2020,
    address = {Magdeburg},
    title = {Die {GeoBox}-{Vision}: {Resiliente} {Interaktion} und {Kooperation} in der {Landwirtschaft} durch dezentrale {Systeme}},
    url = {https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/33548},
    doi = {10.18420/muc2020-ws117-407},
    abstract = {Betrachtet man Landwirtschaft unter dem Blickwinkel kritischer Infrastruktur, da sie einen essenziellen Bestandteil der lebenswich-tigen Nahrungsmittelproduktion darstellt, so wird schnell klar, dass auch die dort eingesetzten Werkzeuge hohen Anforderungen stand-halten müssen. Mit dem Einsatz moderner digitaler Werkzeuge werden Erwartungen verbunden, sowohl den gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen nach Qualität und Quantität von Nahrungsmitteln gerecht zu werden, als auch dabei die Produktion möglichst effi-zient unter Berücksichtigung von Umwelt und Natur durchzufüh-ren. Ebenso gilt es die Interessen der landwirtschaftlich Beschäftig-ten zu wahren. Die Geobox-Infrastruktur verfolgt dieses Ziel. Zu den wichtigsten Aspekten, die dabei erfüllt werden müssen, zählen eine resiliente Systemarchitektur, Sicherheit und Datenhoheit, aber auch Gebrauchstauglichkeit. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert den For-schungsansatz sowie zentrale Anforderungen.},
    booktitle = {Mensch und {Computer} 2020 - {Workshopband}},
    publisher = {Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.},
    author = {Kuntke, Franz and Reuter, Christian and Schneider, Wolfgang and Eberz, Daniel and Bernardi, Ansgar},
    editor = {Hansen, C. and Nürnberger, A. and Preim, B.},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, UsableSec, Infrastructure, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {1--6},
    }

  • Jonas Höchst, Lars Baumgärtner, Franz Kuntke, Alvar Penning, Artur Sterz, Bernd Freisleben (2020)
    LoRa-based Device-to-Device Smartphone Communication for Crisis Scenarios
    Proceedings of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) .
    [BibTeX] [Download PDF]

    @inproceedings{hochst_lora-based_2020,
    title = {{LoRa}-based {Device}-to-{Device} {Smartphone} {Communication} for {Crisis} {Scenarios}},
    url = {http://idl.iscram.org/files/jonashochst/2020/2291_JonasHochst_etal2020.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of {Information} {Systems} for {Crisis} {Response} and {Management} ({ISCRAM})},
    author = {Höchst, Jonas and Baumgärtner, Lars and Kuntke, Franz and Penning, Alvar and Sterz, Artur and Freisleben, Bernd},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Security, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-GeoBox},
    pages = {996--1011},
    }

  • Marc-André Kaufhold, Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Warning the Public: A Survey on Attitudes, Expectations and Use of Mobile Crisis Apps in Germany
    Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) .
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.

    @inproceedings{kaufhold_warning_2020,
    title = {Warning the {Public}: {A} {Survey} on {Attitudes}, {Expectations} and {Use} of {Mobile} {Crisis} {Apps} in {Germany}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_KaufholdHaunschildReuter_WarningthePublic_ECIS.pdf},
    abstract = {As part of information systems, the research field of crisis informatics increasingly investigates the potentials and limitations of mobile crisis apps, which constitute a relatively new public service for citizens and are specifically designed for the dissemination of disaster‐related information and communication between authorities, organizations and citizens. While existing crisis apps, such as KATWARN or NINA in Germany, focus on preparatory information and warning functionality, there is a need for apps and research on police-related functionality, such as information on cybercrime, fraud offences, or search for missing persons. Based on a workshop with civil protection (N=12) and police officers (N=15), we designed a questionnaire and conducted a representative survey of German citizens (N=1.219) on the past, current and future use, perceived helpfulness, deployment and behavioural preferences, configurability and most important functionality of mobile crisis apps. Our results indicate that in addition to emergency and weather warnings, crime- and health-related warnings are also desired by many, as is the possibility for bidirectional communication. People also want one central app and are resistant to installing more than one crisis app. Furthermore, there are few significant differences between socioeconomic groups.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {European} {Conference} on {Information} {Systems} ({ECIS})},
    publisher = {AIS},
    author = {Kaufhold, Marc-André and Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, A-Paper, Ranking-VHB-B, Ranking-WKWI-A, Ranking-CORE-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    }

  • Steffen Haesler, Stefka Schmid, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Crisis Volunteering Nerds: Three Months After COVID-19 Hackathon \#WirVsVirus
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424584
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.

    @inproceedings{haesler_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis {Volunteering} {Nerds}: {Three} {Months} {After} {COVID}-19 {Hackathon} \#{WirVsVirus}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424584},
    abstract = {The hackathon \#WirVsVirus in March 2020 was one of the biggest hackathons in history. Under the patronage of the federal government of Germany, 28,361 participants worked together in 1,498 projects, finding innovative apps and solutions against the COVID-19 pandemic. Three months after the event, we present an exemplifying analysis of the topics, used technologies and remaining activity of these projects. Shedding light on this instance of citizen science allows to highlight the potential of hackathons and startup culture regarding socio-technological resilience. At the same time, it may be understood as an impulse for crisis informatics to consider new forms of volunteering in the course of crisis management.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    publisher = {ACM},
    author = {Haesler, Steffen and Schmid, Stefka and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, HCI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--56},
    }

  • Franziska Herbert, Gina Maria Schmidbauer-Wolf, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Differences in IT Security Behavior and Knowledge of Private Users in Germany
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users‘ IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.

    @inproceedings{herbert_differences_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Differences in {IT} {Security} {Behavior} and {Knowledge} of {Private} {Users} in {Germany}},
    url = {https://library.gito.de/open-access-pdf/V3_Herbert-Differences_in_IT_Security_Behavior_and_Knowledge-541_c.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_v3-herbert},
    abstract = {The German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik) offers advice and recommendations for private users on how to behave securely. Based on these recommendations we investigate the IT security knowledge and behavior of private users with a rep- resentative study of the German population (N = 1.219). Additionally, we ana- lyze the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, education, political ori- entation) for security knowledge and behavior. Results show that German pri- vate users have only moderate IT security knowledge and behavior, with as- pects as gender, age, education and political orientation partly having an influ- ence. Men, higher educated and politically moderately oriented participants show higher security knowledge, whereas young people and those less knowl- edgeable about security behave less security-conscious. Additionally, security knowledge and behavior correlate moderately. Therefore, to increase private users' IT security we suggest to increase education and training especially for users being young, politically right-wing or female.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI})},
    author = {Herbert, Franziska and Schmidbauer-Wolf, Gina Maria and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Security, UsableSec, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-ATHENE-FANCY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter (2020)
    Sticking with Landlines? Citizens‘ and Police Social Media Use and Expectation During Emergencies
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI) (Best Paper Social Impact Award) Potsdam, Germany. doi:10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens‘ perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens‘ perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services‘ social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.

    @inproceedings{haunschild_sticking_2020,
    address = {Potsdam, Germany},
    title = {Sticking with {Landlines}? {Citizens}' and {Police} {Social} {Media} {Use} and {Expectation} {During} {Emergencies}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschildKaufholdReuter_SocialMediaPoliceSurvey_WI.pdf},
    doi = {10.30844/wi_2020_o2-haunschild},
    abstract = {Crisis informatics has examined the use, potentials and weaknesses of social media in emergencies across different events (e.g., man-made, natural or hybrid), countries and heterogeneous participants (e.g., citizens or emergency services) for almost two decades. While most research analyzes specific cases, few studies have focused on citizens' perceptions of different social media platforms in emergencies using a representative sample. Basing our questionnaire on a workshop with police officers, we present the results of a representative study on citizens' perception of social media in emergencies that we conducted in Germany. Our study suggests that when it comes to emergencies, socio-demographic differences are largely insignificant and no clear preferences for emergency services' social media strategies exist. Due to the widespread searching behavior on some platforms, emergency services can reach a wide audience by turning to certain channels but should account for groups with distinct preferences.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the {International} {Conference} on {Wirtschaftsinformatik} ({WI}) ({Best} {Paper} {Social} {Impact} {Award})},
    publisher = {AIS Electronic Library (AISel)},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Reuter, Christian},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Ranking-CORE-C, Ranking-VHB-C, A-Paper, Ranking-WKWI-A, Projekt-MAKI, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--16},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Tina Comes, Michèle Knodt, Max Mühlhäuser (2020)
    Mobile Resilience: Designing Mobile Interactive Systems for Societal and Technical Resilience
    MobileHCI ’20: 22nd International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services . doi:10.1145/3406324.3424590
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.

    @inproceedings{reuter_mobile_2020,
    title = {Mobile {Resilience}: {Designing} {Mobile} {Interactive} {Systems} for {Societal} and {Technical} {Resilience}},
    url = {https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    doi = {10.1145/3406324.3424590},
    abstract = {Digitalization and interconnectedness, facilitated by the Internet of Things (IoT) and the widespread distribution of mobile devices, can be used to tackle important societal challenges. This is maybe most prominently visible in the response to the COVID-2019 Pandemic. However, the design of mobile technology, functionality and underlying infrastructures must be resilient against disruptions caused by man-made (e.g. bombings, hacking) and natural (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes) crises, emergencies and threats. To explore challenges, designs and potentials of interactive technologies, this workshop investigates the overlapping space of mobile technologies and resilient systems, including future application domains such as smart cities.},
    booktitle = {{MobileHCI} '20: 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Human}-{Computer} {Interaction} with {Mobile} {Devices} and {Services}},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Comes, Tina and Knodt, Michèle and Mühlhäuser, Max},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-ATHENE-SecUrban, Projekt-CYWARN, HCI, SocialMedia, Ranking-CORE-B, Projekt-emergenCITY},
    pages = {1--3},
    }

    Weitere Publikationen / Other Publications

  • Jasmin Haunschild, Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold (2020)
    Crisis informatics insights for peace operations
    2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Crisis Informatics – a field combining computing and social science to make visible and support the creative ways in which humans use information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to crises – has made many contributions in the areas of rapid crisis management. Interactive technologies such as social media platforms or emergency apps connect and empower individuals, first responders and volunteers. In a previously published review, we show that for almost 20 years, studies have analyzed ICT in natural and man-made disasters, revealing that ICT enable new modes of communication among authorities and citizens. In this contribution, we relate crisis informatics insights concerning the involvement of citizens to peace operations and community engagement.

    @techreport{haunschild_crisis_2020,
    title = {Crisis informatics insights for peace operations},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_HaunschuldReuterKaufhold_CrisisInformaticsPeaceOperations_TECHPOPS.pdf},
    abstract = {Crisis Informatics – a field combining computing and social science to make visible and support the creative ways in which humans use information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to crises – has made many contributions in the areas of rapid crisis management. Interactive technologies such as social media platforms or emergency apps connect and empower individuals, first responders and volunteers. In a previously published review, we show that for almost 20 years, studies have analyzed ICT in natural and man-made disasters, revealing that ICT enable new modes of communication among authorities and citizens. In this contribution, we relate crisis informatics insights concerning the involvement of citizens to peace operations and community engagement.},
    author = {Haunschild, Jasmin and Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André},
    year = {2020},
    }

  • Christian Reuter, Marc-André Kaufhold, Stefka Schmid (2020)
    Risikokulturen bei der Nutzung Sozialer Medien in Katastrophenlagen
    BBK Bevölkerungsschutz: 2020.
    [BibTeX] [Abstract] [Download PDF]

    Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp 40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte, die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen. Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).

    @techreport{reuter_risikokulturen_2020,
    address = {BBK Bevölkerungsschutz},
    title = {Risikokulturen bei der {Nutzung} {Sozialer} {Medien} in {Katastrophenlagen}},
    url = {http://www.peasec.de/paper/2020/2020_ReuterKaufholdSchmid_Risikokulturen_BBK.pdf},
    abstract = {Soziale Medien werden auf der ganzen Welt genutzt. Vergleicht man die allgemeine Nutzung sozialer Medien im Vereinigten Königreich (GB), Deutschland (DE), den Niederlanden (NL) und Italien (IT), zeigt sich, dass sie in Italien am
    wenigsten in Anspruch genommen werden. Dort sind knapp
    40 \% der Bevölkerung, d. h. 37 Millionen Menschen, in den
    sozialen Medien aktiv. Sowohl im Vereinigtem Königreich
    (59 \%, 39 Mio.), Deutschland (55 \%, 45 Mio.) als auch den Niederlanden (57 \%, 9,74 Mio.) lassen sich ähnliche Tendenzen
    erkennen. Angesichts der Tatsache, dass mobile Endgeräte,
    die tendenziell immer griffbereit sind, sehr häufig zur Kommunikation über soziale Medien eingesetzt werden, ist es
    nicht verwunderlich, dass diese auch in Notsituationen genutzt werden [8]. Bis dato fehlt es an aussagekräftigen
    quantitativen und vergleichbaren Ergebnissen aus unterschiedlichen Ländern über die Wahrnehmung der Bevölkerung zur Nutzung von sozialen Medien in Notsituationen.
    Die im Folgenden vorgestellte Studie „The Impact of
    Risk Cultures: Citizens’ Perception of Social Media Use in
    Emergencies across Europe” [9] mit Beteiligung der TU
    Darmstadt, Universität Siegen und dem Tavistock Institute
    (London), möchte das bestehende Defizit adressieren. Anhand der repräsentativen Umfrageergebnisse werden zunächst vier europäische Länder präsentiert und dann miteinander verglichen. Ziel ist es, Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede in der Nutzung sozialer Medien in Notsituationen
    zu erfassen. Frühere Forschungsergebnisse haben im Hinblick auf Katastrophen gezeigt, dass es unterschiedliche
    Risikokulturen in europäischen Ländern gibt, die das Verhalten der Bevölkerung jeweils unterschiedlich beeinflussen
    und prägen (vgl. [4]; [5]).},
    author = {Reuter, Christian and Kaufhold, Marc-André and Schmid, Stefka},
    year = {2020},
    keywords = {Crisis, Projekt-KontiKat, SocialMedia},
    pages = {14--17},
    }

    PEASEC-Jahresbilanz 2020: turbulentes Jahr, neues Gebäude und Athene-Preis